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pshaw! pish! tush! tut! humph!-9. Of aversion; foh! faugh! fie! fy! foy!-10. Of expulsion; out! off! shoo! whew! begone! avaunt! aroynt!—11. Of calling aloud; ho! soho! what-ho! hollo! holla! hallo! halloo! hoy! ahoy!12. Of exultation; ah! aha! huzza! hey! heyday! hurrah! -13. Of laughter; ha, ha, ha; he, he, he; te-hee, te-hee.-14. Of salutation; welcome! hail! all-hail!—15. Of calling to attention; ho! lo! la! law! look! see! behold! hark !-16. Or calling to silence; hush! hist! whist! 'st! aw! mum! -17. Of dread or horror; oh! ha! hah! what!—18. Of languor or weariness; heigh-ho! heigh-ho-hum!—19. Of stopping; hold! soft! avast! whoh!–20. Of parting; farewell! adieu! good-by! good-day!—21. Of knowing or detecting; oho! ahah! ay-ay!--22. Of interrogating; eh? ha? hey?

OBS.-Besides these, there are several others, too often heard, which are unworthy to be considered as parts of a cultivated language. The frequent use of interjections, savours more of thoughtlessness than of sensibility.


When two or more subjects, connected by a conjunction, belong to the same predicate, or two or more connected predicates have the same subject, the sentence should be considered simple with a compound subject or predicate.

A phrase is two or more words which express some relation of ideas, but no entire proposition; as, “Of a good disposition.”—“To be plain with you." "Having loved his own.”

A phrase may be used in three ways; namely, 1. As one of the principal parts of a sentence; 2. As an adjunct; 3. It may be independent.

An adjunct phrase is adjective, adverbial, or explanatory.

A substantive phrase is one used in the place of a noun; as, “To do good is the duty of all."

An independent phrase is one, the principal part of which, is not related to, or connected with, any word in the rest of the sentence; as, He failing, who shall meet success ?"_" To be plain with you, I think you in fault."

The principal part of a phrase is that upon which all the others depend; as, "Under every misfortune."-" Having exhausted every expedient."

Phrases are either simple, complex, or compound.

A simple phrase is one unconnected with any other; as, "Of an obliging disposition.”

A complex phrase is one that contains a phrase or a clause, as an adjunct of its principal part; as, “By the bounty of Heaven.”—“To be plain with you."

A compound phrase is one composed of two or more co-ordinate phrases; as, “Stooping down and looking in.”

Phrases are also classified as to their form, depending upon the introducing word, or the principal part; thus, 1. A phrase, introduced by a preposition, is called a pre

positional phrase ; as, “ By doing good.”—“Of an

engaging disposition." 2. A phrase the principal part of which is a verb in the

infinitive mood, is called an infinitive phrase ;. as,

To be good is to be happy.3. A phrase the principal word of which is a participle, is

called a participial phrase; as, “A measure founded

on justice.” OBS.--A preposition that introduces a phrase, serves only to express the relation between the principal part, and the word of the sentence, on which the phrase depends.

A phrase, used as the subject or the object of a verb, must be substantive in office, and, with a strict adherence to grammatical rules, can only be infinitive in form ; as, “ To disobey parents is sinful."--" William loves to study grammar.” Participial phrases are, however, sometimes used by good writers in this way; as, Hunting the buffalo, is one of the

, sports of the West.” — “ John's father opposed his going to sea."

sea." [See Obs. 8, page 102; and Note III., with Obs. 3, under it, Syntax,

Rule XIV.]

A phrase, used as an attribute, may be substantive or adjective in office, and may have the following forms: 1. Infinitive; as, " The object of punishment is to reform

the guilty.”—“His conduct is greatly to be admired." [In the latter example, the phrase is adjective, to be

admired being equivalert to admirable.] 2. Prepositional; as, "He is in good health."-" The

train was behind time." [In each of these examples,

the phrase is adjective.] An adjective phrase may have the following forins: 1. Prepositional ; as, “ Carelessness in the use of money,

is a vice.”

2. Infinitive ; as, “The desire to do good is praise

3. Participial; as, Seeing the danger, he avoided it.”
An adverbial phrase may have the following forms :

1. Prepositional ; as, “ He was attentive to his business. "
2. Infinitive ; as, “ They were anxious to ascertain the

3. Idiomatic ; as, “ In vain.”—“Day by day.”—“By and

by.”—“As a general thing."
An explanatory phrase is always substantive in office, and
infinitive in form ; as, “ It is pleasant to see the sun.

The independent phrase is various in form and character.
It may be distinguished as,

1. Infinitive ; as, “ To be candid, I was in fault.”
2. Participial ; as, “ Considering the circumstances, much

credit is due.”
3. Vocative; as, “Boast not, my dear friend, of to-morrow."
4. Pleonastic; as, " The blessing of the Lord, it maketh

5. Absolute ; as, The sun having risen, the mists were

OB3. 1.-The last form of this phrase is often adverbial in signification;
as in the example given, in which it is equivalent to the clause, when the
sun had risen. It is, therefore, independent only in construction.

Obs. 2.-An adverbial phrase may be modified by an adverb; as, "It lasts but for a moment ;" 1. e. but equivalent to only, and modifying the adverbial phrase, for a moment.

OBs. 3.-A phrase or a clause is sometimes used as the object of a preposition, and thus forms a prepositional phrase of a complex or anomalous character; as, “ Blows mildew from between-his-shriveled-lips.—“That depends on who-can-run-the-fastest."

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In the Sixth Praxis, it is required of the pupilto classify

and analyze the sentence as in the preceding praxis ; to classify and analyze each phrase ; and to parse the sentence, distinguishing the parts of speech, and all their classes and modifications. Thus:

In the

“Ah! who can tell the triumphs of the mind,
By truth illumined, and by taste refined ?”

ANALYSIS.—This is a simple interrogative sentence.

The subject is who; the predicate, can tell; the object, triumphs.
The subject and predicate are unmodified; the adjuncts of the object, are

the and the complex adjective phrase, of the mind illumined by truth,

and refined by tāste. The principal part of the phrase is mind; its adjuncts are the and the

compound adjective phrase, illumined by truth, and refined by taste, which consists of the two coördinate participial phrases connected

by and. The principal part of the former is illumined, and its adjunct, the simple

adverbial phrase, by truth; the principal part of the latter is refined, and its adjunct, the simple adverbial phrase by taste. Ah is an indo

pendent word. PARSING.-Ah! is an interjection, because it is a simple exclamation of won

der or admiration. Who is an interrogative pronoun, of the third person, singular number,

masculine gender ; and in the nominative case, because it is the sub

ject of the verb can tell. By is a preposition, because it shows the relation between truth and illu

mined, the phrase by truth being an adjunct of illumined. Truth is a common noun, and abstract, because it is the name of a quality.

It is of the third person, singular number, neuter gender; and in the

objective case, because it is the object of the preposition by. Illumined is a perfect participle from the regular passive verb be illumined.

It performs the office of a verb, by expressing passion; and of an ad

jective, by modifying the noun mind. And is a conjunction, because it connects the two phrases, by truth illu

mined, by taste refined ; it is copulative, because it expresses an addition.

[Parse the other words as in the preceding praxes.]


Frankness, suavity, and benevolence, were prominent traits in the character of Dr. Franklin.

Industry, good sense, and virtue, are essential to health, wealth, and happiness.

Rural employments are certainly natural, amusing, and healthful.

The study of natural history expands and clevates the mind.

Get justly, use soberly, distribute cheerfully, and live contentedly.

Junius Brutus, the son of Marcus Brutus, and Collatinus, the husband of Lucretia, were chosen the first consuls in Rome.

The son, bred in sloth, becomes a spendthrift and a profligate; and goes out of the world a beggar.

In the varieties of life, we are inured to habits both of the active and the suffering virtues.

By disappointments and trials, the violence of our passions is tamed.

Having sold his patrimony he engaged in merchandise.

The bounty displayed in the earth, equals the grandeur manifested in the heavens.



He, stooping down and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in.

Cheerfulness keeps up a kind of day-light in the mind, and fills it with a steady and perpetual serenity.

Sitting is the best posture for deliberation; standing for suasion; a judge, therefore, should speak sitting; a pleader, standing

The pleasures of sense resemble a foaming torrent; which, after a disorderly course, speedily runs out, and leaves an empty and offensive channel. X

Most of the troubles which we meet with in the world, arise from an irritable temper, or from improper conduct.

The meeting was so respectable, that the propriety of its decision can hardly be questioned.

They who are moderate in their expectations, meet with few disappointinents.

The mighty tempest and the hoary waste,
Abrupt and deep, stretch'd o'er the buried earth,
Awake to solemn thought.
Loose, then, from earth the grasp of fond desire,
Weigh anchor, and some happier clime explore.




Of what does Etymology treat ?
How many and what are the parts of speech?
What is an article ?–What are the examples ?
What is a noun?—What examples are given ?
What is an adjective ?-How is this exemplified ?
What is a pronoun ?-How is this exemplified ?
What is a verb ?-How is this exemplified ?
What is a participle ?-How is this exemplified ?
What is an adverb ?-How is this exemplified ?
What is a conjunction -How is this exemplified ?
What is a preposition ?-How is this exemplified ?
What is an interjection ?-What examples are given !


What is Parsing? What is a sentence ?
What is a perfect definition ?-What is a rule of grammar?
What is a praxis ? and what the literal meaning of the word!
What is an example ?.. What is an exercise ?
What is required of the pupil in the FIRST PRAXIS of parsing.

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