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LESSON III.

He might have been guilty, but no suflicient proof could be found.

If you diligently cultivate your mind in youth, you will be happy when you grow old.

A wicked messenger falleth into mischief; but a faithful ambassador is health.

The liberal soul shall be made fat; and he that watereth shall be watered also himself.

The fear of the Lord is the instruction of wisdom ; and before honor is humility.

If we do not carefully exercise our faculties, they will soon become impaired.

It may have escaped his notice; but such was the fact Science may raise thee to eminence; but religion alone can guide thce to felicity.

Soft is the strain when zephyr gently blows,
And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flows.
The shepherd of the Alps am I,

The castles faz beneath me lie;
Here first the ruddy sunlight gleams,
Here linger last the parting beains.

The mountain boy am I.

CHAPTER VIII.-OF ADVERBS.

An Adverb is a word added to a verb, a participle, an adjective, or an other adverb; ani generally expresses time, place, degree, or manner: as, They are now here, studying very diligently.

Obs. 1.-Adverbs briefly express what would otherwise require several words; as, Now, for at this time-Here, for in this placeVery, tor in a high degree-Diligently, for in an industrious manner.

Obs. 2.-There are several customary combinations of short words which are used adverbially, and which some grammariaus do not analyze in parsing; as, Not all, at length, in vuin But all words that convey distinct ideas, should be taken separately.

CLASSES. Adverbs may be reduced to four general classes :. namely, adverbs of time, of place, of degree, and of manner.

1. Adverbs of time are those which answer to the question, When? How long? How soon? or How often? including these which ask.

089.-Adverbs of time may be subdivided as follows:1. Of time present; as, Now, yet, to-day, presently, instantly, immediately. 2. Of time past; as, Already, yesterday, lately, recently, anciently, hereto fore, hitherto, since, ago, erewhile.

3. Of time to come; as, To-morrow, hereafter, henceforth, by-and-by, soon, orelong.

4. Of time relative; as, When, then, before, after, while, or whilst, till, until, seasonably, betimes, early, late.

5. Of time absolute; as, Always, ever, never, aye, eternally, perpetually, continually.

6. Of time repeated; as, Ofien, oft, again, occasionally, frequently, sometimes, seldom, rarely, now-and-then, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, once

, twice, thrice, or three times, &c. 7. Of the order of time; as, First, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, &c.

II. Adverbs of place are those which answer to the question, Where? Whither? Whence ? or Whereabout? including these which ask.

OBS.-Adverbs of place may be subdivided as follows:

1. Of place in which; as, Where, here, there, yonder, above, beloro, about, around, somewhere, anywhere, elsewhere, everywhere, nowhere, wherever, within, without, whereabout, hereabout, thereabout.

2. Of place to which; as, Whither, hither, thither, in, up, down, back, forth, inwards, upwards, downwards, backwards, forwards.

3. Of place from which; as, Whence, hence, thence, away, out.
4. Of the order of place; as, First, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, &c.

III. Adverbs of degree are those which answer to the question, How much? How little? or, to the idea of more

or less.

OBS.—Adverbs of degree may be subdivided as follows:

1. Of excess or abundance; as, Much, too, very, greatly, far, besides ; chiefly, principally,, mainly, generally ; entirely, full, fully, completely, perfectly, wholly, totally, altogether, all, quite, clear, stark ; exceedingly, eccessively, extravagantly, intolerably; immeasurably, inconceivably, infinitely.

2. Of equality or sufficiency; as, Enough, sufficiently, equally, 80, as, even.

3. Of deficiency or abatement; as, Little, scarcely, hardly, merely, barely, only, but, partly, partially, nearly, almost.

4. Of quantity in the abstract; as, How, (meaning, in what degree,) horoever, howsoever, everso, something, nothing, anything, and other nouns of quantity used adverbially.

IV. Adverbs of manner are those which answer to the question, How? or, by affirming, denying, or doubting, show how a subject is regarded.

OBS.—Adverbs of manner may be subdivided as follows:

1. Of manner from quality; as, Well, ill, wisely, foolishly, justly, quickly, and many others formed by adding ly to adjectives of quality.

2. Of affirmation or assent; as, Yes, yea, ay, verily, truly, indeed, surely certainly, doubtless, undoubtedly, certes, forsooth, amen.

8. Of negation; as, No, nay, not, nowise. 4. Of doubt; as, Perhaps, haply, possibly, perchance, peradventure, maybe

5. Of mode or way; as, Thus, 80, how, somehow, however, howsoever, like, olsen etherwise, across, together, apart, asunder, namely, particularly, necessarily 6. Of cause; as, Why, wherefore, therefore.

CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS. Adverbs sometimes perform the office of conjunctions, and serve to connect sentences, as well as to express some circumstance of time, place, degree, or manner: adverbs that are so used, are called conjunctive adverbs.

OBs. 1.-Conjunctive adverbs often relate equally to two verbs in different clauses, on which account it is the more necessary to distinguish them from others; as, “They feared when they heard that they were Romans."--Acts, xvi, 38.

OBS. 2.- The following words are the most frequently used as conjunctive adverbs : after, again, also, as, before, besides, else, even, hence, however, moreover, nevertheless, otherwise, since, 80, then, thence, therefore, till, until, when, where, wherefore, while or whilst.

OBs. 3.-Adverbs of time, place, and manner, are generally connected with verbs or participles; those of degree are more frequently prefixed to adjectives or adverbs.

Obs. 4.—The adverbs here, there, and where, when prefixed to prepositions, have the force of pronouns: as, Hereby, for by this, thereby, for by that; whereby, for by which. Compounds of this kind are, however, commonly reckoned adverbs. They are now somewhat antiquated.

OBg. 5.-The adverbs how, when, whence, where, whither, why, and where fore, are frequently used as interrogatives; but, as such, they severally belong to the classes under which they are placed.

MODIFICATIONS. Adverbs have no modifications, except that a few are compared after the manner of adjectives: as, Soon, sooner, 8oonest;—often, oftener, oftenest ;-long, longer, longest.

The following are irregularly compared : well, better, best; badly or ill, worse, worst; little, less, least; much, more, most; far, farther, furthest ; forth, further, furthest.

Obs. 1.—Most adverbs of quality, will admit the comparative adverbs more and most, less and least, before them: as, wisely, more wisely, most wisely ; culpably, less culpably least culpably. But these should be parsed separately: the degree of comparison, as an inflection, belongs only to the adverb prefixed; though the latter word also may be said to be compared by means of the former.

OBs. 2.-As comparison does not belong to adverbs in general, it should not be mentioned in parsing, except in the case of those few wbieh are varied

by it.

CHAPTER IX.-OF CONJUNCTIONS. A Conjunction is a word used to connect words or sentences in construction, and to show the dependenca of the terms so connected: as, “Thou and he are happy, because you are good.”L. Murray.

CLASSES.

Conjunctions are divided into two general classes, copulative and disjunctive; and some of each of these sorts are corresponsive.

I. A copulative conjunction is a conjunction that denotes an addition, à cause, or a supposition: as, " He and I shall not dispute; for, if he has any choice, Í shall readily grant it.”

II. A disjunctive conjunction is a conjunction that denotes opposition of meaning: as, “Be not overcome [by] evil, but overcome evil with good.”Rom., xii, 21.

III. The corresponsive conjunctions are those which are used in pairs, so that one refers or answers to an other: as, "Jolin came neither eating nor drinking.”Matthew, xi, 18.

LIST OF THE CONJUNCTIONS. The following are the principal conjunctions :

1. Copulative; And, as, both, because, even, for, if, that, then, since, seeing, so.

2. Disjunctive; Or, nor, either, neither, than, though, although, yet, but, except, whether, lest, unless, save, notwithstand ing.

3. Corresponsive; Both-and; as--as; as-s0; fthen eitheror; neithernor; whether-or; though, o although yet.

CHAPTER X.-OF PREPOSITIONS.

A Preposition is a word used to express some relation of different things or thoughts to each other, and is generally placed before a noun or a pronoun: as, The paper lies before me on the desk.

OBS.-Every relation of course implies more than one subject. In all correct language, the grammatical relation of the words corresponds exactly to the relation of the things or ideas expressed; for the relation of words, is their dependence on each other according to the sense. To a preposition, the antecedent term of relation may be a noun, an adjective, a pronoun, a verb, a participle, or an adverb; and the subsequent term may be a noun, a pronoun, an infinitive verb, or a participle. The learner must observe that the terms of relation are frequently transposed.

LIST OF THE PREPOSITIONS. The following are the principal prepositions, arranged alphabetically : Aboard, about, above, across, after, against, along, amid or amidst, among or amongst, around, at, athwart; -Bating, before, behind, below, beneath, beside or besides, between or betwixi, beyond, by ;-Concerning ;-Down, during ; - Ere, except, excepting ;-For, from ;-In, into ;-Mid or midst ;Notwithstanding ;-Of, of, on, out-of, over, overthwart ;--Past, pending ;-Regarding, respecting, round ;-Since ;—Through, throughout, till, to, touching, toward or towards ;-Under, underneath, until, unto, up, upon ;-With, within, without.

Obs. 1.–The words in the preceding list are generally prepositions. But when any of them are employed without a subsequent term of relation, they are either adjectives or adverbs. For, when it signifies because, is a conjunotion; without, when used for unless, and notwithstanding, when placed before a nominative, are usually referred to the class of conjunctions also.

OBs. 2.-Several words besides those contained in the foregoing list, are (or have been) occasionally employed in English as prepositions: as, A, (chiefly used before participles, abaft, adown, afore, aloft, aloof, alongside, anear, aneath, anent, aslant, aslope, astride, atween, atwixt, besouth, bywest, cross, dehors, despite, inside, left-hand, maugre, minus, onto, opposite, outside, per, plus, sans, spité, thorough, traverse, versus, via, withal, withinside.

CHAPTER XI.-OF INTERJECTIONS.

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An Interjection is a word that is uttered merely to indicate some strong or sudden emotion of the mind: as, Oh! alas ! ah ! poh! pshaw! avaunt !

OBS.–Of pure interjections but few are ordinarily admitted into books. As words or sounds of this kind serve rather to indicate feeling than to express thought, they seldom have any truly definable signification. Their use also. is soʻvariable, that there can be no very accurate classification of them. Some significant words properly belonging to other classes, are ranked with interjections, when uttered with emotion and in an unconnected manner.

LIST OF THE INTERJECTIONS. The following are the principal interjections, arranged according to the emotions which they are generally intended to indicate:-1. Of joy; eigh! hey! 10!-2. Of sorrow; oh! ah ! hoo! alas! alack ! lackaday! welladay! or welaway !-3. Of wonder; heigh! ha! strange! indeed!—4. Of wishing, earnestness, or vocative address; (often with a noun or pronoun in the nominative absolute;) 0!--5. Of praise; well-done! good! bravo !—6. Of surprise with disapproval; whew! hoitytoity! hoida! zounds! what!—7. Of pain or fear; oh! ooh! ah! eh! O dear!-8. Of contempt; fudge! pugh! poh/

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