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red marble that covered the walls. From this Becker has, of course, drawn his chief you entered a gmall oval peristyle, and an ex- information respecting the Roman system cellent resort in unfavorable weather, for the lof gardening, from the graceful communispaces between the pillars were closed up cations of Pliny. It is needless to remind laris, or talc, through which the eye discover the reader that an English garden, in the ed the pleasant verdure of the soft, mossy

sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, offers carpet that covered the open space in the cen- the loveliest image of one in Italy in the tre, and was rendered ever Aourishing by the time of Cicero. The Roman taste, howspray of the fountain. Just behind ihis was ever, possessed a harmony of adaptation to the regular court of the house, of an equally the climate, of which ours is entirely destiagreeable aspect, in which stood a large mar

tute. ble basin, surrounded by all sorts of shrubs

It sought to exclude the glare of and dwarf trees; on this court abutted a

sunshine by every ingenuity of verdant grand eating-hall, built beyond the whole line tracery and screen; while in our damp of the house, through the long windows of and misty place of habitation, the more ob. which, reaching like doors to the ground, a vious plan would be, to open every bower view was obtained towards the Auruncan to its approach. The great object of the hills in front, and on the sides into the grace- Italian connoisseur consisted in relieving ful gardens'; whilst in the rear a passage his eye with a luxuriant amplitude of opened through the carædium, peristyl, atrium, and.colonnade, beyond the rystus, into the greenness. Accordingly, we find in Pliny's open air. The Cyzicenian saloon was border- charming villa in Tuscany, that one walk ed on the right by different chambers, which, was entirely surrounded with plane-trees; from their northerly aspect, presented a pleas- the ivy, twining round the trunk and ant abode in the heat of summer; and more branches, spread from tree to tree, and so to the east lay the regular sitting and sleep- connected them into one cool and leafy ing-rooms. The first were built outwards semicircularly, in order to catch the beams of wall; trunk and head being alike covered the morning light and retain those of the mid- with the same refreshing color. The palday sun. The internal arrangements were lentes hederæ of Virgil probably corressimple but comfortable, and in persect accord- ponded with the silver-striped ivy of our ance with the green prospect around; for on own woods. The warmth and beauty of the marble basement were painted branches an Italian atinosphere enabled the tasteful reaching inwards as it were from the outside, designer to irnpart a cheerfulness and lustre, and upon them colored birds, so skilfully executed that they appeared not to sit but to almost unattainable in one of the old Engflutter. On one side only was this artificial lish gardens. Thus, in the Tuscan villa garden interrupted by a piece of furniture, of Pliny, the gloomy shade of a cypresscontaining a small library of the most choice grove, in which the avenue of ivy-grown books. The sleeping apartment was sepa- plane-trees appears to have terminated, was rated from it only by a small room, which relieved by the intermixture of several would in winter be warmed by a hypocaustum, inward circular walks, lying open to the and thus communicate the warmth to the adjoining roorns by means of pipes. The rest genial influence of the sun, and deliciously of this side was used as an abode for the scented with roses. We are cbliged to elaves, although most of the rooms were sul number with the anomalies of national ficiently neat for the reception of any friends taste the prevailing passion of the Romans who might come on a visit., On the opposite for cutting box-trees into different shapes. side, which enjoyed the full warmth of the Not the least curious feature, in this aberevening sun, were the bath-rooms and the ration of horticultural reason, is its introsphæristerium, adapted not merely for the game of ball, but for nearly every description duction and popularity during the golden of corporeal exercises, and spacious enough to days of Augustan delicacy and taste. hold several different parties of players at the Poverty may, after all, be the proper exsame time. There Gallus, who was a friend! planation of this eccentricity. The Roto bracing exercises, used to prepare bimsellmans had no Lee to enrich their scrolls for the bath, either by the game of trigon, at with the loveliest varieties of five hundred which he was expert, or by swinging the halleres; and for this purpose the room could roses ;-no Loddige to dazzle their eyes be warmed in winter by means of pipes, with the colors of the camelia. They which were conducted from the hypocaustum were compelled to supply by art what the of the bath under the floor and along the walls. horn of tropical beauty had never been Lastly, at both ends of the front colonnade, opened to bestow. The carring in trees, forming the entrance, rose turret-shaped build- however, seems to have beeu exquisitely ings, in the different stories of which were small chambers, or triclinia, affording an ex

grotesque. Pliny descended into a sheltertensive view of the smiling plains."

ed lawn from his terrace-walk, along a

slope embellished by the figures of differented for a second time in the autumn; and animals, in all the leafy vivaciousness of when in mild winter, the rosa pallida is box. A bear with a snake in his jaw seen to bloom in Germany in the open air seems to have been a favorite illustration. of Christmas, and even in January, why On this tree you read in large letters the name should not the same thing have been possiof the proprietor ; on that, of the gardener. ble in a milder climate ?" The country in Becker conjectures that the vacant spaces, the window—the rus in fenestra of Martial being set with flowers, were separated into --reminds one of the lines of Cowper :various formal enclosures, as in the French

“What are the casements lined with creeping gardens of our own time. In this way he herbs, understands an obscure allusion of Pliny. The prouder sashes fronted with a range The borders he supposes to have been of orange, myrtle, or the fragrant weed, raised in terrace-fashion, "in which case,

The Frenchman's darling? Are they not all the margin rising in the form of an arch That man, immur'd in cities, still retains

proofs (the torus of Pliny) was covered with ever. His inborn inextinguishable thirst green or bears' foot.Another resem- of rural scenes, compensating his loss blance to French taste will be recognized By supplementary shifts, the best he may

y? in the abundant supply of

The most unfurnish'd with the means of life, water, in

And they that never pass their brick-work the employment of which the Roman

bounds, landscape-gardener was singularly happy. To range the fields and treat their lungs with air, There seems to have been in large estab- Yet feel the burning instinct ; overhead lishments a slave, whose special task was Suspend their crazy boxes, planted thick,

And watered daily." the care of the different water-works, and who might be called the “fountain-over

The employment of glass to protect and seer.” Some of the inventions were very quicken the growth and the maturity of elegant. In a marble alcove at Pliny's Aowers and fruits, seems to be naturally Tuscan residence, which was shaded by suggested by the cultivation of them in the vines, the water gushing out from several open air. Cowper has elegantly said, small pipes—to adopt the words of his own

“ Who loves a garden, loves a green-house description—as if it were pressed out by the weight of the persons reposing upon Unconscious of a less propitious clime, the seat, fell into a marble basin exquisite- There blooms exotic beauty, warm and snug, ly polished, and so constructed that it was While the winds whistle and the snows' de.

scend. always full without ever flowing over. The springing myrtle with unwith’ring leaf Pliny tells us, that this basin served him Shines there and flourishes. The golden boast for a table; the larger dishes being placed of Portugal, and Western India there, round the margin, and the smaller ones The ruddier orange, and the paler lime, floating about in the form of little vessels Peep through their polish'd foliage at the storm, and water-fowl.

And seem to smile at what they need not

fear." The rose and violet were the chief ornaments of the Roman garden. They are Martial, in a very pretty couplet, which the flowers which Virgil seems to have Becker quotes, alludes to this artificial preserved with peculiar affection in the covering of the lily and rose. These exquisite crystal of his verse. But Becker green-houses filled also, however imperfectdenies that the classical Flora was so ly, the place of forcing-houses. Pliny meagre as many writers have asserted it to notices the specularia in which the melonbe. He enumerates the bulbous plants, beds of Tiberius were sheltered from the the crocus, the narcissus, several kinds of cold. Grapes were produced in a siinilar Jilies, gladiolus, irides, and hyacinths. manner. We have used the phrase of He finds the earliest mention of green- forcing-house without intending to suggest, houses in the first century, and lays his any comparison with the complicated expefinger upon numerous allusions to them in dients of modern science. The assistance the amusing epigrams of Martial. Flowers rendered to the flower or the plant seems were certainly forced in them; and the to have been of a negative character; notice of roses in December is to be ex- nothing is to be looked for like the subplained on this supposition. Not that the terranean wonders of Chatsworth, where winter rose of poets is always to be inter- the passages connected, with the flues of preted by the produce of artificial heat or the conservatory, are two miles in extent. protection. “The roses of Pæstum bloom- Nor would Loudon have been able to re

too.

cognize a fancy-gardener in the ingenious diction. The mother who shaped, or the topiarius, although one of the scenes in the wife who stimulated and directed, the imgrounds of the villa of Gallus might have pulse of her son or her husband, was the furnished no unfavorable specimen of land- exception not the specimen of the class. scape-gardening :

There might have been many Gracchi, but

history has scarcely given us a record of “ Not far from hence was the most captivat- one Cornelia. Thus, in any Grecian story, ing spot in the garden, where tall

, shady elms, it would be necessary to place the seminine entwined with luxuriant vines, enclosed a semicircular lawn, the green carpet of which interest in the development of the filial or was penetrated by a thousand shooting violets. brotherly and sisterly affections. If we On the farther side rose a gentle ascent, plant- seek to soften the gloom of Orestes, it ed with the most varied roses, that mingled must be with the smile of Electra. It their balmy odors with the perfume of the would be very difficult, indeed, to make lilies blooming at its foot. Beyond this were love, in its popular sense, the binge of the reared the dark summits of the neighboring fable. The Roman habits of feeling furmountains, while on the side of the hill a pel- nish the novelist with ampler opportunities. lucid stream bubbled down in headlong career, after escaping from the colossal arm of Becker has not used them-indeed he a nymph, who lay gracefully reclined on the could not avail himself of this advantage. verdant moss, dashed over a mass of rocks, The historical outline of Gallus confines and then with a gentle murmur vanished be- his pencil, and the Lycoris of the Roman hind the green amphitheatre."

is only the Aspasia of the Greek. Her ap

pearances on the stage of Romance are not This description is partly copied from an very important, but they are gracefully antique painting, and it might be taken for described; as, for example, in the excura transcript of one of the dark landscapes sion with Gallus :of Poussin. His seventh scene, " A Day in Baiæ,”

“On the shore of the Lucrine lake, whence enables the author to introduce us to one

these expeditions generally started, Gallus of the most delicious watering-places of him. It was the prettiest there, and had

found, among many others, the boat hired for antiquity, and at the same time to em- Aphrodite herself designed it for her own use, bellish his scenery with the beautiful figure she would not have decorated it otherwise. of Lycoris, the friend of Gallus, then sup- The gay painting of the planks, the purple posed to be in the blooming ripeness of sails, the rigging entwined with garlands of womanhood, and whose name, with that of fresh leaves and roses, the merry music soundher lover, still lives in the muse of Ovid. ing from the prow, every thing, in short, inIn one of the early essays of Mr. Sewell, of the skilf a purple awning was erected on

vited to joy and pleasure. In the after part of Exeter College, occurs a striking pas- tall thyrsus-staves, and under it stood a richlysage upon the influence of the female loaded table, offering all the enjoyments of a character on the virtues and happiness of most persect prandium that the forum cupemankind. He discovers in it a principle of dinarium of Baiæ could supply. Lycoris action so versatile, multifarious, and univer- went the short distance to the lake in a lecticn, sal, that, like the eye of a portrait, it turns up two friends whom he had accidentally met.

whilst Gallus repaired thither on foot with on us in every change of position; bearing The lady looked lovely as the goddess of Howers upon and shaping our instincts, our passions, as she alighted. Over her snow-white tunica our vanity, our tastes, and our necessities. were thrown the ample folds of an amethystThe cradle is a second place of birth, and colored palla; round her hair, which was most the child is again born from the infant. skilfully arranged, and fastened with an elegant Education is the gate through which

gold pin in the shape of a winged amor, was nation marches to its renown, and the key entwined a chaplet of roses ; a gorgeous and of the gate is in the hand of the mother. and from it depended a string of pearls also

curiously twisted necklaceadorned her fair neck, It was

so even in Greece among the set in gold, while golden bracelets in the form choicer spirits of the time; and the mother of serpents, in whose eyes glittered fiery who told her son to bring home his shield rubies, encircled her well-rounded arms. Thus or be borne back upon it, was the eloquent led by Gallus, with her right foot first, in comrepresentative of her race. But it cannot pliance with ihe warning cry of the boatien. be pretended that the female character had she entered the festive boat." The light vessel

started merrily into the lake, where the occubeen elevated into this dignity in the cities

pants of a hundred others exchanged greetings of Greece. It did not form an element in as they passed. They rocked for some hours the economy of national or domestic juris- on the tranquil mirror, during which the men

a

indulged with uncommon relish in fresh oysters gustus and the friendship of Virgil. The from the lake, which they, washed down with inscription of the tenth eclogue has bestowe the noble Falernian wine."

ed immortality upon his name. A few

particulars of his life may be gathered This is a sketch of the Roman fashions up from the narratives of Dio Cassius and very prettily colored. Böttiger is the great Suetonius; but the obscurity that envelopes authority on the subject, but Becker has his history cannot be dispersed. His fall collected some interesting fragments. The may be justly attributed to the intempergold pin in the hair of Lycoris was a ance of some of his political remarks, when bodkin or crisping-pin. A very curious the friend of the poet forgot the favorite of necklace, answering in many respects to the emperor. Becker represents the intelthe one described, was dug up at Pompeii; ligence of Augustus's displeasure breaking bracelets in the serpent shape, with ruby suddenly upon Gallus in his voluptuous eyes, have also been found in the same seclusion on the shores of the Mediterrawonderful city of the dead. But we ques- nean. Eagerly and in wrath he returns to tion if the serpent form ever supplied the Rome, and instead of seeking to propitiate jeweller with so ingenious a device as we the incensed Augustus, he resolves to brave remember to have observed in a small him in his own metropolis. For this purtimepiece at Blenheim, in which the sting pose he arrays himself with peculiar care, of a serpent points immovably to the lapse and determines to go abroad into the city. of every minute. Surely no happier moral The dressing-room of a Roman gentleman was ever suggested. With regard to the is a very amusing domestic interior :boat in which Lycoris is represented to have enjoyed her excursion, we shall only lowed by two others bearing the toga, already

66 The slave cime with the tunica and fol. say that the ancients appear to have made folded in the approved fashion, whilst a fourth vast improvements upon our wherry. In placed the purple dress-shoes near the seat. this respect, as in many others, they pos- Eros first girded the under-garment afresh, sessed the true prophetic eye of taste. The then threw over his master the upper tunica, sparkling current of the Thames at Rich- taking particular care that the broad strip of mond is certainly as lovely as the Lucrine purple woven into it might fall exactly across lake; yet who ever thought of sending permit of this garment' being girded. He

the centre of the breast; for custom did not Beauty and Love to glide over it with then, with the assistance of another slave, a purple sail, or embellished the prow with hung one end of the toga, woven of the softest that burnished splendor which gilds the and whitest Milesian wool, over the left drawings of Turner? Perhaps Seneca's shoulder, so as to fall far below the knee and picture of the lake floating with roses cover with its folds, which gradually became realizes very nearly the warm and sunny hand. The right arm remained at liberty, as

more wide, the whole of the arm down to the surfaces of the English painter. We will

the voluminous garment was passed at its just add, as amusingly illustrative of the broadest part under the arm, and then brought extravagance of the Roman ladies in dress, forward in front; the umbo, already arranged that Pliny notices the request of Regulus in an ingenious fashion, being laid obliquely to one Aurelia, to leave him a legacy of across the breast, so that the well-rounded the clothes in which she had dressed herself sinus almost reached the knee, and the lower to execute her will. There is a calculation

half ended at the middle of the shin-bone, of Arbuthnot, that a single gown of one thrown over the left shoulder, and hung down

whilst the remaining portion was once more particular fabric would cost 491. 12s. the over the arm and back of the person in a mass pound avoirdupois. The milliner's bill for of broad and regular folds. 'Eros was occuà Latin Widow Barnaby would have been pied for a long time before he could get each a serious visitation, indeed; and might fold into its approved position, he then reached have made, as Alderman Cute would ex. for his lord the polished hand-mirror, the thick

silver plate of which reflected every image press it, a Consul look after his sols!

Gallus cast but a with perfect clearness.

single glance at it, allowed his feet to be inWe do not follow the tale of Gallus with stalled into the tall shoes, latched with four any more closeness, than may seem to be gold thongs, placed on his fingers the rings required by our design of offering a few he had taken off over night, and ordered vivid and accurate illustrations of the pri- Chresimus to be summoned.”-pp. 117, 118. vate life of the Romans. Born of humble and poor parents, he rose by the elastic It accorded with the inflamed temper of energy of his genius, to the favor of Au-Gallus to seek the busiest thoroughfare.

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66

Accordingly he bent his steps towards the ours, which Becker accounts for by the Forum. An officer, reprimanded by the height of the tray that was placed upon it. An commander-in-chief and leisurely enjoying epigram of Martial informs us that our own the sun before the Horse Guards, will illus- custom of having the dishes handed round trate the audacity of Gallus. Here were by a servant prevailed at Rome. some of the most fashionable shops of This, however, is a digression. ReturnRome, and here might be seen, in the ing to Gallus in his shopping excursion, we swarming visitors, types of life in all ages, find him in the establishment of a jeweller, from the virtuoso, who pretended to admire where cups of precious stones, Babylosome curious work of art,

nian carpets, splendid bracelets, or silken

dresses, tempted and bewildered the opulent

" Stationed there With glass al eye and catalogue in hand,

purchaser. Becker has ascertained that And tongue accomplished in the fulsome cant the raw silk was manufactured at Rome, And pedantry that coxcombs learn with ease,” and that the most celebrated weavers lived

in the Vicus Tuscus. down 10 “miss the mercer's plague,” smil- The ninth scene introduces us to a splening and chattering over the littered coun- did banquet in the house of Lentulus. We ter,

look upon the account of this entertain“ And promising with smiles to call again."

ment as the most elaborate and vivid pic

ture which the pen of Becker has given to All these features of Roman life, and us of Greek or Roman lise. It breathes many others of similar expression, may be all the warmth and animation of personal found in the satire of Martial. Here is observation. We are first led to observe the interior of an upholsterer's shop :- the preliminary arrangements. In a sa

loon, looking to the north, superb sofas are “Expensive cedar tables, carefully covered and supported by strong pillars veneered with placed round a cedar table; the lower ivory; dinner-couches of bronze, richly adorn- parts of these sofas were decorated with ed with silver and gold and inlaid with cosily white hangings embroidered with gold, tortoise-shell; besides trapezophorce of the while the pillows, yielding deliciously to most beautiful inarble, with exquisitely worked the slightest pressure, were covered with griffins, seats of cedar-wood and ivory, cande- purple. Silken cushions separated the labra and lamps of the most various forms, guests, who were limited to six, one of the vases of all sorts, costly mirrors, and a hundred numbers which “Original Walker" justly other objects, sufficient 10 furnish more than deemed to be most agreeable. We are one house in magnificent style. Some one who hardly meant to be a purchaser was just naturally struck with the vivid and elegant getting the covers removed from some of the reminiscence of some supper with Auguscedar tables by the attendant; but he found tus or Mecænas, which Virgil displays in they were not spotted to his taste. A heracli- his description of Dido's entertainment to non of tortoise-shell seemed, however, to at: the Trojan heroes,tract him amazingly; but, after measuring it three or four times, he said, “That it was, “Stratoque super discumluitur auro." alas! a few inches too small for the cedar-table for which he had intended it.'"

and in the splendid goblet-gravem gemmis

auroque-in which she pledges her distin. The marble trapezophoræ are understood guished visitors, we recognize one of the to have been a sort of table-frame; the her- costly ornaments of a Roman sideboard in aclinon was connected with the dining-table. the magnificent days of the empire. The It is rather curious to find the early Roman decoration of the dining-room marks the custom of sitting at meals gradually becom- polished taste of the host. Satyrs celebrating refined into the oriental posture. The ing the vintage, in all the Rush and abanoriginal name of the dinner-couch was donment of the season; a scene from Lutriclinium, which accommodated nine per cania; and boughs, that almost seemed sons. Becker notices that the introduction to shake under the weight of the thrushes of round tables led to an alteration in the that perched upon them, were scatiered mode of seating the guests. Semicircular about the apartment. It will be rememsofas, called from their shape sigma, being bered that in the selection of this bird, the substituted for the triclinia. The round artist was flattering the taste of Roman tables were small, and the sofas were festivity; the thrush being as popular a readapted to hold less than nine persons. move in the first century, as the blackcock The Roman table was much lower than in the nineteenth, The guests, having

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