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to privates in the Prussian Landwehr by j things. We do not care to see a bed of tulips their officers, is at present highly resented, where the wheat and potatoe crops have eviand a subject of great dispute, it being con- dently been robbed of manure and neglected sidered degrading, because the ranks of the in order to raise them. The æsthetic is not the Landwehr are filled by gentlemen often supe- moral, nor the religious, nor, in many of its ob. rior to their officers in birth, education, and for- jecis, such as music, painting, architecture, the tune, and who think themselves therefore en intellectual, in a people or in an individual, and it litled to be addressed by their officers with sie, may be cultivated at the expense of higher obnot du. But Gernian has two forms of speech jects and principles. This is particularly true more in addressing interiore, and marking the with regard to education in Germany. The difference of social station between the speak- public mind, debarred from free action in puber and the person he is speaking to. The third lic interests or private affairs, naturally occuperson singular er, is used instead of sie, by a pies itself in those secondary pursuits which person of the higher class addressing an infe- alone are open to it, and the autocratic governrior. It is an usage of language, not the pride ments in their educational systems favor the or arrogance of the individual; and is formed cultivation and diffusion of iaste in the fine from the state of society. The person of the arts-of the development of the æsthetic upper class addresses the person of the lower among the multitude-as a means of keeping with er, the master his menial, the noble or them contented and happy. It is the old Roman of rank the non-noble or inferior. A still man policy of providing games and bread for more contemptuous form of expression for in- the people, to keep them quiet under the misdicating the distance between the talker and rule of the Emperors. The preponderance of the person addressed, in social station, is man, the æsthetic in the education, literature, and viz. one, used instead of er or sie. The inferi- daily life of the German people, has not workor is not addressed in the personal pronoun ed favorably on the present generation. It when speaking to him, but as a thing having has diffused a weakness and frivolity of chano personal station or existence-man. The racter, a turn for ease and present enjoyment, noble addresses his laborers or menials with and a disregard for, or ignorance of higher obman ; his bailiff, tenant, tradesman, with er ; jects than it presents to the mind. his equal with sie; but it would be a gross insult if he were to use er to an equal, or to a person claiming to be above the lower or middle classes, and still more if he were to address

The occupations and amusements of the upsuch a person with man ; yet he applies these per classes in Germany being much more seforms to persons of the lower and middle class- dentary and refined than with us, consisting es, by the usage of the language, without

much more in music. reading, theatrical enter

per: haps any personal pride or arrogance in the tainments, conversation, visiting, and social enspeaker: "This form of language may be joyment, and much less in hunting, shooting, ridthought a matter very unimportant in itself ing, racing, boating, and all the active, rough a mere grammatical difference from the Eng. sports and tastes which occupy our young men lish or French; but language is the expres familiar intercourse with the lower, as assistants

of the higher classes, and bring them into daily sion of mind, of the public mind, and it indicates more truly than any other expression of and partakers in their common pursuits, keep it, the manners and state of society, the civili. those classes in Germany much more apart zation and independence, and the social spirit from, and ignorant of, each other than they of a people. These fornis of expression mark are in England. The son of a nobleman or a distance, a non-intercourse, a want of mutu-country gentleman of the largest fortune and al communication and feeling, and of inter- highest family in England is intellectually, change of ideas, and sympathies, and knowl- and in his tasies and habitual enjoyments not edge of each other, between the classes using very different, or rather is very much the them. They indicate the state of society in the lower class. The difference is more in the

same as the son of a farmer, or of a man of Germany—the relations between its classes.

means and scale of enjoyment than in the tastes of the two persons at the extreme ends of our

social body. They have many objects, purA great part of the education in Germany, suits, feelings, occupations, sports in common, and almost all mind, is directed to asthetic and bringing them together. These are, perobjects,—to the.cultivation of the fine aris-to haps, low in taste, and denote a low standard taste and production in poetry, dramatic works, of intellectual development among our highromance, and other imaginative or speculative er classes; but they bring the lower up to that literature to music, theatrical representation, standard, establish a wholesome intercourse painting, architecture, and all that comes un- and exchange of ideas between them—for the der the name of æsthetic-all the iniellectual lowest can understand and talk of horses, objects that embellish civilized life, and add to dogs, guns, or yachts, as well as the highest its enjoyments. Valuable as the esthetic is, -and denote a higher social state of the when it is a flower growing spontaneously out whole, than if the upper class were so far reof a high state of civilization, it is but a poor fined and educated beyond the mass of the peocrop to cultivate instead of more essential ple below, as to be, as in Germany, a froth with


out spirit or flavor, swimming on the surface, The Catholic Bishops could not renounce or and altogether different in substance from the make a tariff diminishing those payments, begood liquor at the bottom.

cause they are held essential by the giver to The social state of Germany is similar to his own religious welfare, in whatever way that of British India. The upper enlightened they are applied. The people would not be class, consisting of civil and military functiona. relieved from these onerous and impoverishing ries, lawyers, judges, and officers connected payments, if they are as onerous, impoverishwith the administration of law and collection ing, and oppressive to the lower classes as the of revenue, bankers, merchants, and profes- Irish landholders represent them to be, by any sional men, is different in language, habits, provision made for their clergy. They must ideas, and feelings, from the Hindoo people first be relieved from the superstition which whom it governs; is little acquainted with makes them believe that such payments are them-does not mix with them-has little salutary to their own souls in a future state. knowledge of them but what circumstances It is besides a gross exaggeration, equalled may force upon its potice, yet governs only by the credulity which believes it, that them tolerably well, and the great mass of six millions and a half of people are impoverthe inert Indian population below it is submis- ished by the sustentation of two-and-twenty sive, and contented with the state of pupilage hundred single men." in which they exist.

"The smallness of the expense to the comTo this great lower mass of the people in munity at large is an argument against it, not Germany, the opinions, political or religious, in its favor, because this shows that there is no of the upper class, scarcely penetrate. They real necessity for it. If so paltry a sum as do not at all take up the German Catholic 250,0001. or 300,0001. be all the expense of machurch. On the contrary, they are evidently king a suitable provision for the Roman Cathin the same intellectual and religious condi-olic clergy of Ireland, it is altogether absurd tion in which they were four centuries ago-to maintain that six millions and a half of peoquite as ready for pilgrimages or crusades, or ple are impoverished by this trifling yearly whatever superstition or belief the Church of drain upon their substance, are reduced io misRome may impose on them. They are notery by it, while in the naturally much poorer ripe for this movement.

country of Scotland one million of their fellow

subjecis are voluntarily raising 300,0001. yearMr. Laing's views on Ireland may be thus ly for the support of their church; and the stated. Notwithstanding their book-igno- whole body of English Dissenters of all denomrance, rags, and wretchedness, the Irish are inations are supporting their Ministers at a really a better-educated people than the vastly greater sacrifice than eleven-pence halfGermans in all that concerns independent penny a head, which is about the amount of judgment and activity of mind. In this this impoverishing drain on the Irish Cathopoint of view, the monster-meetings, use

lic population. On what principle-for it is a

question of principle, not of expense—is one less as they are for their avowed purpose, class of British subjects to be relieved of the accustom the peasantry to take a part in burden of supporting their clergy, and not anpublic questions, and give to them a con- other? And how is this relief to be adminissideration which is altogether denied to the tered? Is it to be a regium donum of 300,0001. Germans. This growing disposition to con- yearly, to be paid to the heads of the Roman sider public affairs, the extension of rail-Catholic hierarchy in Ireland, to be by them ways to Ireland, and of steam-communica- applied to the sustentation of their parochial

clergy? In that case, it would be only an tion in general, will carry

both money and
apparent, not a real 'relief.

The parochial information into the country, and offer the clergy would apparently be sustained and paid prospect of a conversion to Protestantism out of this yearly fund, but the people would or a modification of Ronianism. The en- pay the same as before for

masses, remissions, dowment of the priests will do as much as offerings, &c., because these paymente are esthe State can do to destroy this proba- sential to the spiritual welfare of the giver, acbility ; will give greater power to the cording to his religious views and feelings, in

dependently altogether of the application of priests over their flocks than they already them to the support of the priest. The money possess; without, Mr. Laing maintains, pro- may be applied to adorning a relic, gilding an curing for the Government any efficient con- image, furnishing out a procession, or supporttrol over them (as may be seen by the facts ing the priest ; it is the giving that is the that are occurring in Germany,) or relieving meritorious, soul-saving act.

No stipulathe Irish people from the present demands tion can be made with the higher clergy of the

Church of Rome that such contributions shall

cease in Ireland, because they are of the very “The endowment of the Catholic Clergy nature of the Roman Catholic faith, and are would not relieve the people, but only furnish pious sacrifices. But if they are not to cease, the Church of Rome with funds for supporting where would be the relief? The regium do another body of 2,200 priests in the country. num of 300,0001. a year would only be,in effect.

upon them.

a subscription for the propagation of the Ro-shrewdness of perception and vigor of style, man Catholic religion, as the same sum that enforcing attention though not always comis now raised, and applied to the support of the manding assent. As regards the Komish priest

, would, from the very nature of the reli- Church and the Irish questions, his views gion, be raised as before, and applied to the support of an assistant priest. It would only

are less conclusive. He instances the, pilhave the effect of doubling the number of the grimage to Treves, an unlawful assemblage priests. The grant 19 Maynooth even will, according to Prussian law, as a proof of the probably only bave the effeci of increasing the power of the Romish priesthood when renumber of studente, not of raising their liabits cognized by the State ; but if the assembly and intellectual and phyeical condition, if care be not taken by government to have the money would give them no advantage.

was unlawful, the status of the parties

Whether applied in the way, and on the objects, for which it was granted."

Bishop Arnoldi was tolerated by the State

or supported by the State, he was equally The only mode in which Government obnoxious to prosecution, if the State deemreally can relieve the distress in Ireland, ed it prudent to prosecute. We doubt, Mr. Laing maintains, is by establishing a too, whether the Irish are not equally ignofixity of tenure, giving the present tenants rant and superstitious with the Germans. an absolute interest in the soil on the terms They have no pilgrimages so numerous as upon which they at present hold, similar to that of Treves; but, if tourists are to be that change which Hardenberg established believed, journies are made to holy wells in Prussia at the beginning of the century. and similar spots for purposes equally futile,

and ceremonies are performed which in“ It is evident that such a measure involved dicate as great a prostration of the underthe direct violation of all the rights of property: standing. Nor are the author's Irish facts necessity—for the very preservation of society, always correct. Surely Sir Robert Peel or of the state itself. But this necessity had. did not consult the Romish Prelates on the as regards the existence of Prussia, evidently College Bills: his refusal to do so is a traset in. The campaign of the preceding years ding grievance. Nor is the hacknied arguhad already shown, that although Pruesia ment of much weight, that if the Irish could bring armies into the field, her people priesthood be paid ihe Dissenters have a

As an abstract soil they were called out to defend; but on the right to require assistance. contrary, the people were much better off in rule, no class has any right to the public Westphalia, and the provinces occupied by money: it is a question of public expedienthe French, than under their German social cy—that is, of public benefit. But the Dissystem. A similar necessity exists in Ireland senters themselves settle the question. The for a similar measure. The sacred rights of Romanists seem willing to take whatever is property themselves must give way before the given them : the Dissenters repudiate the necessity of the preservation of society from state of anarchy and barbarism; and if the idea upon principle. The proposal to vote rents and estates of a few thousand great land- them money would be an affront; its accepowners on one side, and the existence in a civil-tance, a sin. ized state of nine million of inhabitants on the other side, are to be weighed against each other, it is evident that either by some sudden convulsion tearing up society by the roots, or by the timely interposition of government, while

From Fraser's Magazine. it has the power, and has no external enemies,

ENGLAND AND YANKEE-LAND. the same revolution in the state of landed property, that has been effected in Prussia must take place at no distant period in Ireland.',

“Un linguaggio The extent and character of the subjects

Parlan tutti, fratelli li dice treated of, and the manner in which they

Lo stroniero, il comune lignaggio are handled by Mr. Laing, render it super

A ognun d' essi sul volto transar." fluous to recommend his work to the atten- The United States of America are the tive consideration of the reader. He will greatest edifices ever achieved by the find in it a close and succinct statement of Anglo-Saxon race. They are a living eviwell-selected facts, a living knowledge of dence of the stubborn vitality, of the conGermany derived from practical observation sistent enterprise, of the sound judgment, and kept up by the perusal of its periodical of that sturdy variety of the old Teutonic and fugitive literature, together with great stock. England came Jast to the great



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work of American colonization. Rival na-than the whole of Europe, excepting Rustions had seized upon all that was deemed sia. habitable in the New World. The English Collectively, their greatest length is had to put up with a barren, in hospitable 3000 miles, their greatest breadth 1700 coast, under the inclemencies of an iron miles. climate. Other powers exhausted their re- “ They have a frontier line of about 10,sources to secure the golden prize. The 000, a sea-coast of 3600 miles, and a lakeEnglish government abandoned the new coast of 1200 miles." settlements to the contingencies of private A few pages farther we learn that “the speculation. The results were such as no United States have 272 millions of acres of human wisdom could anticipate. The public lands surveyed and unsold, and 811 Mississippi valley withered in the hands of millions more which are unsurveyed. These the French. Spain was beggared by the lands are sold at 125 cents (say 5s. sterling) gold of her Peruvian and Mexican mines. per acre," &c. England alone owed her wealth, and to a With all this extent of territory, with all great extent her safety, to her Transatlantic this unimproved desert, the Americans are possessions. New England and Virginia still fretting for want of elbow-room. Still were the master-pieces of English construc- they drive the wild Indians before them betiveness.

yond the great lakes, beyond the Rocky When the day of emancipation came, Mountains, beyond all the limits of the reand the over-grown colonies felt able and gions appointed by providence as the dwellimpatient to shift for themselves, the supe-ing of man. They bully the Mexicans on riority of the British over the southern the south, and sympathize with the Canadiraces was yet more strenuously asserted. ans on the north. They adopt for their French levity and Spanish indolence gave motto in their popular journals, way before American thriftiness and endu

“No pent:-p Utica contracts our powers ; rance. The Creole every where dwindled

For the whole boundless continent is ours." and vanished before the Yankee; and the day is not, perhaps, beyond the limit of hu- It is not difficult to account for this apman conjecture when the preponderant parently senseless ambition. The Amerielement shall have completed its work of cans are a race of emigrants. The security irresistible, even although pacific invasion, and prosperity of the country is based on a when the Anglo-Saxon shall lord it all over system of general migration. The Amerithe Continent.

can is the citizen of a world. His rights, It is with little reason, we believe, and his name, his language, follow him every to little purpose, that an outcry has been where. A descendant of pilgrims, he has raised in England against the late schemes no narrow-minded notions of local patriotof American aggrandizement. The annex- ism. His wooden dwelling is something ation of Texas, the invasion of the Oregon intermediate between a European house territory by right of accretion, or by what- and an Arabian tent. On the back-ground of ever name such conquests and usurpations civilization there opens before him a wide may be designated, are matters of necessity. region of swamps and forests, a refuge for They are the obvious consequence of that the outcasts of society. Therein, more onward impulse, of that go-a-headism, which than in any constitutional providence, lies can only be arrested by the desert or the the strength of the republic. As long as

The Yankees have already mo- the valley of the Mississippi has marshes to nopolized the name of Americans, and the drain and woodlands to clear, a rich soil day will perhaps be when their universal and a blessed climate to rebuild broken fornation and the New World shall be utterly tunes and soothe disappointment, the Union identified.

can be in no imminent danger. As long “ The United States of America,” ob- as the republic is in possession of such an serves Mr. Palmer Putnam, in a statistical extensive means of ridding itself of all corwork lately published, occupy an area of rupting elements, corruption cannot strike 2,300,000 square miles, or 650,000 more deep roots. Civil and religious passions

may ruffle the surface, but the waters are

too shallow to be much troubled by storms. * “ American Facts,” by George Palmer Put.

Illimitedness of territory is then essential nam. London, 1845. A work written with remarkable skill, and containing a great deal of to the tone and temper of the American useful information on important topics.

mind. Conscious of unbounded existence,


the Yankee moves to his aim, circumscribed (sire to ward it off by a farther extension of only by the natural orbit of his individual their migratory system. powers. He apprehends no encroachments, Not that the Mexican or British Northbrooks no obstruction. He relies on no in- American territories may not be considtervention of miraculous agents. Hence ered, even now, as widely open to Yankee his life is movement, not struggle. He is speculation, but the United States, who active, not restless. His interests naturally have given the first instance of a colonizaharmonize with social welfare. His private tion without emigration as it were, are bent efforts are easily identified with the forward-upon claiming as home every foot of ground ing of the good of the state. In a land of upon which their wild pioneers and squatuniversal suffrage he has nothing to hope ters may set their foot, and determined that from violence or conspiracy. His equanim- emigration shall add to their territory what ity in social life has a soothing influence on it would otherwise take from their populahis domestic affections. At home and tion. Therefore if the Kentuckian hunter, abroad the American is rational, resigned, or the trapper of Michigan, pursue their and hopeful. Disappointed in one branch game beyond the boundary of the Union, it of industry he calmly turns to another. A is for the boundary to stretch, it is for the bankrupt in the east he sets up in a new Union to follow them (by annexation) to line of business in the west. Whatever the Texas and Oregon. Every citizen is an result of the battle he is now engaged in, integrant part of the republic; wherever the “far West” always offers a safe and he may choose his abode, he is understood honorable retreat. Hence that “ far West” to carry his stars and stripes,-in fact, the must needs be inexhaustible, it must ex- republic itself along with him. pand in proportion to the rapid increase of Whatever may be said as to the justice population. From Virginia to Kentucky, and wisdom of this system, we do not see and hence to Arkansas, Texas, and the what honor or advantage England or EuOregon, down to the western shore, all rope may obtain by interfering with it. must be appropriated by one sweeping in- War in America, with whatsoever result road. Whenever the overwhelming tide it might be crowned, would never be atbe arrested or forced back by material tended with any permanent success. Engcauses, then it may be time to look out for land has fought but too long for the privilege an awful reaction. Evils which the safety of sending out lieutenant-governors to unvalves of emigration either averted or palli- profitable colonies. It is universally acated will burst forth with redoubled inten- knowledged that British trade has gained sity. Civil dissensions, which have hitherto by the emancipation of the States. The been rankling in a few ambitious breasts, day may come when the independence will arm the several members of the Union of the Canadas, nay of all the British against one another. Large standing arm- Transatlantic and Australian colonies, will ies, hotly disputed boundaries, insane wars, be looked upon as a matter of mutual expetreacherous diplomacy-all the calamities diency. What of it? The British race will of European strife, will rend the bosom of not the less have settled and thriven on that republic which "equals Europe in nearly three-fourths of the earth. Old size," and such disasters in a country in England will not the less be the centre of habited by one kindred race will be aggra- a hundred New Englands. It is not by the vated by the wonted inveteracy of brotherly appointment of a few executive officers, or feuds. The shrewd calculating New Eng- by stationing idle garrisons in those provlander, the hot-headed Kentuckian, the inces, but by imparting to them the advanbloody-minded Mississippian, are already tages of her industry, learning, and civilizavirtually separated by sheer incompatibility tion, that Great Britain may exercise a of temper; and Congress is only a tourna- lasting supremacy over them. It is not by ment, in which the balles of aster-ages are squabbling against rights of search and faintly but unmistakably shadowed forth. boundary lines in a desert, that kindred

All these, however, although in our mind nations can contribute to the advancement unavoidable, are as yet remote contingen- of the common cause of justice and humancies; and the American statesmen of all ity. All struggles between England and parties, by so unanimously concurring in the eldest of her colonies, were the latter their late measures of territorial enlarge- even to carry into effect her ambitious ment, seem to evince an undefinable dread views by armed conquest and usurpation, of such probable issue, and an anxious de- would be equally unnatural and impolitic.


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