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only cases, I believe, where it can be posi-constitution. It bequeathes none of the tively mischievous is where the pulse maladies consequent on blue pill and scarcely beats—where the vital sense is ex- mercury-on purgatives and drastics-on tremely low-where the inanition of the iodine and aconite-on leeches and the frame forbids the necessary reaction in lancet. If it cures your complaint, it will cholera, and certain disorders of the chest assuredly strengthen your whole frame; if and bronchia ; otherwise at all ages, from it fails to cure your complaint it can scarcethe infant to the octogenarian, it is equally ly fail to improve your general system. applicable, and in most acute cases, equally As it acts, or ought, scientifically treated, innocent.
to act, first on the system, lastly on the Hydropathy being thus rapidly beneficial complaint, placing nature herself in the in acute disorders, it follows naturally that way to throw off the disease, so it constantit will be quick as a cure in chronic com- ly happens that the patients at a hydropaplaints, in proportion as acute symptoms are thic establishment will tell you that the mixed with them, and slowest when such disorder for which they came is not recomplaints are dull and lethargic-it will moved, but that in all other respects their be slowest also where the nervous exhaus- health is better than they ever remember it tion is the greatest. With children, its ef- to have been. Thus, I would not only refects, really and genuinely, can scarcely be commend it to those who are sufferers from exaggerated ; in them, the nervous system, sorne grave disease; but to those who renot weakened by toil, grief, anxiety, and quire merely the fillip, the alterative, or intemperance, lends itself to the gracious the bracing which they now often seek in element as a young plant to the rains. vain in country air or a watering-place. When I see now some tender mother cod- For such, three weeks at Malvern will dling, and physicking, and preserving from do more than three months at Brighton every breath of air, and swaddling in flan-or Boulogne; for at the water-cure the nels, her pallid little ones, I long to pounce whole life is one remedy; the hours, the upon the callow brood, and bear them to habits, the discipline-not incompatible the hills of Malvern, and the diamond foun- with gaiety and cheerfulness, (the spirits of tain of St. Anne's—with what rosy faces and hydropathists are astounding, and in high robust limbs I will promise they shall re- spirits all things are amusement,) tend per turn-alas! I promise and preach in vain force to train the body to the highest state -the family apothecary is against me, and of health of which it is capable. Compare the progeny are doomed to rhubarb and the this life, O merchant, O trader, O man of rickets.
business, escaping to the sea-shore, with The water-cure as yet has had this evi- that which you there led—with your dent injustice,-the patients resorting to it shrimps and your shell-fish, and your wine have mostly been desperate cases. So and your brown stout-with all which strong a notion prevails that it is a despe- counteracts in the evening, the good of rate remedy, that they only who have found your morning dip and your noonday stroll. all else fail have dragged themselves to the What, I own, I should envy most is the Bethesda Pools. That all thus not only robust, healthy man, only a little knocked abandoned by hope and the College, but down by his city cares or his town pleaweakened and poisoned by the violent sures, after his second week at Dr. Wilson's medicines absorbed into their system for a establishment-yea, how I should envy the score or so of years,—that all should not exquisite pleasure which he would derive recover is not surprising! The wonder is from that robustness made clear and sensithat the number of recoveries should be so ble to him. The pure taste, the iron great; that every now and then we should muscles, the exuberant spirits, the overbe surprised by the man whose untimely flowing sense of life. If even to the weak grave we predicted when we last saw him, and languid the water.cure gives hours of meeting us in the street ruddy and stalwart, physical happiness which the pleasures of fresh from the springs of Graafenberg, the grosser senses can never bestow, what Boppart, Petersham, or Malvern.
would it give to the strong man, from The remedy is not desperate; it is whose eye it has but to lift the light simpler, I do not say than any dose, but film-in whose mechanism, attuned to than any course of medicine—it is infinitely joy, it but brushes away the grain of dust, more agreeable—it admits no remedies for or oils the solid wheel. the complaint which are inimical to the I must bring my letter to a close. I meant to address it through you, Mr. you may be panic stricken. Hold the docEditor, chiefly to our brethren-ihe over- ior responsible for getting you out of what jaded sons of toil and letters—behind he gets you into; and if your doctor be whom I see the warning shades of departed discreetly chosen, take my word he will do martyrs. But it is applicable to all who it. ail-to all who would not only cure a com- Do not begin to carry on the system at plaint, but strengthen a system and prolong home, and under any eye but that of an a life. To such, who will so far attach experienced hydropathist. After you know value to my authority, that they will the system, and the doctor knows you, the acknowledge, at least, I am no interested curative process may probably be conwitness—for I have no institution to estab-tinued at your own house with ease-but lish—no profession to build up-I have no the commencement must be watched, and eye to fees, my calling is but that of if a critical action ensues when you are at an observer -as an observer only do I home, return to the only care that can conspeak, it may be with enthusiasm—but duct it safely to a happy issue. When at the enthusiasm built on experience and prompt institution, do not let the example of other ed by sympathy; to such then as may patients tempt you to overdo—to drink listen to me, I give this recommendation : more water, or take more baths than are pause if you please-inquire if you will prescribed to you. Above all, never let
-, but do not consult your doctor. I have no the eulogies which many will pass upon doubt he is a most honest, excellent man the douche (the popular bath), tempt you --but you cannot expect a doctor of drugs to take it on the sly, unknown to your adto say other than that doctors of water are viser. The douche is dangerous when the but quacks. Do not consult your doctor body is unprepared-when the heart is whether you shall try hydropathy, but find affected—when apoplexy may be feared. out some intelligent persons in whose For your choice of an establishment you shrewdness you can confide--who have have a wide range, Institutions in Engbeen patients themselves at a hydropathic land are now plentiful, and planted in some establishment. Better still, go for a few of the loveliest spots of our island. days--the cost is not much-into some I only speak from personal knowledge, I such institution yourself, look round, talk can but here depose to such as I have visitto the patients, examine with your own ed. I hear indeed a high character of eyes, hear with your own ears, before you Doctor Johnson, of Stansted-Bury, and his adventure the experiment. Become a books show great ability. Much is said in witness before you are a patient; if the praise of Doctor Freeman, of Cheltenham, evidence does not satisfy you, turn and flee. though his system, in some measure, is at But if you venture, venture with a good variance with the received notions of hyheart and a stout faith. Hope, but not dropathists. But of these and many others, with presumption. Do not fancy that perhaps no less worthy of confidence, i the disorder which has afflicted you for ten have no experience of my own. years ought to be cured in ten days. Be- journed with advantage at Dr. Weiss's, ware, above all, lest, alarmed by some at Petersham; and for those whose business phenomena which the searching element and avocations oblige them to be near produces, you have recourse immediately London, his very agreeable house proffers to drugs to disperse them. The water- many advantages, besides his own long boils, for instance, which are sometimes, practice and great skill. as I have before said, but by no means Those who wish to try the system frequently, a critical symptom of the cure, abroad, and shrink from the long journey are, in all cases that I have seen, cured to Graafenberg, Dr. Schmidt, at Boppart, easily by water, but may become extreme proffers a princely house, comprising every ly dangerous in the hands of your apothe English comfort, amidst the noble scenery cary. Most of the few solitary instances of the Rhine, and I can bear ready witthat have terminated fatally, to the preju- ness to his skill; but it is natural that the dice of the water-cure, have been those place which has for me the most grateful in which the patient has gone from water recollections, should be that where I reto drugs. It is the axiom of the system ceived the earliest and the greatest benefit, that water only cures what water produces. viz., Doctor Wilson's, at Malvern; there Do not leave a hydropathic establishment even the distance from the capital has its in the time of any “crisis," however much
I have so
[Ост. advantages.* The cure imperatively de- frity. For your impatient self, you might
. mands, at least in a large proportion of cases, sometimes prefer a brisker process—for abstraction from all the habitual cares of those in whom you are interested, and for life, and in some the very neighborhood of whom you are fearful-you would not risk London suffices to produce restlessness and a step more hurried. And since there is anxiety. For certain complaints, especially no small responsibility in recommending those of children, and such as are attended any practitioner of a novel school, so it is with debility, the air of Malvern is in itself a comfort to know that whoever resorts to Hygeian. The water is immemorially cele- Doctor Wilson, will at least be in hands brated for its purity—the landscape is a not only practised and skilful, but wary perpetual pleasure to the eye-the moun- and safe. He may fail in doing good, but tains furnish the exercise most suited to the I never met with a single patient who accure—“ Man muss Geberge haben," one cused him of doing harm. And I may add, must have mountains," is the saying of that as in all establishments much of comPreisnitz. All these are powerful auxil- fort must depend on the lady at the head, so, iaries, and yet all these are subordinate to for female patients especially, it is no small the diligent, patient care—the minute, un- addition to the agrémens of Malvern, to wearied attention—the anxious unaffected find in Mrs. Wilson the manners of a perinterest, which Doctor Wilson manifests to fect gentlewoman, and the noiseless solicievery patient, from the humblest to the tude of a heart genuinely kind and good ! highest, who may be submitted to his care. Here then, O brothers, O afflicted ones, The vast majority of difficult cures which II bid you farewell. I wish you one of the have witnessed, have emanated from his most blessed friendships man ever madeskill. A pupil of the celebrated Broussais, the familiar intimacy with Water. Not his anatomical knowledge is considerable, Undine in her virgin existence more sportive and his tact in diseases seems intuitive; and bewitching, not Undine in her wedded he has that pure pleasure in his profession state more tender and faithful than the Eleth at the profits of it seem to be almost lost ment of which she is the type. In health sight of, and having an independence of his may you find it the joyous playmate, in own, his enthusiasm for the system he pur-sickness the genial restorer and soft assuasues is at least not based upon any merce-ger. Round the healing spring still liternary speculation. I have seen him devote ally dwell the jocund nymphs in whom the the same time and care to those whom his Greek poetry personified Mirth and Ease. liberal heart has led him to treat gratu- No drink, whether compounded of the gums itously as to the wealthiest of his patients, and rosin of the old Falernian, or the aland I mention this less to praise him for cohol and acid of modern wine, gives the generosity than to show that he has that animal spirits which rejoice the waterearnest faith in his own system, which be- drinker. Let him who has to go through gets an earnest faith in those to whom he severe bodily fatigue try first whateveradıninisters. In all new experiments, it is wine, spirits, porter, beer,—he may cona great thing to have confidence, not only ceive most generous and supporting: let in the skill but in the sincerity of your ad-him then go through the same toil with no viser—bis treatment is less violent and en- draughts but from the crystal lymph, and if ergetic than that in fashion on the conti- he does not acknowledge that there is no nent. If he errs, it is on the side of cau- beverage which man concocts so strengthtion, and his theory leads him so much ening and animating as that which God towards the restoration of the whole system, pours forth to all the children nature, I that the relief of the particular malady will throw up my brief. Finally, as health desometimes seem tedious in order to prove pends upon healthful habits, let those who complete. Hence he inspires in those who desire easily and luxuriously to glide into the have had a prolonged experience of his courses most agreeable to the human frame, treatment a great sense of safety and secu- to enjoy the morning breeze, to grow epi
* Dr. Gully, whose writings on medicinal sub- cures in the simple regimen, to become jects are well known, is also established at Mal- cased in armor against the vicissitudes of vern, and I believe rather as a partner or associ- our changesul skies—to feel, and to shake ate than a rival to Dr. Wilson. As I was not un off, light sleep, as a blessed dew, let them, der bis treatment, I cannot speak farther of his while the organs are yet sound, and the skill than that he seemed to have the entire confidence of such of his patients as I became ac
nerves yet unshattered, devote an autumn quainted with.
to the water cure.
And you, O Parents ! who, too indolent, the national agriculture ought not to form a too much slaves to custom, to endure grave subject of national consideration. change for yourselves, to renounce for The positions we hold in regard to the awhile
your artificial natures, but who still duties and rights of a national agriculture covet for your children hardy constitutions, are the following :pure tastes, and abstemious habits—who 1st, That the soil of a country is intendwish to see them grow up with a manly ed by the Deity to maintain the people who disdain to luxury-with a vigorous indif- live upon it. ference to climate—with a full sense of the 2d, That it is the duty of those to whom value of health, not alone for itself, but for the tillage of the soil is intrusted, to see that the powers it elicits, and the virtues with the means of living are raised for the whole which it is intimately connected—the se- people—allowance of course being made rene unfretful temper—the pleasure in inno- for extraordinary seasons, which no skill cent delights—the well-being that, content or industry can avert. with self, expands in benevolence to others 3d, And that, if the tillers of the soil do -you I adjure not to scorn the facile pro- not raise food enough for the whole people, cess of which I solicit the experiment. a free access to foreign markets should be Dip your young heroes in the spring, and permitted, for the purpose of supplying the hold them not back by the heel. May my remainder. exhortations find believing listeners, and Such appears to us to be a reasonable may some, now unknown to me, write me view of the duties and economical position word from the green hills of Malvern, or of a national agriculture; and yet a wise the groves of Petersham, “We have heark- government will prefer and will encourage ened to you—not in vain.”
the growth of a full supply of food on the Adieu, Mr. Editor, the ghost returns to home soils of the country. For though a silence.
state of war is an unnatural state among E. BULWER LYTTON. Christian countries, yet occasional long pe
riods of war have been so much the rule in modern history, that no country can safely leave out of its political calculations a contingency which, when corn must be import
ed, might suddenly involve it in the most CHEMISTRY IN ITS RELATIONS TO AG
fearful calamities. We pass by the amount RICULTURE.
of encouragement we should be inclined to
give to the home growth of corn, and the 1. The Relations of Chemistry to Agricul- shape we think that encouragement ought
to ture; a Treatise, showing the intimate carries us in another direction. connection that subsists between Chemistry We have said that the soil of a country and Agriculture. By the Earl of Dun- is intended to maintain the whole people of donald. 4to, pp. 252. London, 1795.
that country. For purposes of His own, it 2. Elements of Agricultural Chemistry, in
may please the Deity to multiply the people a course of Lectures for the Board of of an isolated spot, like our island, beyond Agriculture. By Sir Humphry Davy. the capability of the land to support them. Second edition, 8vo, pp. 479. London, But history furnishes us with no clear case 1814.
in which He has ever done so. We read 3. Lectures on Agricultural Chemistry and of famine and pestilence being sent as His
Geology. By James F. W. Johnston, avengers, but never that the land in ordinaF.R.S. 8vo, pp. 119; Appendix, pp. ry seasons could not in any country be 116. Edinburgh and London, 1844.
made to maintain the whole population. 4. Elements of Agricultural Chemistry and
“I will multiply thee,”. are words of Geology. By James F. W. Johnston, blessing from the mouth of the Almighty, F.R.S. 4th edition. 12mo, pp. 286. and we will not lightly believe that He has London and Edinburgh, 1844.
ever made them bear the curse of unavoid5. Catechism of Agricultural Ch' mistry able famine to any industrious people.
and Geology. 1th edition, 12mo, pp. Above all, we will not believe that He in52. London and Edinburgh.
tends so to punish our island, until we see There is no period in the history of a every available resource made use of the great country, in which the condition of aids of science and of art everywhere called
Vol. VI.-No. II. 17
From the North British Review.
in—and the capabilities of land and sea heavy, as fat, and more esteemed by the alike developed—which they are as yet far consumer, than those which were slaughfrom having been. We rather see in the tered for our forefathers at the age of six or increase of our population a new stimulus seven. Then, to search for and avail ourselves of the in- 2. The larger production of enriching exhaustible stores of good He has every- manure by the increased and better sed where laid up for us, and which He the stock, gradually produced an almost equal more lavishly lays open, the greater the revolution in the growth of corn. Two amount of bodily and mental labor we ex- consequences especially remarkable have pend in the search for them.
followed from the continuance of this pracIt is, then, we believe, the duty of the tice of richer manuring-the old corn lands agricultural body to develop to the utmost have been made to yield an increased prothe capabilities of the soil—at least to neg- duce of nearly one half, while the poor and lect no means within their reach to render valueless soils of former days now grow the home growth of food equal to the de- crops as large and heavy as were reaped mands of the home population.
from those which were then called rich. And of this duty the cultivators of the 3. But this rearing and fattening of British soil have neither been unaware nor stock, besides the turnips for winter food, altogether neglectful. The art of tillage has demanded early grass for their keep in not been standing still among us during spring when the supply of routs was exthe last two centuries. It has, on the con- hausted, or when they ceased to retain their trary, during that period, made vast strides, wholesome and nutritive qualities. Thus though it has not fully kept pace with a the artificial grasses, the clovers, ryegrass, population to the increase of which our foxtail, and numerous others, were tried and manufacturing prosperity has given so ex- recommended as giving a rich and early traordinary an impulse.
bite of grass in spring, or a inore abundant It is interesting, however, to trace how, crop of hay in autunn. A new traffic, that out of one. almost fortuitous advance in of agricultural seeds, sprung up, and this practical agriculture, all the improvements system of green cropping, as it is called, which have taken place during this period, obtained not only a wide extension, but a have, one after another, naturally, we may permanent and established place in British almost say necessarily, sprung.
husbandry. It was probably little imagined by those 4. Yet the greatest benefit of this green who first recommended the turnip for field cropping does not consist in the larger culture, that it was to be the means of in- amount of food for cattle, which it enables troducing an entirely new era into the agri- the farmer to raise on the same extent of cultural practice and productiveness of the land, without lessening the quantity of corn country. And yet such has been its effect: he yearly carries to market. The introducand no other vegetable is yet known, the tion of a skilful rotation or course of cropgeneral culture of which in our climate ping to which it has led, is of far more imcould have produced the same results. portance in a national point of view. The Thus,
practice of taking corn crop after corn 1. To consume the turnips more cattle crop-even as far, in Scotland, as fifteen were kept. These cattle were valuable, or twenty crops of oats, or till the produce both in manufacturing beef and in convert- fell to two or three seeds—has not yet ening vegetable matter into enriching ma- tirely disappeared in remote parts of the
But the same quantity of turnips was country. Nothing could be more ruinous found to add more to the weight of one an- to the land than such a course of procedure imal than of another. Attention was thus -nothing so likely to impair the future more generally drawn to the distinctions of average produce of corn in districts in breeds—10 the value of family and individ- which it existed. ual constitution among our domestic ani- It is difficult to bind down either farmer mals. Societies were formed for the en- or proprietor to any other mode of culture couragement of improved breeds—cattle than that which seems likely in his time to shows were instituted—premiums were yield the largest profit. Mere abstract congiven—and thus that remarkable revolution demnations of the old system of corn after has been brought about which enables the corn were of little benefit in arresting the stock farmer to bring to market an animal evil. But when it came to be seen that of little more than two years of age, more money was to be made immediately,