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no rule to inform us that “the subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case," after learning that the “nominative case is that form or state of a noun or pronoun which denotes the subject of a finite verb.” The case is different, however, when we have two or more connected subjects belonging to the same verb; for here etymology gives us no explicit direction, although it still affords the guiding principle.
The rules, above enumerated, although without any directive utility, form, however, the basis for many subordinate rules, contained in the observations and notes, which should be attentively studied by the learner, and the exercises upon them be carefully performed.-EDITOR.]
Obs. 4.-Words that are omittod by ellipsis, and that are necessarily un. derstood in order to complete the construction, must be supplied in analysis and parsing.
CHAPTER 1.—THE RULES OF SYNTAX.
1. RULES OF RELATION AND AGREEMENT.
RULE I.- ARTICLES.
RULE II.-NOMINATIVES. A Noun or a Pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case.
RULE III.- APPOSITION. A Noun or a personal Pronoun used to explain a preceding noun or pronoun, is put, by apposition, in the same case.
RULE IV.-ADJECTIVES. Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns.
RULE V.PRONOUNS. A Pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender.
RULE VI.-PRONOUNS. When the antecedent is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality, the Pronoun must agree with it in the plural number.
RULE VII.- PRONOUNS. When a Pronoun has two or more antecedents con. nected by and, it must agree with them in the plural number.
RULE VIII.-PRONOUNS. When a Pronoun has two or more singular antecedents connected by or or nor, it must agree with them in the singular number.
RULE IX.-VERBS. A finite Verb must agree with its subject, cr nominative, in person and number.
RULE X.-VERBS. When the nominative is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality, the Verb must agree with it in the plural number.
RULE XI.LVERBS. When a Verb has two or more nominatives connected by and, it must agree with them in the plural number.
RULE XII.-VERBS. When a Verb has two or more singular nominatives connected by or or nor, it must agree with them in the singular number.
RULE XIII.-VERBS. When Verbs are connected by a conjunction, they must either agree in mood, tense, and form, or have separate nominatives expressed.
RULE XIV.-PARTICIPLES. Participles relate to nouns or pronouns, or else are governed by prepositions.
RULE XV.-ADVERBS. Adverbs relate to verbs, participles, adjectives, or other adverbs.
RULE XVI.-CONJUNCTIONS. Conjunctions connect either words or sentences.
RULE XVII.-PREPOSITIONS. Prepositions show the relations of things.
RULE XVIII.-INTERJECTIONS. Interjections have no dependent construction.
2. RULES OF GOVERNMENT.*
RULE XIX. -POSSESSIVES.
govo erned by the name of the thing possessed.
OBJECTIVES. Active-transitive verbs, and their imperfect and preperfect participles, govern the Objective case.
RULE XXI.-SAME CASES. Active-intransitive, passive, and neuter verbs, and their participles, take the same case after as before them, when both words refer to the same thing.
RULE XXII. -OBJECTIVES. Prepositions govern the Objective case.
RULE XXIII.--INFINITIVES. The preposition To governs the Infinitive mood, and coinmonly connects it to a finite verb.
RULE XXIV.INFINITIVES. The active verbs, bid, dare, feel, hear, let, make, need, see, and their participles, usually take the Infinitive after them, without the preposition TO,
RULE XXV.-NOM. ABSOLUTE. A noun or a pronoun is put absolute in the Nominative, when its case depends on no other word.
RULE XXVI.-SUBJUNCTIVES. A future contingency is best expressed by a verb in the Subjunctive, present; and a mere supposition, with indefinite time, by a verb in the Subjunctive, imperfect: but a conditional circumstance assumed as a fact, requires the Indicative mood.
* The Arrangement of words is treated of, in the Observations under the Rules of Syntax, in Chapters 2d and 3d.
EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS AND PARSING.
PRAXIS VII. -SYNTACTICAL.
In the Seventh Praxis, it is required of the pupil—to analyze
the sentence according to the method indicated under each example; to distinguish the parts of speech and their classes ; to mention their modifications in order ; to point out their relation, agreement, or government, and to apply the Rule of Syntax. Thus :
EXAMPLE ANALYZED AND PARSED. "To be continually subject to the breath of slander, will tarnish the purest reputation." ANALYSIS.-- This is a simple declarative sentence. The subject is the complex infinitive phrase, to be continually subject to the
breath of slander; the predicate is will tarnish; the object is reputa
tion. The principal part of the phrase is to be, and its adjuncts are continually,
and the indefinite attribute, subject, which is modified by the complex adverbial phrase, to the breath of slander; the principal part of this phrase is breath, which is modified by the, and the simple adjective
phrase, of slander. The predicate of the sentence has no adjuncts; the adjuncts of the cbject
are the and purest. PARSING.–To be is an irregular neuter verb, from be, was, being, been; found
in the infinitive mood and present tense, and is, with the phrase of which it is the principal part, the subject of the verb will tarnish; according to Note 11, under Rule IX., which says, “ The infinitive mood,
a phrase, or a sentence, is sometimes the subject to a verb.” Continually is an adverb of time, and relates to the verb to be ; according
to Rule XV., which says, etc. Subject is a cominon adjective, of the positive degree, compared only by
means of the adverbs, more and most, and less and least; it is taken abstractly with the infinitive to be ; according to Exception 2d, under Rule IV., which says, “ With an' infintive or a participle denoting being or action in the abstract, an adjective is sometimes also taken
abstractly." To is a preposition ; and shows the relation between subject and breath ;
according to Rule XVII., which says, etc. The is the definite article, and relates to breath ; according to Rule I., which Breath is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter
gender, and objective case ; and is governed by to; according to Rule
XXII., which says, etc. Will tarnish is a regular active-transitive verb, from tarnish, tarnished,
tarnishing, tarnished ; found in the indicative mood, first-future tense, third person, and singular number; and agrees with its subject, the infinitive phrase to be, etc. ; according to Note 11, under Rule IX.,
The infinitive mood, a phrase, or a sentence, is sometimes the subject of a verb; a subject of this kind, however composed, if it is taken as one whole, requires a verb in the third person sin
gular.” Purest is a common adjective of the superlative degree, compared, pure,
purer, purest; it relates to reputation ; according to Rule IV., which says, etc.
Reputation is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neu
ter gender, and objective case; and is governed by will tarnish; ao cording to Rule XX., which says, etc.
EXERCISE I.—THE SUBJECT PHRASE.
To train* citizens is not the work of a day. To be happy without the approval of conscience, is impos Bible.
To have remained calm under such provocation, was a proof of remarkable self-control.
To be at once a rake and glory in the character, discovers a bad disposition and a bad heart.
To meet danger boldly is better than to wait for it.
To be satisfied with the acquittal of one's own conscience, is the
mark of a great mind.
To be totally indifferent to praise or censure, is a real defect of character.
To spring up from bed at the first moment of waking, is easy enough for people habituated to
To laugh were want of goodness and of grace,
EXERCISE II.—THE OBJECT PHRASE.
"Can a youth who refuses to yield obedience to his parents, expect to become a good or a wise man ?” ANALYSIS.—This is a complex interrogative sentence. The principal clause is, Can a youth expect to become a good or wise man!
The dependent clause is, who refuses to yield obedience to his parents.
The connective is who. The subject of the principal clause is youth ; the predicate is expect ; the
object is the infinitive phrase, to become a good or a wise man. The adjuncts of the subject are a and the dependent clause; the predi
cate has no adjuncts; the principal part of the phrase is to become, and its adjunct is the attribute man, whích refers to the subject youth, and is moditied by the adjuncts d, good, and a, wise, connected by or.
* The various usages of the infinitive mood, exhibited in these and the following elassified phrases, might dictate some modification of Rulo XXIII., which asserts that the infinitive mood is, in all cases, governed by the preposition to. The foring of expression, and their analysis, here given, show that this siatement, if correct, explains scarcely at all the nature, and mode of use, of this ferin of the verb. We per. ceive that, with or without adjuncts, it may be used as the subject or the object of a verb, or as a substantive or avljective attribute, and that it may be independent, Moreover, when it introduces an adjective or adverbial phrase, it appears to be used as an adjective or adverb, although it may be considered to be the object of to (if a preposition), or of some preposition understood. In inis case only, rloes Rule XXIII. appear to have any application whatever. A more general rule, and one inore in consonance with the nature of this form of speech, would be, “ The infinitivg mood has the construction of a noun or an adjective."