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Note X.-In prose, the use of adjectives for adverbs, is improper: as, “Ile writes elegant;"-say, “elegantly."
Ons. 1.—In poetry, an adjective relating to the noun or pronoun, is some. times elegantly used in stead of an adverb qualifying the verb or participle; as,
66 To thee I bend the knee; to thee my thoughts
Continual climb.”—Thomson. Ors. 2.-In order to determine, in difficult cases, whether an adjective or an adverb is required, the learner should carefully attend to the definitions of these parts of speech, and consider whether, in the case in question, quub ity or manner is to be expressed: if the former, an adjective is proper; if the latter, wn adverb. The following examples will illustrate this point: “She looks cold ;-she looks coldly on him.”—" I sat silent ;-I sat silently musing.”—“Stand firm ;-maintain your cause firmly.”
Note XI.—The pronoun them should never be used as an adjective in lieu of those : say, “I bought those books," --not, " them books.” This is a vulgar error.
Note XII.—When the pronominal adjectives, this and that, or these and those, are contrasted; this or these should represent the latter of the antecedent terms, and that or those, the former; as,
“ And, reason raise o'er instinct as you can,
In this ’tis God directs, in that 'tis man.”-
foes! My peace with these, my love with those !”'Burns. Note XIII.—The pronominal adjectives each, one, either, and neither, are always in the third person singular; and, when they are the leading words in their clauses, they require verbs and pronouns, to agree with them accordingly : as, “Each of you is entitled to his share.”—“Let no one deceive himself.”
NOTE XIV.—The pronominal adjectives either and neither relate to two things only; when more are referred to, any and none should be used in stead of them: as, “Any of the three;" -not, “Either of the three.”—“None of the four;"—not, “Nei ther of the four,”
Note XV.--Participial adjectives retain the termination, but not the government, of participles; when, therefore, they are followed by the objective case, a preposition must be in. serted to govern it: as, “ The man who is most sparing of his words, is generally most deserving of attention."
FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE IV.-ADJECTIVES.
Examples under Note 1.- Of Agreement. Those sort of people you will find to be troublesome. [FORMULE.-Not proper, because the adjective those is in the plural number, and does not agree with its noun sort, which is singular. But, according to Note 1st under Rule 4th, * Adjectives that imply unity or plurality, must agree with their nouns in Dumber.” Therefore, those should be that; thus, Thut sort of people you will find to be troublesome.)
Things of these sort are easily understood.
Under Note 2.- Of Fixed Numbers.
Under Note 3.- Of Reciprocals.
Under Note 4.- Of Degrees.
Under Note 5.- Of Comparatives. The Scriptures are more valuable than any writings. The Russian empire is more extensive than any government
in the world. Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age.-Gen., xxxvii, 3.
Under Note 6.— Of Superlatives.
Under Note 7.-Extra Comparisons.
Do not thou hasten above the Most Highest.--Esdras, iv.
Under Note 8.-Adjectives Connected.
Under Note 9.-- Adjectives Prefixed.
Under Note 10.-Adjectives for Adverbs.
to be finished the neatest.
Under Note 11.-Them for Those.
Under Note 12.-This and That. Hope is as strong an incentive to action, as fear; this is the
anticipation of good, that of evil.
The poor want some advantages which the rich enjoy; but we should not therefore account those happy, and these miserable,
Memory and forecast just returns engage,
Under Note 13.—Each, One, &c.
bath.— Irenæus. Are either of these men known? No: neither of them have any connexions here.
Under Note 14.- Either and Neither.
Under Note 15.— Participial Adjectives.
Leave then thy joys, unsuiting such an age,
RULE V.-PRONOUNS. A Pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender: as, “This is the friend of whom I spoke he has just arrived."-" This is the book which I bought; it is an excellent work."-"Ye, therefore, who love mercy, teach your sons to love it too."-Cowper.
EXCEPTION FIRST. When a pronoun stands for some person or thing indefinite or unknown to the speaker, this rule is not strictly applicable; because the person, number, and gender, are rather assumed than regulated by an antecedent : as, “I do not care who knows it."-Steele. " Who touched me? Tell me who it was."
The neuter pronoun it may be applied to a young child, or to other creatures masculine or feminine by nature, when they are not obviously distinguishable with regard to sex ; as, " Which is the real friend to the child, the person who gives it the sweetmeats, or the person who, considering only its health, resists its importunities ?”? –Opie. "Ile loads the animal, he is show. ing me, with so many trappings and collars, that I cannot distinctly view it." -Murray, “The nightingale sings most sweetly when it sings in the night.”—Burke.
EXCEPTION THIRD. The
pronoun it is often used without a definite reference to any antecer
dent, and is sometimes a mere cxpletive; as, " Whether she grapple it with the pride of philosophy.”—Chalmers.
Come, and trip it as you go
A singular antecedent with the adjective many, sometimes admits a pronoun, but never in the same clause; as,
"In Hawick twinkled many a light,
Behind him soon they set in night."-W. Scott,
EXCEPTION FIFTH. When a plural pronoun is put by enallage for the singular, it does not agree with its noun in number, because it still requires a plural verb; as, "We [Lindley Murray) have followed those authors.” -Murray's Gram., 8vo, p. 29. “We shall close our remarks on this subiect," Ib, "My lord, you know I love you."-Shakspeare.
OBSERVATIONS ON RULE V. Obs. 1.- The pronoun we is used by the speaker to represent himself and others, and is therefore plural. But it is sometimes used, by a sort of fiction, in stead of the singular, to intimate that the speaker is not alone in his opinions. Monarchs sometimes join it to a singular noun; as, “We Alexander, Autocrat of all the Russias.” They also employ the compound ourself, which is not used by other people.
OBS. 2.-The pronoun you, though originally and properly plural, is now generally applied alike to one person or to more. [Sce Obs. 21, page 71. This usage, however it may seem to involve a solecism, is established by that authority against which the mere grammarian has scarcely a right to remonstrate. We do not, however, think it necessary or advisable, to encumber the conjugations, as some have done, by introducing this pronoun and the corresponding form of the verb, as singular. It is manifestly better to say that the plural is used for the singular, by the figure Encllage. This change has introduced the compound yourself, which is used in stead of thyself.
OBS. 3.-The general usage of the French is like that of the English, you for thou; but Spanish, Portuguese, and German politeness requires that the third person be substituted for the second. And, when they would be very courteous, the Germans use also the plural for the singular, as they for thou. Thus they have a fourfold method of addressing a person: as, they, denoting the highest degree of respect; he, a less degree ; you, a degree still less; and thou, none at all, or absolute reproach. Yet, even among them, the last is used as a term of endearment to children, and of veneration to God!
OBS 4.-Such perversions of the original and proper use of language, are doubtless matters of considerable moment. These changes in the use of the pronouns being evidently a sort of complimentary fictions, some have made it a matter of conscience to abstain from them, and have published their reasons for so doing. But the moral objections which may lie against such or any other applications of words, do not come within the grammarian's province. Let every one consider' for himself the moral bearing of what he atters. [See Mutthew, xii, 36 and 37.]
Obs. 5.-When a pronoun represents the name of an inanimate object pers sonified, it agrees with its antecedent in the figurative, and not in tlie literal sense; (See the figure Syllepsis, in PART IV;] as,
“ Penance dreams her life away."--Rogers.
“Grim Darkness furls his leaden shroud.”-Id. 019. 6.—When the antecedent is applied metaphorically, the pronoun agrees with it in its literal, and not in its figurative sense; as, “Pitt was the pillar which upheld the state.”—“The monarch. of mountains rears his snowy bead.” [See Figures, in PART IV.]