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Instead of numerous unconnected petty resistance to oppression. Unity, the prinpotentates, one of whom was called the ciple of all government-association of King, there are two great figures in Eng- equals, the principle of all checks-were lish history—a powerful King, and a pow- only found in the narrow sphere of each erful body of Nobles. To give the needful seigneurie, or each city. Royalty was authority to any act of general government, nominal; the aristocracy did not form a the concurrence of both was essential body; there were burgesses in the towns, and hence Parliaments, elsewhere only but no commons in the state. In England, occasional, were in England habitual. - on the contrary, from the Norman conquest But the natural state of these rival powers downwards, every thing was collective; was one of conflict; and the weaker side, similar powers, analogous situations, were which was usually that of the barons, soon compelled to approach one another, to cofound that it stood in need of assistance. alesce, to associate. From its origin royAlthough the feudatory class, to use M. alty was real, while feudality ultimately Guizot's expression, 'had converted itself grouped itself into two masses, one of into a real aristocratic corporation,'* the which became the high aristocracy, the barons were not strong enough to impose other the body of the conimons.
Who can at the same time on the king their liberty, mistake, in this first travail of the formaand on the people their tyranny. As they lion of the two societies, in these so differ. had been obliged to combine for the sake ent characteristics of their early age, the of their own defence, so they found them- true origin of the prolonged difference in selves under the necessity of calling in the their institutions and in their destinies ? people in aid of their coalition.' +
M. Guizot returns to this subject in a reThe people, in England, were the Saxons markable passage in the first volume of his -a vanquished race, but whose spirit had Lectures, * which presents the different never, like that of the other conquered character of the progress of civilization in populations, been completely broken. Be- England and in Continental Europe, in so ing a German, not a Latin people, they new and peculiar a light, that we cannot retained the traditions, and some portion better conclude this article than by quoting of the habits, of popular institutions and it :personal liberty. When called, therefore, to aid the barons in moderating the power character of European civilization, compared
'When I endeavored to define the peculiar of the Crown, they claimed those ancient with those of Asia and of antiquity, I showed liberties as their part of the compact.—that it was superior in variery, richness, and French history abounds with charters of complication; that it never fell under the doincorporation, which the kings granted, minion of any exclusive principle; that the generally for a pecuniary consideration, to different elements of society coexisted and town communities which had cast off their modified one another, and were always comseigneurs. The charters which English pelled to compromises and mutual toleration. history is full of, are concessions of general an, has been above all that of English civiliza
This, which is ihe general character of Europeliberties to the whole body of the nation- tion. In England, civil and spiritual powers, arliberties which the nobility and the com- istocracy, democracy, and royalty, local and mons either wrung from the king by their central institutions, moral and political developunited strength, or obtained from his vol- ment, have advanced together, if not always untary policy as the purchase-money of with equal rapidity, yet at no great distance their obedience. The series of these trea- after one another. Under the Tudors, for exties, for such they in reality were, between ample, at the time of the most conspicuous adthe Crown and the Nation, beginning with ciple, the power of the people, was also rising
pure monarchy, the democratic printhe first Henry, and ending with the last and gaining strength. Tlie revolution of ti e renewal by Edward I. of the Great Charter seventeenth century breaks out; it is, at once of King John, are the principal incidents a religious and a political one. The feudal arof English history during the feudal period. istocracy appears in it much weakened indeed, And thus, as M. Guizot observes in his and with the signs of décadence, but still in a concluding summary—In France, from condition to take a part, to occupy a position,
and have jis share in the results. li js thus the foundation of the monarchy to the with English history throughou-no old elefourteenth century, every thing was individ- ment ever perishes entirely, nor is any new ual-powers, liberties, oppression, and the one wholly triumphant-no partial principle
Essais, p. 419.
+ Ib. p. 424.
• Vol, i, Art 14.
ever obtains exclusive ascendency. There is But to a nation, as to an individual, the always simultaneous development of the differ- consequences of doing every thing by halves, ent social powers, and a compromise among of adopling compromise as the universal their pretensions and interests.
"The march of Continental civilization has rule, of never following out a general idea been less complex and less complete. The or principle to its utmost results, are by no several elements of society, religious and civi', means exclusively favorable. Hear, again, monarchical, aristocratic, and democratic, grew M. Guizot:up and came to maturity not simultaneously, but successively. Each system, each principle
In the continental states, each syetem or has in some degree had its turn. One aye be- principle having had its turn of a more comlongs, it would be too much to say exclusively, plete and exclusive predominance, they unbut with a very marked predominance to feu
folded themselves on a larger scale, with more dal aristocracy, for example: another to the grandeur and éclat. Royalty and feudal arismonarchical principle; another to the demo- tocracy, for example, made their appearance
on the continental scene of action with more cratic. Compare the middle age in France and in England, the eleventh, twelfth, and
boldness, more expansion, more freedom. All thirteenth centuries of our history with the political experiments, so to speak, have been corresponding centuries north of the Chan
fuller and more complete.' (This is etill more nel. In France, you find at that epoch, feudal- strikingly true of the
present age, and its great ity nearly absolute-lhe Crown and the dempopular revolutions.)". And hence it has hapocratic principle almost null. In England, the pened that political ideas and doctrines, (I feudal aristocracy no doubt predominates, but mean those of an extended character, and not the Crown and the democracy are not without simple good sense applied to the conduct of alstrength and importance. Royalty triumphs fairs) have assumed a loftier character, and in England under Elizabeth, as in France un
unfoided themselves with greater intellectual der Louis XIV., but how many ménagements observation in some sort alone, and having re
vigor. Each system having presented itself to it is compelled to observe! How many remained long on the scene, it has been possible strictions, aristocraticiind democratic, it has to submit to! In England also, each system, each to survey it as a whole; lo ascend to its first prinprinciple, has had its turn of predominance, but ciples, descend to its remotest consequences : never so completely, never so exclusively, as on
in short, fully to complete its theory. Whoev. the Continent. The victorious principle has al- lish nation, will be struck
with two facts-the
er observes attentively the genius of the Engways been constrained to tolerate the presence of its rivals, and 10 concede to each a certain sureness of its common sense and practical share of influence.'
ability; its deficiency of general ideas and
commanding intellect as applied to theoretical The advantageous side of the effect of questions. If we open an English book of histhis more equable development is evident tory, jurisprudence or any similar subject, we
seldom find in it the real foundation, the ultimate enough
reason of things. In all matters, and especially "There can be no doubt that this simultane- in politics, pure doctrine and philosophy-scious unfolding of the different social elements, ence, properly so called-have prospered far has greaily contributed to make England at- more on the Continent than in England; they tain earlier than any of the continental nations have at least soared higher, with greater vigor 20 the establi liment of a yovernment at once and boldness. Nor does it admit of doubt, that orderly and free. It is the very business of the different character of the development of the government to negotiate with all interests and two civilizations has greatly contributed to this all powers, to reconcile them with each other, result.' and make them live and prosper together : now this, from a multitude of causes, was already in a peculiar degree the disposition, and even the actual state of the different elements of English society: a general, and tolerably
From the London Quarterly Review. regular government had therefore less difficul- RELATION OF THE CLERGY TO THE ty in constituting itself . So, again. the essence
PEOPLE. of liberty is the simultaneous inanifestation and Du Prétre, de la Femme, de la Famille. action of all interests, all rights, all social elements and forces. England, therefore, was al
Par I. Michelet, 5me edition. Paris, really nearer to it than most other states. From
1845. the sa ne causes, national good serise, and in- Having already published a review of this telligen'e of public affairs, Tormed itself at an work, treating the general topics, and similar earlier period. Good sense in politics consists to the first part of the present article, we omit in taking account of all facts, appreciating that and give our readers the larger and more then, and giving to each its place: this, in important part, on a very interesting topic.-Ed. England, was a necessity of her social condition, a natural result of the course of her civil
Of all the manifold blessings we owe to ization.'
the Reformation, the greatest was that
which restored the minister of Christ to his fof a hostile and in hospitable world—of position as a citizen and as a man; the ab- much sin, which required profound and solrogation of the celibacy of the clergy; the itary penance-of much remorse, which has return from that monastic Christianity, been soothed and softened. They have which from the fourth century had held out taught industrial habits to rude and warlike a false model of perfection, lo genuine prim- tri bes, and fertilized deserts; they have itive Christianity.
been the asyla of learning and the arts, the Believing, as we implicitly do, the whole schools from which issued the most powermonastic system to have come originally ful intellects throughout the middle ages. not from the shores of the Jordan, but from Of their inestimable services, especially of those of the Ganges-not from the foot of the Benedictines, to letters, what lover Carmel or Lebanon, but of the Himalaya; of letters would not be afraid lest he should believing it to be founded on a false philos- speak with less liberal gratitude than jusophy—ihe malignity of matter, and in con- tice would demand? sequence the sinfulness of every thing cor- So, too, the celibacy of the secular cler. poreal; believing it to be a dastardly deser- gy—imperfectly as it was enforced, and iion of one half of our duty under the pre- perseveringly resisted or eluded, and theretence of exclusive devotion to the other fore constantly producing the evil of practhe utter abnegation of one of the great tice inconsistent with theory, of life at war commandments of the Law, the love of man; with the established laws-nevertheless, in believing it to be directly opposite to the its time, produced much collateral and addoctrine of our Lord, who seems designed- ventitious good. It was not merely that the ly to reject the example of John the Baptist missionary priest, as well as the missionary as applicable to his disciples; believing that monk, was better qualified for the great the one or two passages in the New Testa- work to which he had devoted himself
, by ment which can be thought to tend that being unincumbered with amiable weakway relate merely to the dangerous and af nesses and with sympathies which might flicting times of the primitive Christians; I have distracted the energies of his heart believing that the perfection of Christianity and soul; but there was a more profound is the active performance of duty, the devo- policy than at first appears in the stern tion, the dedication of every faculty of body measures of Gregory VII. to seclude the and of mind with which we were endowed clergy from mankind. Not only was an by God to the identical cause of God and unmarried clergy a more powerful instruhuman happiness; believing it to be incon- ment for the advancement of the Papal sistent with any pure and lofty conception sway, and an aristocracy necessary to mainof the Godhead, and of the true dignity and tain the great spiritual sovereignty, which destination of man; believing it to be low he aimed to set up above the temporal and selfish in its object-superstitious and thrones of Europe ; but in the strong hereddegrading in its practices—at best but a itary tendencies of the feudal times, a mardreamy and indolent concentration of the ried clergy would have become an herediindividual upon himself under the fond sup: tary caste, and finally sunk back, bearing position that he is in communion with God with it the gradually alienated endowmenis -or the degradation of our better faculties of the Church into the mass of each nation. to coarse employınents, which there are and But this view requires far more than a passmust be coarse natures enough to full ;- ing sentence, and inore indeed than all yet, with all this, we hesitate not to do jus- which hereafter we shall be able to bestow tice, and ample justice, to individual monks, upon it. to monasteries, and to inonasticism itself. However it may appear to some of our In their time they have doubtless wrought readers, this whole question of the monasincalculable good-good which could not tic Christianity and the celibacy of the cler. have been wrought without them. The qy is by no means idle and irrelevant at the monk, because he has been a monk -at present hour. Our Ecclesiidolaters are not least, because he has not been encumbered content with the cathedral—they are look. with earthly ties-has been able to rise to ing back with fond and ondisguised regret the utmost height of religious self-sacrifice, to the monastery ; they disdain the discomof Christian heroism in the cause of God, fired surplice, and yearn after the cowl and and of man. The monastery, at least in the scapulary. When we have men not the West, has been the holy refuge of much merely of recluse and studious temperahuman wretchedness, driven from the facement, with the disposition and habits of the
founder of a religious order, revelling in the razor came not, he is the Prince of Peace, subtleties of the intellect like an old schools and steel is the sign and implement of war, man, with a conscious and well-tried power
therefore are his locks unshorn; and they are of captivating young minds by the boldness filled with the drops of the night, the meaning and ingenuity of religious pardox; but of the Holy Spirit, which refreshes the parched
of which we have already seen, even the dew those too who have known the sanctifying and weary soul, watering the dry and sun-bakblessiogs and the sanctifying sorrows of do- ed soil, triat it may bear fruits of holiness.mestic life, not as yet indeed condemning But we must not haste 100 fast: his locks are, the marriage of the clergy, but holding up as of a holy Nazarite, unshorn, the razor hath inonastic celibacy as a rare gist, an especial not touched his head: yet how unlike the ringprivilege of God's designated saints, assum- ed with crisping pins, curled and plaited with
lets of the wanton daughters of fashion, dressing the lofty indignation of insulted spirit- a hireling's art, divided hither and thither with uality against those who utterly deny the minutest care, redolent with luxurious perfirst principles of this doctrine-it may be tumes and scented oils; these are not ornatime to show. even hastily and imperfectly ments but criminal devices; not the modest the grounds on wbich the English Church head-gear of the virtuous maiden, but impure has deliberately repudiated the whole sys
allurements to unchaste thoughts and enrice
ments of a soul, if not a body, the victim of Among other startling publications of the England, who walk with outstretched necks
prostitution. These haughty daughters of day, Mr. Albany Christie (still we believe a and wanton eyes, walking aud mincing as they professing Anglican) has lately given us a go, despise the degraded and wretched woman tract on Holy Virginity, adapted from St. whom deceit has lured, or agonizing poverty Ambrose, for modern use-a mystic shap- has driven from the paths of virtue; think you sody in the worst style of that most une that their virtue would be proof, if the fear of qual of the ancient fathers, strangely, and public infamy were withdrawn against the we must take the freedom to say, comical- the thought of sin is no stranger to their
deed of sin, when now so many acts imply that ly mingled up by the translator with allu- minds ??—p. 31. sions to modern manners. The boldness with which the authority of Scripture is So, according to this new treatise on the dealt with in this little work is by no means Unloveliness of Lovelocks,' (pardon this the least curious point about it, consider- approximation of Old Pryone and St. Aming that it is unscrupulously, no doubt from brose,) all young ladies who curl their hair, reverence, as proceeding from a holy father or have their hair curled by a hireling, of the church, reproduced at this time.- are in heart no better than the outcasts of • Consider,' we read, that they were vir- the Strand ! gins who, in preference to the Apostles,
"Shun, then, Christian virgins, the public first saw the resurrection of the Lord.'*.
walks, shun the places of public concourse; Now we read in St. Luke that it was Mary shun the hot ball-room; the worldly bazaar Magdaleve and Joanna, and Mary the mo- (the inore worldly because hypocritical); the ther of James, and other women that were l'ashion sble watering-places; ay, and the with them, which told these things unto the Church of God, which should be ihe house of Apostles (xxiv. 10). As all biblical critics prayer, but which is made the scene of man's know, there is some difficulty in harmoni- display and man's idolatry, where Christ's litzing the accounts of the Evangelists as to the leones, the poor and wretched, cannot (for coming of the women to the sepulchre ; but delicacy and pride exclude them) come to wor
ship.'-p. 18. without entering into the question about Mary Magdalene, besides the maternity of This, if we could be amused by such the other Mary, we read of Joanna that she things, would be an amusing confusion of was the wife of Chuza, Herod's steward: nodern antique notions and antipathies.-and Salome (who is named in St. Mark, St. Ambrose may possibly have had a conxv. 40) was probably the mother of Zebe- vent chapel to send his recluses to; but are dee's children! But the Song of Solomon the young ladies of the new school not to furnishes the great persuasives to Holy Vir- go to Church at all-because, to the horror ginity,
of Mr. Christie, they may find it necessary
to sit in peros ? My locks' saith he, are filled wilh the
It is singular that these monastic notions, drops of night' (Cant. v. 2). Upon his head even partially and timidly admitted, seem
* Tract on Holy Virginity, derived from St to produce an indelicacy and even grossAmbrose, p. 7.
ness of thought and sentiment, which in the
most innocent gaiety of manners, and in religious meditation. The true saleguard the most harmless amusements, can see no- of youthful manners is the sensitive delicathing but the deepest and most shameless cy which restricts from tampering with such corruption. Omnia munda mundis may be subjects; the strong will which dismisses a doubtful adage, but omnia immunda in- them at once, and concentres itself on other mund.s is irrefragable. The whole series subjects, on the business of life, on intelof ‘Lives of the Saints,' in language severe lectual pursuits, or even on sports or exerly pure, perpetually shows a coarseness of cises : but here by this one conflict being thought, we are persuaded more dangerous represented as the great business of life, as ly immoral than works of a far lighter and the main object of spiritual ambition, no far less rigid tone.* We mean not only escape is left open; it does not naturally those perilous adventures in which almost recur, but is hourly and momentarily recall. all their knight-errants of monkish valor ed; the virtue we have no doubt is often are tried—and from which they take refuge rendered absolutely unattainable by the inby plunging head over ears into cold water; cessant care for its attainment. and all the other strange conflicts with dæ- This--almost beyond their perilous tammons, who seem to have a peculiar spite pering with truth, and endangering of all against this especial virtue. We dread faith, by demanding belief in the most puethe general effect of these writings on the rile miracles, as though they were Holy minds of young men, aye, and young wo- Writ, or at least insinuating that there is men too; for we have no doubt that the no gradation in the sin of unbelief-and beauty and simplicity with which a few at we must add a most melancholy hardness least of these very unequal biographies are and intolerance-will confine the influence composed—the singular skill with which of these new hagiologists to a few, and every thing which is, is depreciated, and those the younger readers, who will hereafevery thing which has been is painted in the ter become wiser. most captivating light-the consummate ar- There is a passage in the Life of St. tifice with which the love of novelty is dis-Gilbert,' which, profane and uninitiated as guised under a passion for ancient and nego we are, we read with a shudder. The aulected truth-will obtain some female read- thor is speaking of certain dreams which
We dread it because throughout these determine the saint absolutely to forbid writings the minds of the pure of both sex- himself the sight of a woman. After an ales, and especially of that which is purest lusion, to our feelings most irreverent, to by nature and by education, by innate mod- the Virgin Mary, he goes still further ;esty and tender maternal watchfulness, are with, as usual, either a real or a studied igforced to dwell on thouglits which recur norance of the meaning of the Bible. “He frequently enough, without being thus fos- who was infinitely more sinless by grace, tered by being moulded up inseparably with even by nature impeccable, because he was
the Lord from heaven, he has allowed it 10 * We suppose most of our readers are aware that the Lives of the English Sainis,' publishing be recorded that his disciples wondered that in small monthly numbers, were started with a he talked with a woman. That his discipreface by Mr Newman-and are generally con- ples did not wonder at his talking with a sidered as having been designed to supply the woman, but at his talking with a woman of place of the suspended • Tracts for the Times.' We have before us a dozen of these numbers
Samaria, what simple reader of the gospel + See some small but clever tracts, called • Mod- will fail to perceive? (John iv. 27; comern Hagiology,' in the first of which, p. 10, et seq. I pare verse 9) How many other passages are some significant extracts (such as we hardly in our Lord's life utterly refute this false dare venture), and some sensible observations on the language of these stern asserters of the monastic view of his character! Who are strictness of what they call Catholic morals. As said to have' ministered to him?' this writer says— A suint according to
We must add one or two extracts,-but teaching is plainly a person of no ordinary degree they shall be passages of the more harmless of natural viciousness, and of unusual and almost preternatural violence of animal passions. His sanctity consists mainly in the curious and far- "Holy virginity is no less a portion of Chrisfetched ingenuity of the torments by which he tianity than holy penitence; and the denial of contrives to keep himself within the bounds of de- the virtue of the one most certainly impairs cency. The example is that of St Cuthbert, a the full belief in the other.'-Life of St.' Gilbishop, who, when he went to hold holy conver- bert, p. 49. sation with the abbess St. Ebba, took the preraution to cool himself every night "by standing up
The reader may not be prepared for the to his neck in the water, or in the chilly air !" proof of this axiom-'for the communion