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Germany, witnessed the battles of Lutzen Metternich aims at a preponderant influence, and Bautzen, disheartening as they were, such as neither his talents, his character, nor like all true Germans, undismayed : and the military position of the Austrian empire on the 23d August, 1813, shortly after the entitles him to. The Emperor Alexander sees

all this clearly, and will very probably under. resumption of hostilities, we find him a sec- take the command of his own and the Prussian ond time in Prague, and writing most char- army in person ; and the movement of the masacteristically as follows:

ses thus animated, will then communicate itself

to the inert Austrians. “The spirit of the people here is by no “ It is of the utmost importance that some means what it was in 1809; and for this plain conclusion should be come to about the setilereason, that the government does nothing, and will do nothing to rouse it. At that time (1809) expect no comprehensive views; he seeks for

ment of Germany. From the Stadions held the helm, and they used nothing but the shortest and most comfortable every means to waken the nobler seelings of road, and will content himself with respectable human nature, and they attained their objeci. vamping in any shape. The history of the Now, at the head of affairs, we have a cold, negotiations proves this; and had it not been scheming, shallow, calculating man, who is for the madness of NAPOLEON, we should unafraid of nothing so much as an energetic mea- questionably have had for the third, fourth, sure-loves nothing more than a goal at the and fifth time, a ruinous and wretched peace.” nearest possible distance from his nose-and is always ready to help himself out of a scrape with any miserable patchwork that may serve

The person so severely handled in two for the nonce. Hence the marriage introduced by a divorce, the foolish hope of a partial places of these letters where he is not peace, the childish congress, the wretched ulti- named, is plainly enough Prince Metter

nich; a statesman who, whatever may be matum, and so forth."

his abilities, and whatever may have been

his merits—and merits in the management And on the 14th September, after the war was fairly broken out again, we find of German affairs—from the peace of Vithe following remarks occasioned by the un

enna in 1809, to that of Paris in 1815 (and toward battle of Dresden.

it were out of place to attempt discussing

these points here), was plainly in every re6. The latest events have taught us what to spect the antipodes of Stein; and a man think of our new allies, and their commander whom the hot Prussian baron could no more Schwartzenberg]. We have gained an in- form a just judgment of, than Martin Luther crease in mass, not in insight, nobility of sen- could of Erasmus. Diplomatists and mere timent, or vigor; we now understand what politicians, even the best of them, are selthe fruits are of the new systemi pursued in dom—to say the least of it—the most noAustria since 1810. From 1806 io 1809, the two Stadions gave all their energy to the great

ble specimens of human nature: there are work of elevating the spirit of the nation, and bad and good amongst them of course; but at the same time strengthening and fully equip- Stein, in his despotic sweeping style, was ping the army; and they succeeded in boih fond of classing them all together, points; the nation was animated by the most of his letters to Gagern ; where, after exdevoted enthusiasm, the army fought with pressing his confident reliance on "Provitrue valor. Since the peace of Vienna, ondence, and the hand of a loving Father who the other hand, the new ministry has been concerned only to purchase a beggarly peace, guides all,” he adds, but “from the sly crafty to disorganize the army, to cripple the public animals called politicians—(the original is spirit, and to solve the great problem of Eu- English)—from these homunciones I expect ropean regeneration by the miserable arts of nothing.” diplomacy. This also has succeeded. The

The official position which Stein occunation has become lukewarm, and the army pied during the eventful year 1813, was that fight with no very remarkable display of sola of Supreme Director of the Interim Central diership. The man who calculates, but without depth, Board of Administration (Central Verwalmay be a very good book-keeper, but is no tung) of the conquered provinces of Germathematician.

many, till arrangements should be made for “ The result, as we have hitherto seen, is, their final disposal in a general congress. that we have fought EVERY WHERE with distin- When that Congress came to do its work, guished success, except where the grand urmy of course he had nothing more to do; and was present;

that between Russia and Aus- it will be pretty evident to the reader, from tria no very friendly feelings prevail (eine the temper and opi ions of the man, as grosse Abneigung herrscht?), made worse, of course, by the well-known lukewarmness of above exhibited, that he was in nowise calthe latter power. Over and above all this, Iculated to work efficiently with such men

as in



as Metternich, Talleyrand, and Lord Cas-myself I long to depart; this world is, once tlereagh, at Vienna. The very composition for all, so constituted, that a man cannot of the congress, made up of every possible walk on the straight path, and yet ought not complex and contending interest, rendered to walk on the crooked. 'Tis even so; cirfrom the beginning the realization of Stein's cumstances and relations drive and force patriotic views, with regard to German uni- men. They act, and think they are the ty, inpossible. In such congregations of doers; but it is God that decides.” This working and counter-working diplomatists, most characteristic passage expresses only not the triumph of any great principle, but Stein's feeling, that the French had been the compromise of a number of petty claims allowed to escape so cheaply, by the generis generally the result; but compromise and osity of the Allies, at the peace of Paris ; patchwork of every kind were to a man of but he had much more substantial grievStein's temper, only another name for the ances to vex him nearer home; and next to Devil. The congress of Vienna, so far as the feeble machinery of the diet at FrankGermany was concerned, ended, according fort, that which hurt him most was the poto his views, in a “FARCE;" for not only litical reaction at Berlin, that commenced were the other German states, great and immediately after the peace, and threatensmall, left entire, but Saxony also—Napo-ed to undo that great social work which leon's centre and base in the late war--was he had so boldly begun in 1808. However preserved, only a half (instead of the whole) much a Prussian in his political sympathies, of it being cut off for the great German ob- Stein was essentially an Englishman in his ject of forming " a strong Prussia." And principles; the tendency of all his measwith regard to this point, we must confess ures, as they were introduced by himself, we feel, in some respects, inclined to agree or followed out by Hardenberg, was to temwith the Prussian baron. If Saxony was per the military and bureaucratic despotism to be made an exception to the general rule, of Frederick the Great by a wise admixture it would have been better, for many reasons, of popular influence; he wished a “constito have handed it over undivided to the tution" after the English model, as much great Northern power.

If neither one as circumstances might permit, not in form strong German empire, nor an equally poi- merely but in deed; he was not afraid of sed federal system, was any longer possible, free discussion among a well-educated peoa strong Prussia was certainly a thing im- ple like the Germans, and was too nobleperatively called for. But congresses are minded to imitate, in Berlin or Maine, the congresses; and we must even content spy-system on which Napoleon had based ourselves with the most convenient adjust- his immoral monarchy of physical force at ment of contending claims that was found Paris. It was not to be expected, however, practicable at the time : and if the result that in a country hitherto governed solely seems unsatisfactory, we may turn our eyes by the Court and by the Bureau, these Engaway from it, occupy ourselves with the lish views of Stein should not have met best business that offers itself, and let God with sturdy opposition; in fact it was work. So at least Stein did. He kept his mainly by help of the battle of Jena, that he word to Count Münster most faithfully; was enabled to do what he did for creating and after the decisive thunders of Leipsig a Prussian people in 1808. Now that terand Waterloo, having done his part to bring rible shock had passed; and the host of the great European tragedy to a worthy ca- defeated bureaucratists and court minions, tastrophe, he retired from witnessing the after the battle for the liberation of the fath

farce," with all convenient speed, into erland had been fought by others, now beprivate life, and was heard of no more in gan to crowd into their old places, and to court or cabinet in Berlin, from that day occupy the ears of a king more honest to till his death. In the spring of 1816, we promise what was right than strong to do find him, in his own ancestral castle in Nas-it. Accordingly, instead of “freedom of sau, addressing a friend as follows :—"Yes, the press” and “constitution” in Prussia, dear friend, we have won much; but much we have heard no sound, since the year also should have been otherwise. God gov. 1815, but that of prohibited books, imagierns the world, and abandons no German; nary conspiracies of beer-inspired Burschen, and if we remain true and German (treu deposed professors, and banished old Luund Deutsch), we shall take up the matter ther; and every thing, in short, except what some other day with the French again, and the pious old Frederick William III. promsettle the account more satisfactorily. Forised, or was made to appear to promise,


with such gracious, popular, and constituing from any machinery which will necestional phrases at Vienna, in the year 1815. sarily be opposed by the persons who have Whether the military and bureaucratic des- possession of the king's ear, and the court inpotism of Germany may not, after all, be

Muence generally: and I see plainly that we

are still, as we have hitherto been, to be govbetter system of government on the whole erned by salaried persons, equipped with mere than our strange system of local and cor- book-learning, without any substantial interest porate influence of all sorts, of fermenting in the country, without property, by mere buacids and alkalies, here is a question which reaucratists-a system which will last so long some persons of a speculative disposition as it can last—- Des geht so lange as geht? may consider open enough; but that the These four words contain the soul of our and supreme power having once pledged itself such like spiritless (geistlos) government ma

chines :-in the first place salaried-and this to give a people a free constitution and mplies a tendency to maintain and to multiply freedom of the press, should act with hon- the number of salaried officials; then bookor, and do what was promised, seems (if learned—that is, living in the world of the there be any such thing as public morals dead letter, and not in the actual world; withat all), under any form of government, noth-out interestfor these men stand in no con. ing more than what common policy as well as the mass of the state ; they are a peculiar caste,

nection wiih any class of the citizens, who are propriety would dictate. Those who bear these men of the quill ("die Schreiberkaste); the rule in Germany, however, have, for the lastly, without property-this implies that they last thirty years, done every thing that they stand unmoved by all changes that affect proppossibly could do to make the royal word erty, in sunshine, or in rain, with taxes high or a public mockery, and a shame; one can- low, with old chartered rights maintained or denot review the well-known despotic pro- stroyed, with independent peasants or a rabble ceedings of the German diet, first in 1829, peasants on the proprietors, or of all on the and afterwards in 1832, without subscribing Jews and bankers—is all one to the bureau. a most full assent to the sentence of the cracy. They draw their salary from the pubBaron von Stein, when he says, in reference lic purse, and write-write-write on-secretto those very matters—“The falsehood that !y-silently-invisibly with shut doors-unprevails in our age is deserving of the most known-unnoticed-unnamed--and bring up serious reprehension.” And again, “Our their children after them, to be what their German government sink more and more

fathers were-very serviceable

chines. daily in public estimation by their timidity "Our machinery—the old military maand perfidy.” With regard to the whole chinery-I saw fall on the 14th October, 1806; system, indeed, of Prussian government, the possibly the machinery of the desk and the system of doing every thing by official men, quill and the red tape has a 14th of October and nothing by voluntary movement of the already doomed for it in Heaven.” people, and apart from this special matter These are serious words; and though of the “constitution,” Stein was accustomed Stein was one of those intense and strongly to use the strongest language of reproba- accentuating minds that never could state a tion; witness the following letter to Von truth without overstating it (as Martin LuGagern, dated 24th August, 1821. Cop- ther also was continually doing), they are penberg was a favorite seat of the Baron in not wise who would treat the hard blows from Westphalia.

the cudgel of such a man as if they were puffs

and whiffs of angry smoke from some wrath“ In the lonely woody Coppenberg, I live so ful Heine, or other furious poetical politiremote from the world and its doings, that

cian in Paris. Stein was the most pracnothing can disturb me in the enjoyment of nature and a country life, except bad weather, tical of men; he had lived all his life amid which happily has left us a few days ago, and the details of practice; and like all practical is not likely soon to return. In Wesiphalia men, in the midst of his violence knew how here, my friends are more concerned about the to preserve a certain sobriety and moderanew tax, and the new edict about the peasants tion, without which no such thing as gov(which 'satisfies no party), than about the erning is possible. There is nothing, in schemes of Metternich on the banks of the Danube, and the great events in Greece. For our opinion, that any King of Prussia could myself, I can say nothing more about public do better than seriously to ponder the pasaffairs, than that, while I have little confidence sage we have just quoted, and also the few in the present leaders, I have an unbounded short sentences that follow :trust in Providence; and that, necessary as a CONSTITUTION is to Prussia, and beneficial

“ Nassau, Sept. 29, 1819. as it would be if fairly worked, I expect noth- “I expect nothing satisfactory and substantial from the assembling together, and the de-i connected with the movement, from the liberations of mediocre and superficial men. tale of the relic, the conduct of the pil

“ The most important thing that could be done for the preservation of the public peace in various congregations which have separat

grims, the

open dissent of Ronge, and the Germany, were to put an end to the reign of arbitrary power, and in the place of it, to ed themselves from Rome, to a view of commence a system of constitutional law; in the their sundry confessions or declarations, place of the bureaucratists and the democratic Mr. Laing discusses the deeper principles pamphleteers-of whom the former oppress of the question, in order to estimate the the people by much and bad governing, and the probable result of the schism in Germany, other eircite and confound it-10 place the in- and to point its moral in reference to the fluence and the activity of the proprietors of possible endowment of the Irish Church. the soil."

This involves an inquiry into the nature of With these memorable words we are wil

the Prussian system of education,—which ling that the character of Stein, as an Eng

Mr. Laing pronounces nil, as not preventlish statesman in Prussia, should grave itself ing the pilgrimage to Treves, or raising the deep in the hearts both of Englishmen and mind of its pupils one jot above that of the

darkest part of the middle ages; a very Prussians. We have only to add that, in his latter years, Stein occupied himself in racter of the popular mind in Germany and

keen and searching examination of the chaorganizing a society at Frankfort for pub-racter of the popular mind in Germany and lishing the original documents of German true in the full extent, would place the Gerhistory, which are best known to the English historical student in connection with be players; an inquiry into the prospects of

man people on the level of slaves trained to the name of Perz; and that he took an acthe Irish people, and a consideration of the tive share in the business of the provincial states of Westphalia. He was also (since economy of the Romish Church in raising 1827) member of the council of state in money, in order to show that the endowBerlin; but this dignity, conferred at so

ment of the Irish priests would be impo

litic. late a period, seems merely to have been intended as a sort of unavoidable compli- Germany Mr. Laing speaks doubtfully, and

As regards the result of the movement in ment a person of It certainly did not imply that his well: evidently thinks more doubtfully than he known English principles were intended to confessions of faith put forward by the vaassume any greater prominency in the con- rious bodies are, for the most part, nega. duct of Prussian and German affairs than

tions; their denials or disbeliefs are stated they had enjoyed since the peace.

Baron Stein died on the 29th June, 1831, plainly their belief, vague, general, and in his castle of Coppenberg, in Westphalia. mechanic in Scotland would have drawn up

Mr. Laing affirms that almost any better and more logical Scriptural confessions than has been done by the illuminati in Germany. There is perhaps exaggeration in this; but some of the declarations

Mr. Laing quotes have no doubt a mixture LAING'S NOTES ON THE PILGRIMAGE TO of college-declamation and German tranTREVES.

scendentalism, little indicative of manly Notes on the Rise, Progress, and Prospects views. Some stand by the seven sacra

earnestness. Then, too, they differ in of the Schism from the Church of Rome,

ments and transubstantiation in direct called the German-Catholic Church, insti

terms; the confession or declaration of tuted by Johannes Ronge and I. Czerski, in October, 1844, on occasion of the elements, but holds a sort of spiritual pre

Berlin rejects the bodily presence in the pilgrimage to the Holy Coat at Treves. By Samuel Laing, Esq., Author of

sence at the ceremony;* many do not "A Residence in Norway," fc.-Long- greatly differ in creed from the Anglican man & Co.

* Article IV. "reject, however, the doctrine Tue subject of Mr. Laing's Notes on the of transubstantiation; that is, the change of the religious schism in Germany is much more of the body and blood of Christ. We acknowl

substance of bread and wine into the substances extensive than the title implies. Besides a edge, however, that we partake of the substances condensed and vigorous account of the facts in the real spiritual presence of our Saviour."

From the Spectator.


Church, so far as their general mode of exaggeration both of fact and of judgment, speaking enables one to pronounce. They, as well as much onesidedness, arising from however, unite in rejecting the authority of “truly British” prejudices, and the nationthe Pope, the forced celibacy of the eler- al tendency to find every thing wrong which gy, the service of the Church in a foreign is contrary to home customs. But the language, the worship of relics, pilgri- views are urged in a striking and powerful mages, and the denial of the Scriptures to manner, in their historical, social

, and phithe laity, (in auy version they please, as we losophical aspects. The reader who would understand ;) though some are not very comprehend the whole scope of Mr. Laing's clear on relics, &c. In short, the differ- argument nust consult his little volume; ent declarations rather appear to emanate we will give a few examples of his manner. from intelligent men disgusted with grievances, irritated by pupilage and constraint, and whose national vanity, as Mr. Laing intimates, has been wounded by the supersti- such a social body as the German, the inter

Between the higher and lower classes in tion of the pilgrimage to Treves, than from course, and even familiarity, may be great, persons animated with a strong religious yet the common feeling and interchange of feeling, and prepared to sacrifice all, or in- opinion very small. It is as in a ship, or a regideed anything, for the cross. Of course ment, in which the officers know the men only there are individual exceptions to this re- through their duties and discipline, know them mark; but the nominal leader Ronge him- well in that one capacity, but know in reality self had been stimulated by persecution, as fellow-men, less of their opinions, their senti

less of them as their fellow-citizens or their well as by disgust at the pilgrimage, and at ments, and home affairs, than any third perthe gross delusion set on foot by a Bishop. son who stands in no such artificial rela

Mr. Laing, however, with his practical tion to them. This kind of military relation and literary knowledge of Germany, goes

between the different classes of society keeps more deeply into the question, and doubts men far more apart from each other in reality, whether much more than a few nondescript miliarity between them than in our less feudaliz

although in appearance there may be more of facongregations will result from the schism; ed structure of society in England. The want of because the German mind, enslaved and a common feeling and common interests and emasculated by its Governments, is incapa- objects is best illustrated by the effects it has ble of rousing itself to any great effort of produced in the German language. The any kind. Every one is educated; but, he usages, or idiomatic expressions of the lansays, it is an education like a parrot :' he guage of a people, display, perhaps, better can do what he is taught to do-read, write, tions of the different classes in a country. In

than any other indication, the social relacipher, sing, dance, and possibly play upon English and French the same form of lanan instrument; but to turn these things to guage is used in addressing all, from the sovean independent account, or form an opin- reign to the meanest beggar. All are addression of his own, is out of his power. The ed equally by the personal pronoun you or vous. mass of the upper classes are in one way

In French, the singular number of the proor another dependent upon the Government

noun is used from fondness or familiarity-tu, for bread, status, or advancement, and dare and, altogether rarely, it is sometimes used to

inferiors. The usage of the English language not do it if they would. The lower class- admits of no such difference of expression, no es want mind to do it; especially the Ro- such inferiority between the classes of society, manists, who are enslaved by their religion or between man and man, as entitles the highas well as their government. There re- est to address the lowest in any other terms mains only a very scanty middle class in a than are used in communication between few commercial towns, and learned or pe than four very distinct modes and gradations of

equals. The German language has no less culiar individuals, who are likely to take an independent course; and most of these tions of the person addressed. Sie, the third

expressing the different relative social posihave done it already. If the Protestant personal pronoun in the plural number, is the Governments would speak out in favor of equivalent to you or vous, the plural of the sethe movement, no doubt it would have cond personal pronoun used in English or many recruits from the upper classes ; but French, and is used in the same way between this would not form a church, or shake the equals. Du is also equivalent to the French Papal system, though it might set up a sort the persons speaking, but also, when applied

tu, in expressing not only affection between of establishment, and be a thorn in the to an inferior, in expressing the inferiority of Pope's side.

the person spoken to, as when an officer speaks In these views there is doubtless some to a private soldier. The use of du in speaking Vol. VI.-No. III. 24

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