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muses-how rich reward—so small number—all ancient wri. tersin nature of things—much better course.
4. Insert the indefinite article rightly in each of the follow ing phrases : new name—very quick motion—other sheepsuch power—what instance-great weight-such worthy cause —too great difference-high honour-humble station—universal law—what strange event—so deep interest—as firm hope so great wit-humorous story—such person-few dollars little reflection.
EXERCISE II.-NOUNS. 1. Write the plural of the following nouns: town, country, case, pin, needle, harp, pen, sex, rush, arch, marsh, monarch, blemish, distich, princess, gas, bias, stigma, wo, grotto, folio, punctilio, ally, duty, toy, money, entry, valley, volley, half, dwarf, strife, knife, roof, muff
, chief, sheaf, mouse, penny, ox, foot, erratum, axis, thesis, criterion, bolus, rebus, son-inlaw, pailful, man-servant.
2. Write the feminines corresponding to the following nouns: earl, friar, stag, lord, duke, marquis, hero, executor, nephew, heir, actor, enchanter, hunter, prince, traitor, lion, arbiter, tutor, songster, abbot, master, uncle, widower, son, landgrave.
3. Write the possessive case singular of the following nouns: table, leaf, boy, torch, park, porch, portico, lynx, calf
, sheep, wolf, echo, folly, cavern, father-in-law, court-martial.
4. Write the possessive case, plural, of the following nouns: priest, tutor, scholar, mountain, city, courtier, judge, citizen, woman, servant, writer, mother.
5. Write the possessive case, both singular and plural, of the following nouns: body, fancy, lady, attorney, negro, nun. cio, life, brother, deer, child, wife, goose, beau, envoy, distaff, colloquy, hero, thief, wretch.
EXERCISE III.-ADJECTIVES. 1. Annex a suitable noun to each of the following adjectives, without repeating any word: good, great, tall, wise, strong, dark, dangerous, dismal, drowsy, twenty, true, difficult, pale, livid, ripe, delicious, stormy, rainy, convenient, heavy. Thus -good pens, &c.
2. Prefix a suitable adjective to each of the following nouns, without repeating any word: man, son, merchant, work, fence, fear, poverty, picture, prince, delay, suspense, devices, follies, actions. Thus—wise man, &c.
8. ücmpare the following adjectives: black, bright, short,
white, old, high, wet, big, few, lovely, dry, fat, good, bad, little, much, many, far.
4. Express the degrees of the following qualities, by the comparative adverbs of increase: delightful, comfortable, agreeable, pleasant, fortunate, valuable, wretched, vivid, timid, poignant, excellent.
5. Express the degrees of the following qualities by the comparative adverbs of diminution; objectionable, formidable, forcible, comely, pleasing, obvious, censurable, prudent.
EXERCISE IV.-PRONOUNS. 1. Write the nominative plural of the following pronouns : I, thou, he, she, it, who, which, what, that.
2. Write the declension of the following pronouns : myself, thyself, himself, herself, itself, whosoever.
3. Write the following words in their customary form: her's, it's, our's, your's mars, who's, meself, hisself, theirselves.
4. Write the objective smg alar of all the simple pronouns. 5. Write the objective plural of all the simple pronouns.
EXERCISE V.--VERBS. 1. Write the four principal parts of each of the following verbs: slip, thrill, caress, force, release, crop, try, die, obey, delay, destroy, deny, buy, come, do, feed, lie, say, huzza.
2. Write the following preterits in their appropriate form: exprest, stript, lispt, dropt, jumpt, prest, topt, whipt, soakt, propt, fixt, stopt, pluckt, crost, stept, distrest, gusht, confest, snapt, brusht, shipt, kist, discust, lackt.
3. Write the following verbs in the indicative mood, present tense, second person singular : move, strive, please, reach, confess, fix, deny, survive, know, go, outdo, close, lose, pursue.
4. Write the following verbs in the indicative mood, present tense, third person singular: leave, seem, search, impeach, fear, redress, comply, bestow, do, woo, sue, view, allure, rely, beset, release, be, bias.
5. Write the following verbs in the subjunctive mood, present tense, in the three persons singular : serve, shun, turn,
find, wish, throw, dream, possess, detest, disarm, allow, pretend.
EXERCISE VI.--VERBS. 1. Write a synopsis of the first person singular of the active verb amuse, conjugated affirmatively.
2. Write a synopsis of the second person singular of the neuter verb sit, conjugated affirmatively in the solemn style.
3. Write a synopsis of the third person singular of the active verb speak, conjugated affirmatively in the compound form.
4. Write a synopsis of the first person plural of the passive verb be reduced, conjugated affirmatively.
5. Write a synopsis of the second person plural of the active verb lose, conjugated negatively.
6. Write a synopsis of the third person plural of the neuter verb stand, conjugated interrogatively.
7. Write a synopsis of the first person singular of the active verb derive, conjugated interrogatively and negatively.
EXERCISE VII.-PARTICIPLES. 1. Write the simple imperfect participles of the following verbs: belong, provoke, degrade, impress, fly, do, survey, tie, coo, let, hit, put, defer, differ, remember.
2. Write the perfect participles of the following verbs: turn, burn, learn, deem, crowd, choose, draw, hear, lend, sweep, tear, thrust, steal, write, delay, imply, exist.
3. Write the pluperfect or preperfect participles of the following verbs: depend, dare, deny, value, forsake, bear, set, sit, lay, mix, speak, sleep, allot.
4. Write the following participles in their appropriate form: dipt, deckt, markt, equipt, ingulft, embarrast, astonisht, tost, embost, absorpt, attackt, gasht, soakt, hackt, blest, curst.
5. Write the regular participles which are now generally preferred to the following irregular ones: clad, graven, hoven, hewn, knelt, leant, lit, mown, quit, riven, sawn, sodden, shaven, shorn, sown, strown, swollen, thriven, wrought.
6. Write the irregular participles which are, or may be, preferred to the following regular ones: bended, builded, catched, creeped, dealed, digged, dreamed, dwelled, gilded, girded, hanged, knitted, laded, meaned, reaved, shined, slitted, splitted, stringed, strived, weeped, wonted, wringed.
EXERCISE VIII.-ADVERBS, &c. 1. Compare the following adverbs: soon, often, well, badly Yill, little, much, far, forth.
2. Prefix the comparative adverbs of increase to each of the Following adverbs: purely, fairly, sweetly, earnestly, patiently, completely, fortunately, profitably.
3. Prefix the comparative adverbs of diminution to the following adverbs: secretly, slily, liberally, favourably, powerfully.
4. Insert suitable conjunctions in place of the following dashes : Love—fidelity are inseparable. Beware of parties factions. Do well—boast not. Improve time—it flies. There would be few paupers—no time were lost. Be not proudthou art human. I saw—it was necessary. Honesty is better -policy. Neither he— I can do it. It must be done to day -to morrow. Take care—thou fall. Though I should boast I-am I nothing.
5. Insert suitable prepositions in the place of the following dashes: Plead—the dumb. Qualify thyself—action-study. Think often—the worth-time. Live-peace—all men, Keep
-compass. Jest not—serious subjects. Take no part—slander. Guilt starts—its own shadow. Grudge not-giving. Go not-sleep-malice. Debate not-temptation. Depend not—the stores others. Contend not-trifles. Many fall grasping—things—their reach. Be deaf-detraction.
6. Correct the following sentences, and adapt the interjections to the emotions expressed by the other words: Aha! aha! I am undone. Hey! io! I am tired. Ho! be still. Avaunt! this way.
Ah! what nonsense. Heigh-ho! I am delighted. Hist! it is contemptible. Oh! for that symp& thetic glow! Ah! what withering phantoms glare !
S Y N T A X.
SYNTAX treats of the relation, agreement, government, and arrangement, of words in sentences.
The relation of words, is their dependence, or connexion, according to the sense.
The agreement of words, is their similarity in person, number, gender, case, mood, tense, or form.
The government of words, is that power which one word has over an other, to cause it to assume some par. ticular modification.
The arrangement of words, is their collocation, or relative position, in a sentence.
[Obs. 1.-Syntax, as the name indicates, has reference only to those principles and rules which serve to guide us in the construction of sentences. The principles of analysis lie much deeper in the subject of grammarare much more fundamental, than the technical considerations which form the groundwork of syntactical rules.
Sentential analysis is founded upon the general laws of language; and, therefore, its principles are as applicable to one language as another; syntactical rules, on the other hand, can, as a general thing, have reference only to the particular language, the use of which they are designed to direct.
Analysis is generally introduced in connection only with syntax, as if it had a special and exclusive reference to that department of grammar; whereas it deals with principles that underlie almost all grammatical distinctions, and is quite as necessary to the proper elucidation of etymological relations as those which especially belong to syntax. The classification and definition of the different kinds of sentences, and their elements have therefore been removed from this part of the work (where they were originally placed by the author), and introduced progressively at intervals, in connection with the exercises of analysis and parsing, designed to illustrate, and practice the pupil in, each consecutive part of the subject studied. The definition of a sentence immediately follows that of parsing ; because up to that point, the term had been twice used; once, in the definition of a conjunction, and once, in that of parsing; a fact which, of itself, demonstrates the elementary character of this definition, and to what extent even etymological distinctions depend upon it.
OBS. 2.-Syntactical rules are limited to the construction of sentences, as separate portions of discourse; the consideration of those principles and rules which regulate the combination of sentences into paragraphs, and these again into particular kinds of composition, is not comprised in the subject of grammar, but falls within the province of its kindred arts, rhetoric and logic.
Obs. 3.-Rules 1, 2, 4, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22,- nearly one half of the twenty-six Rules of Syntax laid down in this work, are rather a repetition of the definitions comprehended in etymology, than separate rules necessary to guide us in the construction of sentences. For example, we need