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flourished. Up to this time, vast numbers power to give. He sent him to the then faof the Presbyterians, strongly attached to mous Academy at Newington Green, kept Monarchy, desired but a reasonable settle- by Mr. Charles Morton, an excellent Oxment of Episcopacy; and would have given ford scholar, and a man of various and large in their adherence to any moderate system. ability; whom Harvard College in New The hope of such a compromise was now England afterwards chose for vice-president, rudely closed.

In 1663 the Conventicle when driven by ecclesiastical persecution Act was passed, punishing with transporta- to find a home beyond the Atlantic. Here tion a third offence of attendance on any the lad was put through a course of theoloworship but that of the Church; and while gy; and was set to study the rudiments of the plague was raging, two years after, the political science. These things Mr. MorOxford Act banished five miles from any ton reckoned to be a part of education. He corporate town all who should refuse a cer- also acquired a competent knowledge of tain oath, which no Nonconformist could mathematics and natural philosophy; of honestly take. Secret, stealthy worship logic, geography, and history; and when was the resource left; and other things he left the school, was reasonably accomthrove in secret with it, which would less plished in Latin and Greek, and in French have prospered openly. Substantial citi- and Italian. He had made himself known, zens, wealthy tradesmen, even gossipping too, as a 'boxing English boy,' who never Secretaries to the Admiralty, began to find struck his enemy when he was down. All other employment than the criticism of La- this he recounted with no immodest or undy Castlemaine’s lace, or admiration of Mis- manly pride when assailed in after life for tress Nell Gwynne's linen. It appeared to his mean Dissenter's education; and he adbe dawning on them at last, that they were ded that there was a fifth language, beside really living in the midst of infamy and those recounted, in which it had been Mr. baseness; that buffoons and courtesans were Morton's endeavor to practise and improve their rulers; that defeat and disgrace were his scholars. He read all his lectures ; their portion ; that a Dutch fleet was riding gave all his systems, whether of philosophy in their channel, and a perjured and pension- or divinity; and had all his declaiminys ed Popish despot sitting on their Throne. and dissertations; in English. We were

The indulgence granted to Dissenters in not critics in the Greek and Hebrew, perthe year of the Dutch war, (the previous fect in languages, and perfectly ignorant, year had been one of fierce persecution,) if that term may be allowed, of our mother opened, among other meeting-houses, that tongue. We were not destitute of lanof Little St. Helen's, Bishopsgate; where guages, but we were made masters of Engthe Rev. Dr. Annesley, ejected from his lish; and more of us excelled in that living of Cripplegate by the Act of Uniform- ticular, than of any school at that time. ity, administered his godly lessons. Under So passed the youth of Daniel Foe, in him there sate, in that congregation of ear- what may be well accounted a vigorous and nest listeners, the family of a wealthy butch- healthy English training. With sharp and er of St. Giles, Cripplegate; and the worthy strong faculties, with early and active zeal, minister would stop approvingly, as he pass- he looked out from his honest father's ed the seats of Mr. Foe, to speak to that home and his liberal teacher's study, upon bright-eyed lad of eleven, by name Daniel, a course of public events well fitted to enwhose activity and zeal in the good cause force, by dint of bitter contrast, the value were already such, that, in sear their Popish of high courage, of stern integrity, and of governors might steal away their printed unbending faithfulness. He would be told, Bibles, he had worked like a horse till he by all whom he esteemed, of the age of had written out the whole Pentateuch. For great deeds and thoughts which had lately the gleam of liberty to Dissenters had been passed away; and thus early would learn but.a veil for the like indulgence to Papists; the difference, on which he dwelt in one of and it was known at this very time, that the his first writings, between the grand old high-minded Richard Baxter had refused a blind schoolmaster of Bunhill-fields, just bribe of £50 a year, to give in his public buried in his father's parish of Cripplegate, approval of these unquestionable favors of and the ribald crowd of profligate poets the crown.

lounging and sauntering in St. James's. Mr. James Foe seems to have been proud There is no better school for the love of of his son Daniel. He gave him the best virtue, than that of hatred and contempt for education which a Dissenter had it in his vice. He would hear discussed, with fer


vid and honest indignation, the recall of the of Tories. Young Foe remembered this in indulgence in 1674, after the measures after life ; and described the blustering hefor relief of Dissent had been defeated; ro of these scenes, with a squat figure, a. the persecution of Baxter and Manton in vulgar drawling voice, and (right in the centhe following year; the subsequent gross tre of his broad Alat face) a mouth of fit cainterference of the Bishops against a final pacity for the huge lies it uttered, calling effort for accommodation ; and the fierce every man a Tory that opposed him in discruelty of the penal laws against Noncon- course. For be it noted to the credit of formists, between 1676 and 1678. Then, the youth's sagacity, he did not even now, in the latter memorable year, he would find to adopt his own expression, come up to himself involved in that sudden and fierce all the extravagances of some people in reaction of the Anti-papist feeling of the their notions of the Popish plot. He betime, which, while Protestants and Presby- lieved, indeed, that wherever sincere Popeterians were groaning under a Popish ry was, a conspiracy to act in conformity prince, sent numberless innocent Roman with it would not be far off. 'I never Catholic gentlemen to Protestant and Pres- blame men who, professing principles debyterian scaffolds.

structive of the constitution they live under, When the rage of the so-called Popish and believing it their just right to supplant Plot burst forth, Mr. Morton's favorite pu- it, act in conformity to the principles they pil was in his seventeenth year. We need profess. I believe, if I were a Papist, I not say how freely we condemn that miser. should do the same. But when we ran up able madness; or in what scorn we hold that plot to general massacres, fleets of pilthe false-hearted spies and truculent mur- grims, bits and bridles, knives, handcuffs, derers, whose worthless evidence sacrificed and a thousand such things, I confess, so many noble and gentle lives. But we as though a boy, I could not then, nor can little doubt that, to honest Presbyterians now come up to thein. And my reasons then existing, the thing was not that cruel were, as they still are, because I see no folly it now seems to us; and we can un- cause to believe the Papists to be fools, derstand their welcoming at last, in even whatever else we had occasion to think that wild frenzy, a popular denunciation of them.' the faith which they knew to be incompati- So saved from the general folly of the ble with both civil and religious liberty, yet Presbyterian party, and intolerant only beknew to be the faith of him who held and cause a larger toleration was at stake, this of him who was to succeed to the throne. manly and sagacious lad needed neither Out of the villany of the Court sprang this knise nor handcuff to save himself from a counter-villany of Titus Oates; and the Papist. He walked through the thick of meetings in which that miscreant har- the riots with reliance on a stout oaken angued the London citizens, were the first cudgel, which he called his · Protestant effectual demonstration against the govern- fail;' and laughed at the monstrous lies ment of Charles II. We will not wonder, that fed the vulgar cravings, and kept tavthen, that there was often to be seen among erns agape with terror.

See him enter one, his crowds of excited listeners, bui less ex- and watch the eager group. A fellow bawls cited than they, a middle-sized, spare, ac- forth the last invention against the Papishtive, keen-eyed youth,—the son of Mr. Foees.' It concerns the new building honest of Cripplegate.

men took such pride in, and Papists, for a At these meetings were first heard ban- reason, hated so. It is about the 'tall bully' died from side to side, the two not least of a Monument; and every body pricks up memorable words in English history. Then his ears. What has happened? Why, broke forth, when the horrible cruelties of last night, six Frenchmen came up and Lauderdale were the theme, groans of sym- stole away the monument; and but for the pathy for those tortured Cameronians who watch who stopped them as they were golived on the refuse, the 'weak' of the milk, ing over the bridge, and made them carry and so had got the Scotch name of Whigs; it back again, they might, for aught we then, when justification was sought for like know, have carried it over into France.' cruelties and tortures against the opposite These Papishes will never have done.' Is faith, shouts of execration were hurled the tale incredible ? Not half so much, as against the Papists who would murder Ti-that some of those assembled should stare tus Oates, and who, for their thieving and and doubt it. But now steps forward ‘Mr. villanous tendencies, had got the Irish name Daniel Foe.' He repeats the story; and tells the unbelievers to satisfy their doubts ( shrewd, clear intellect. The young Cornby going to the spot, 'where they'd see the hill merchant told his countrymen afterworkmen employed in making all fast again.' wards, how it had gone with him then ; The simpletons 'swallowed the joke, and de- how tyranny had taught him the value of parted quite satisfied. The touch of re- liberty, Popery the danger of passive pulpits, ality sent it down. A genius for homely and oppression how to prize the sence of fiction had strolled into the tavern, and laws; with what interest he had observed found its first victims. They deserved a the sudden visit of the King's nephew, Wilripe old age, and the reading of Robinson (liam of Orange, already the hero of the Crusoe.

Protestant liberties of Europe, and lately But the strolling into taverns? It is lit- wedded to the presumptive heiress of the tle likely that Mr. Morton or the elder Mr. throne; of what light esteem he held the Foe would have sanctioned it; but the monarch's disregard of that kinsman's pruPresbyterian ministry was no longer, as it dent counsel; and with what generous anonce had been, the youth's destination. ger, yet unshrinking spirit, he saw the men He seems to have desired a more active who could not answer Algernon Sydney's sphere; and was put to the business of com- Book, erect a scaffold to take off his head. merce. His precise employment has been It was his first brave impulse to authorquestioned; but when his libellers in later ship of his own. In the year made infalife called him a hosier, he said he had nev- mous by the judicial murders of Russell and er been apprentice to that craft, though he Sydney, he published his first political eshad been a trader in it; and it is tolerably say. It was a prose lampoon on High certain that, in seven years from the pres- Church absurdities; and, with much that ent date, he had a large agency in Free- would not bear present revival, bore the man's Court, Cornhill, as a kind of middle- stamp of a robust new mind, fresh from the man between the manufacturer and the re- reading of Rabelais. It stirred the veteran tail trader. He was a freeman of London, libeller L'Estrange, and pamphlet followed by his birth; on embarking in this busi- pamphlet. It needs not to touch the conness of hose-factor, he entered the livery; troversy now.

It is dead and gone.

Oxand he wrote his name in the Chamberlain's ford herself repudiates, with shame, the debook, ‘Daniel Foe.'

cree she passed in full Convocation on the Seven eventful years. Trade could not day of Russell's execution; promulgating, so absorb him, but that he watched them on pain of infamy here and damnation herewith eager interest. Nor without hope. after, the doctrines of divine right and pasHope would brighten in that sensible, man- sive obedience: and anathematizing twenly heart, when it most deserted weaker ty-seven propositions from Milton, Baxter, men's. When the King, alarmed, Aung off and Godwin, Bellarmine, Buchanan, and his lounging sloth for crueller enjoyments; Hobbes, as seditious, scandalous, impious, when lampoons and ballads of the streets blasphemous, heretical, and damnable. became fiercer than even Portsmouth's im- Having fleshed his maiden pen, the young pudence; when such serious work was merchant soon resumed it, in a cause again afoot, that a satire by Dryden counted more involving religious liberty; with a spirit in at court than an indecency by Rochester; advance of his party; and with force, dewhen bills to exclude a Popish succession cision and success. The reign of Charles were lost in the Upper House but by a pha- was now setting, in a sullen, dire perseculanx of Protestant Bishops, and the Lower tion. Chapels were shut; ministers dying House, that had passed them, rudely dis- in jail; congregations scattered. A man solved by a furious Monarch and intempe- who would not take the sacrament was rately assailed by his servile churchmen, whipped or pilloried; a man who would not was calmly defended by a Sydney and a take it kneeling, was plundered or imprisSomers; when the legitimate field of hon- oned. "See there! cried the sharp strong est warfare closed, dark conspiracies and sense of Daniel Foe, (business had taken treasons took its place, and the boasts of him to Windsor, and he had sauntered into the reckless Shaftesbury passed from mouth St. George's chapel with a friend)— See to mouth, that he'd walk the King leisure that altar-piece! Our Saviour administers ly out of his dominions, and make the Duke his last supper to his disciples sitting round of York a vagabond on the earth like Cain : the table; and, because we would copy that -no fear was likely to epress, and no posture, the government oppresses us.'

Albragging was needed to keep in hope, a most as he spoke, the end was approaching. Evelyn had seen the King the past Sunday chance of a declaration in favor of divine evening, sitting and toying with his concu- right and non-resistance; and while Jefbines, Portsmouth, Cleveland, and Maza-freys' bloody campaign, through the scenes rine. A French boy sang love-songs in a of the late rebellion, was consigning his glorious gallery; and, round a table groan- master and himself to eternal infamy; the ing with a bank of two thousand golden young rebel-citizen had effected a passage pieces, a crew of profligate courtiers drank over seas. At about this time, he certainly and gambled. “Six days after all was in was absent from England; as certainly had the dust;' and caps in the air for James the embarked some capital in the Spanish and Second.

Portuguese trade; and no one has quesOf the new monarch's greetings, the tioned his narrow escape from the clutch most grovelling were the churchmen's and of Jeffreys. The mere escape had been the lawyers'. The Bishop of Chester enough for other nien. His practical, unpreached the divinity and infallibility of wearying versatile energy, made it the Kings; the Temple benchers and barristers means of new adventure; the source of a went to court with the assurance that high larger experience; the incentive to a more prerogative, ‘in its fullest extent,' was the active life. He had seen Spain, Germany, subject's best security for liberty and prop- and France, before he again saw Freeman's erty; and in every pulpit thanksgivings re- Court, Cornhill; and when he returned, it sounded. In the first months of the reign, was with the name he has made immortal. our hose-factor of Freeman's Yard heard it He was now Daniel De Foe. publicly preached from one of these pulpits, Whether the change was a piece of inthat if the King commanded the subject's nocent vanity picked up in his travels, or head, and sent his messengers to fetch it, had any more serious motive, it would be the subject was bound to submit, and as far idle to inquire. By both names he was as possible, facilitate his own decapitation. known to the last ; but his books in almost Close upon this came the sudden tidings of every instance, bore that by which he is Monmouth's ill-fated landing; and of a known to posterity. He found a strange small band of daring citizens who took scene in progress on his return. The horse and joined him, Daniel Foe was one. power of the King to dispense with the Perhaps he thought his head nearer danger laws had been affirmed by eleven out of the than it was, and worth a stroke for safety. twelve judges; and he saw this monstrous He knew at any rate, but the better sides power employed to stay the as monstrous of Monmouth's character. He admired his persecution of Nonconformists and Dissentpopular manners. None so beautiful, so A license purchased for fifty shillings brave as Absalom. He had seen him among had opened the prison doors of Richard the people in their sports; at races and at Baxter ; but the sturdy lovers of freedom games; and thought his bearing sensible who purchased that license, acknowledged, and manly. What matter if Lucy Waters in the act of doing it, that they placed the was his mother? He knew him a sincere King above the laws. It was a state of Protestant, and a lover of civil freedom. things in which men of the clearest sight He remembered the more kindly his dis- had lost their way, and the steadiest were grace in the reign just passed, for having daily stumbling. William Penn had gone vainly striven to moderate Episcopal cruel- up to court with a deputation of thanks; ties in Scotland, when he saw the first Scot- he was seconded by not a few Presbyteritish act of the reign just begun, in a law to ans; he had the support of all those classes of inflict death on conventicle preachers. In Dissent whose idea of religion rejected ala word, our incipient rebel made no nice together the alliance of civil government; balance of danger and success. He saw and though the main Presbyterian body what seemed to him liberty on the one side, stood aloof, it was in an attitude of deference and slavery on the other; and resolved, and fear, without dignity, without self-reliwith whatever fortune, to strike a blow for ance. For a while De Foe looked on in the good cause. He mounted horse and silence; and then resolvedly took his joined the invaders; was with them in Bris- course. tol and at Bath; and very narrowly es- Of James the Second's sincerity there is caped the crash that followed.

no doubt; and as little of his bigotry and There is little doubt that while Bishops meanness. He had the obstinate weakness Turner and Ken were prolonging Mon- of his father. There goes an honest genmouth's agonies on the scaffold, for the tleman,' said the Archbishop of Rheims,


some year or two later, 'who lost three did not fail to tell him of his youth and inkingdoms for a mass.' His unwearied, sole experience; but for all that fell out, he had endeavor, from the hour in which he as- prepared himself abundantly. 'He that cended the throne to that in which he was will serve men, must not promise himself hurled from it, was to establish the Roman that he shall not anger them. I have been Catholic religion in England. When the exercised in this usage even from a youth. church that had declared resistance un- I had their reproaches when I blamed their christian, and proffered him unconditional credulity and confidence in the flatteries obedience, refused him a single benefice, and caresses of Popery; and when I profat or lean, and kept his hungering Popish tested against addresses of thanks for an doctors outside the butteries of her Oxford illegal liberty of conscience founded on a Colleges; the Dissenters became his hope. dispensing power.' He was thus early iniIf he could array Dissent against the Church, tiated in the transcendent art of thinking there was an entrance yet for Rome. It and standing alone. was his passion. He had none other. It Whoso can do this manfully, will find stood him in the stead of every other faith. himself least disposed to be alone, when When the game went wholly against him, any great good thing is in progress. De he had no better courage. He thought but Foe would have worked with the meanest of 'raising the host,' and winning it that of the men who opposed him, in the busiway.

ness of the nation's deliverance. He knew De Foe understood both game and gam- that Dyckvelt was now in England, in combler. We could name no man of the time munication with the leaders of both parwho understood them so clearly as this ties in the state. He had always honored young trader of Cornbill. He saw the false the steady-purposed Dutchman's master as position of all parties; the blundering clash the head of the league of the great Europeof interests, the wily complications of poli- an confederacy, which wanted only Engcy. He spoke with contempt of a Church land to complete its noble purposes. He that, with its 'fawning, whining, canting believed it to be the duty of that prince, sermons,' had played the Judas to its Sove connected both by birth and marriage with reign. He condemned the address-mak- the English throne, to watch the course of ing Dissenters, who, in their zeal for reli- public affairs in a country, which by even gious liberty, had forgotten civil freedom. the natural course of succession, he might He exposed the conduct of the King, as, in be called to govern. But he despised the plain words, a fraudulent project 'to create Tory attempt to mix up a claim of legitia feud between Dissenters and the Estab- macy with the greater design of elective lishment, and so destroy both in the end.' sovereignty; and laughed with the hottest And, with emphatic eloquence, he exhorted of the Jacobites at the miserable warmingthe Presbyterian party, that now, if ever, pan plot. He felt, and was the first to state they should make just and reasonable terms it in print at the time, that the title to the with the Church; that now if ever, should throne was but in another form the more her assumption of superiority, her disdain sacred title of the people to their liberties. of equal intercourse, her denial of Christian So he mounted his 'rebel' horse once more brotherhood, be effectually rebuked; that when he heard of the landing at Torbay. between the devil sick and the devil well, He was with the army of William when there was a monstrous difference; and that, James precipitately fled; he was at the bar failing any present assertion of rights and of the House of Lords when Hampden took guaranties, it would be hopeless to expect up the vote of non-allegiance to a Popish them when she should have risen, once sovereign, and when the memorable resomore strengthened, from her humble diet lution of the 13th of February declared and her recumbent posture.

that no king had reigned in England since The advice and warning were urged in the day of James's fight; he heard Wiltwo masterly publications. The Dissenters liam's first speech to the Houses five days condemned them, and took every occasion later; and 'gallantly mounted and richly to disclaim their author. De Foe had look accoutred,' he was foremost in the citizen ed for no less. In his twenty-sixth year, troop of volunteer horse, who were Wilhe found himself that solitary, resolute, liam and Mary's guard of honor at their independent thinker, which, up to his sev- first visit to Guildhall. entieth year, he remained. What he calls De Foe never ceased to commemorate the 'grave, weak, good men' of the party, I William's bearing in these passages of his

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