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WYCLIFFE.

The doctrines of this Reformer, who, long prior to Luther, resisted the encroachments of the Pope, and promulgated the principal truths of the Great Reformation, had become so widely diffused, that the clergy became alarmed. Courtney, recently elevated to the See of London, and one of the most imperious churchmen of the age, had shown special opposition to the Duke of Lancaster, (John of Gaunt) the friend and patron of Wycliffe, in the sessions of the Assembly of 1376, called the “Good Parliament.” At his instigation, the houses of Convocation met, on the third of February, 1377, and issued a citation, requiring Wycliffe to appear and answer to the charge of holding and publishing heretical opinions.

The nineteenth of the same month was fixed for his hearing, and the place, the cathedral of St. Paul's. On the day appointed, it was crowded to excess by the populace. Wycliffe appeared, accompanied by John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and Lord Percy, the Earl Marshal.

It was with difficulty Wycliffe and his attendants made their way through the crowd. Courtney was not a little agitated on seeing the Reformer sustained by two so powerful personages. Quite a sharp dialogue is reported by Fuller to have taken place on the occasion, between Bishop Courtney, the Duke of Lancaster and Lord Percy; and the disturbance, consequently, became so great, that the convocation was dissolved, without either hearing Wycliffe or attending to any of its proper business.

It is well known that he appeared again, alone, before a Synod convened at Lambeth, in 1378.

In the plate, Courtney and the bishops are easily distinguishable on the right, in their robes of white; on the left, Wycliffe, with his white beard, book in one hand and cane in the other ; in the centre, Lord Percy and John of Gaunt in sharp controversy with Courtney, pointing to Wycliffe, and claiming that he shall be seated, contrary to the demand of Courtney.

R E A D.

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From the Foreign Quarterly Review.

Mexico. By W. Bullock, F. L. S.

London. 1824. STATE AND PROSPECTS OF MEXICO,

8. Memoirs of the Merican Revolution. By

William Davis Robinson. Philadelphia. 1. Versuch einer getreuen Schilderung der

1820. Republik Mejico. Von Eduard Mueh

9 Narrative of the Texan Santa Erlenpfordt, fc. (Essay of a Faithful

pedition. By George Wilkins Kendall. Description of the Republic of Merico.

London. 1844. By Edward Muehlenpfordt, formerly Director of the Works of the Mexican Recent changes and revolutions are Company, and afterwards Road-Sur- again attracting the attention of political veyor to the State of Oajaca. 2 vols. observers to the shores of the Mexican Gulf. Hanover. 1844.

The late overthrow of Santa Anna, the de2. Mexico as it was and as it is. By Brantz cision of the question long pending between

Mayer, Secretary of the United States' the Republic of Mexico and the United Legation to that Country, in 1841 and States of the north, as to the annexation of

1842. New-York and London. 1844. Texas, and the contingency of war or peace 3. Life in Mexico. By Madame Calderon in regions which have so many claims on

de la Barca. London: Chapman & Hall. the attention of Europe, combine to revive 1843.

no small portion of that keen interest 4. Texas and the Gulf of Mexico. By which, twenty years ago, was felt when the

Mrs. Houston. 2 vols. London. 1844. fancied El Dorado was laid open to the en5. Mexico. By H. G. Ward, Esq., his Ma- terprise of Europe, and seem to show that jesty's Charge d'Affaires in that Coun- a new page of the many-leaved volume of try during the years 1825, 1826, and the future is unfolding. The mighty curpart of 1827. 2 vols. London. 1829. rent of human action sets in with increased 6. Journal of a Residence and Tour in volume and intensity towards the west and

Mexico in the year 1826. By Captain south of the American continent. At the G. F. Lyon, R. N., F. R. S.

present moment, therefore, we persuade 7. Sir Months' Residence and Travels in ourselves that we shall render no unaccept,

Vol. VI.-No. IV. 28

ers.

able service to our readers, by throwing to-ring and warlike race, the country would gether such information as we have been in fact afford the military key tu both diviable to collect, on the present state and sions of the American continent; for, from prospects of a country which, in spite of her mountain-throne she overlooks the vast modern tourists, still remains in many re- levels of Texas and the United States, spects a terra incognita to the mass of read- while by way of Guatemala and across the

This we shall preface by a succinct Carribean Sea, the forces of a strong and view of the leading events of Mexican his compact state might dominate the feeble tory, from the outbreak of the revolution, and divided communities of the South. She interweaving such considerations of a more is seated on the great table-land formed by general kind as the subject may naturally the Mexican Andes, which, springing from suggest.

their southern roots in the Isthmus of PaIn thus restricting the range of our spec- nama, stretch their vast system of ridges ulations, we are well aware of the sacrifice and valleys over the whole breadth of the we make, in foregoing themes which have country as far as 10 the mouth of Rio Braa perpetual and unfading charm for those vo, and then receding to the west and who love to linger on the storied memories north, traverse the length of the continent of the past. A more tempting task might to where the towering peaks of the St. Elias be to recall our readers to the days of the glitter in their gorgeous icy robe, beneath pilgrim of Palos, who explored the awful the rays of the Arctic sun. The belt of mysteries of the ocean stream, till he found coast which intervenes on each side be' a temperate in a torrid zone :

tween the mountains and the sea, forms a “ The feverish air fann'd by a cooling breeze,

sure bulwark against foreign aggression, The fruitful vales set round with shady trees;

interposing by its tropical climate, and the And guiltless men, who danced away their time, diseases thence generated, to which the Fresh as their groves, and happy as their clime." European falls a helpless prey, insurmount

able obstacles to the passage of an army. Nor less pleasing would it be to make our Defended by resolute spirits and energetic canvass gorgeous with the barbaric splen- hands, such a country would be impregnadors of the Indian monarchy and hierarchy, ble, and even with the listless and indolent to retrace the career of Cortes and his ad- race by whom it is held, would be found no venturous cavaliers, and to tell

easy conquest to an invader; for though “ Of the glorious city won

the opinion which is sometimes hazarded Near the setting of the sun,

may be well-founded, that a modern Cortes Throned in a silver lake;

might repeat the march from Vera Cruz to Of seven kings in chains of gold."- Mexico, he would find that on arriving at

the capital, he was but on the threshold of These are themes whose romantic interest his undertaking, even if his army had not awakens a never-failing response in the long before melted away in the pestilential imagination at all times, and which with levels of the sea-coast. The Alpine conthe youth of modern Europe rank second formation of its tropical region presents in in fascination only to the fairy tales and its numberless terraces and valleys, elevated national legends which are the time-conse- plains, and deep-sunk slades, that wondrous crated food of juvenile fancy. But leaving variety of climate and scenery which it has such splendid scenes to Irving and Pres- tasked the pens of all geographers and travcott, to whom they rightfully belong by the ellers to describe, with every shape of wilddouble tenure of indigenous association and ness, grandeur, and luxuriant beauty that prior occupancy, let us proceed to our own can fill the fancy or charm the eye. Amid more sober, but, perhaps, more useful task the mountain heights, from which spring of sketching the development of that socie- the fire-born cones, with their stainless ty which, in the sixteenth century, was cinctures of perennial snow, we find the founded by the sword of Castile amidst the forests of Scandinavia reproduced ; further ruins of the Aztec Venice.

down on their slopes, the delicious climate Mexico, from its advantages of situation, of Southern Europe, yielding in abundance its endless diversity of soil and climate, and the grain that nourishes the life of man, its capacity of sustaining an immense pop- and the rare and exquisite fruits that crown ulation, would seem to be a land destined its enjoyments—the grape, the orange, the by nature to play no humble part in the af- olive, and the lemon; whilst at the base of fairs of the world. In the hands of a stir-the giant hills, the rich soil teems with the coffee-plant and the sugar-cane, and glows sed to present, some well-digested and able with the dazzling colors of the tropical observations on the subject by Mühlenpflora. The European race which occupied fordt :the empire of the Aztecs, was in fact conducted by the dispensations of Providence

“Although the mountain-chain of Mexico into a country which exhibits in many re

appears to be one and the same with that spects the natural counterpart of their own. the Andes, intersects all South America, from

which, under the name of the Cordilleras of In the Spain of the New World, the same south to north ; yet its structure on the north physical features which characterized their and south of the equator is entirely different. ancient dwelling-places, appear, though on On the southern hemisphere we see the Cora far wider and more magnificent scale. dilleras everywhere furrowed, lengthwise and The lofty sierras and table-lands, once for- crosswise, by valleys, which seem as if they est-clad ihough now treeless, of Castile, the have been formed by a forcible severance of

the mountains. Here we find iracis perfectly net-work of ridges and stream-fed dales level at a great absolute elevation. The richly which interlaces the territory of Biscay, the cultivated plains around the town of Santa Fé fertile vegas and sterile wastes which bask de Bogota lies 8700, the high level of Coxaunder the suns of Andalusia and Granada, marca, in Peru, 9000, the wide plains about the all find their likenesses in that region of volcano of Antisana, 13,429 English feet above America which the first discoverers, struck the sea. These elevated flats of Cundinamarca, with the resemblance borne by its shores to Quito, and Peru, though quite level, have an

extent of no more than forty-two square those they had left behind, greeted with the leagues; difficult of ascent, separated from appellation of New Spain.* The parallel each other by deep valleys, surrounded by holds good, and will probably continue to lofty peaks, they have no connection with each do so, in the moral as well as the physical other, and offer but trifling facilities to internal features of the picture presented by modern communication in those countries. In Mexico, Mexico; for the populations of its various on the contrary, we find the main ridge of provinces show differences of character and mountains itself forming the table-land. Highmanners no less striking than are remarked uniform, lie near together, stretching from the

raised plains, of far greater extent, and equally at the present day in those of Old Spain. 18th to the 40th parallel of latitude, in unThese are partly called forth by climate and broken succession, overtopped only by individsituation, but their most fertile source is no val cones and lines of greater aliitude. The doubt the greater or lesser proportion in direction of the table-land determines, as it which the intermixture of Indian with Eu-were, the whole course of the mountain-chains. ropean blood has ensued. There results The craters, of 16,000 to 18,000 feet high, are from the diversities of character to which ranged in lines, whose direction is not by any

partly scattered on the table-land, partly arwe allude, and still more from the difficult- means always parallel with the general track jes of communication and the weakness of of the Cordilleras. In Peru, Quito, Cundinathe general government, an interprovincial marca, as observed, the lofty platforms are diisolation of the same kind with that which vided by cross valleys, whose perpendicular prevails so remarkably in the mother-coun-depth amounts sometimes to 4500 feet, and try, and exercises on its political changes by travellers on mules, on foot, or carried on

whose steep precipices are only to be climbed and revolutions an influence still plainly the backs of Indians. 'n Mexico, on the other appreciable.

hand, the table-lands are so continuous, that It will assist our readers in forming a from Tehuantepec to Santa Fé, in New Mexmore accurate idea of the physical confor- ico, nay, even into the territory of the United mation of the Mexican territory, and its in- States, wheel-carriages might roll.” finite variety of climate, if we subjoin to the general view we have ourselves attempt

Ascending from Tehuantepec, on the

Pacific coast, which is but 118 feet above Describing the voyage of discovery made by the level of the sea, the table-land stretches Grijalva along the Mexican coast, De Solis tells from Oajaca to Durango, at an elevation of us : “ Some one of the soldiers then saying that 6000 to 8000 feet,* its surface intersected parison pleased the hearers so much, and remained by ridges which run from 9000 to 11,000 so impressed on the memories of all, that no other feet in height, while above this only isolated original is to be found of the name of New Spain mountains ascend. Beyond Durango, in being given to those regions. Words spoken casvally are repeated but by chance; save when * To this general statement, of course, exceppropriety and grace of meaning are perceived in tions may be pointed out. Thus the valley of them, to captivate the memory of men." (Con- Toluca, near Mexico, reaches an average eleva quista de Mexico, 1. i., c. 5.)

tion of 8500 feet.

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