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Your weakness is excusable, but thy wickedness is not.
Now, my son, I forgive thee, and freely pardon your fault.

You draw the inspiring breath of ancient song,
Till nobly rises emulous thy own.--Thomson.

Under Note 3.- Of Who and Which.
This is the horse whom my father imported.
Those are the birds whom we call gregarious.
He has two brothers, one of which I am acquainted with.
What was that creature whom Job called leviathan?
Those which desire to be safe, should be careful to do that

which is right. A butterfly which thought himself an accomplished traveller,

happened to light upon a bee-hive. There was a certain householder which planted a vineyard.

Under Note 4.--Nouns of Multitude. He instructed and fed the crowds who surrounded him. The court, who has great influence upon the public manners,

ought to be very exemplary. The wild tribes who inhabit the wilderness, contemplate the

ocean with astonishment, and gaze upon the starry heavens with delight.

Under Note 5.- Mere Names. Judas (who is now another name for treachery) betrayed hiş

master with a kiss. He alluded to Phalaris,—who is a name for all that is cruel.

Under Note 6.--That Preferable.
He was the first who entered.
He was the drollest fellow whom I ever saw.
This is the same man whom we saw before.
Who is she who comes clothed in a robe of green?
The wife and fortune whom he gained, did not aid him.
Men who are avaricious, never have enough.
All which I have, is thine.
Was it thou, or the wind, who shut the door?
It was not I who shut it,
The babe who was in the cradle, appeared to be healthy.

Under Note 7.- Relative Clauses Connected.
He is a man that knows what belongs to good manners, and

who will pot do a dishonourable act. The friend who was here, and that entertained us so much, will

never be able to visit us again,

The curiosities which he has brought home, and that we shall have the pleasure of seeing, are said to be very rare,

Under Note 8.-Relative and Preposition.
Observe them in the order they stand.
We proceeded immediately to the place we were directed.
My companion remained a week in the state I left him.
The way I do it, is this.

Under Note 9.--Adverbs for Relatives.
Remember the condition whence thou art rescued.
I know of no rule how it may be done,
He drew up a petition, where he too freely represented his own

merits. The hour is hastening, when whatever praise or censure I have acquired, will be remembered with equal indifference,

Under Note 10.-Repeat the Noun, Many will acknowledge the excellence of religion, who cannot

tell wherein it consists, Every difference of opinion is not that of principle. Next to the knowledge of God, this of ourselves seems most worthy of our endeavour.

Under Note 11.-Place of the Relative, Thou art thyself the man that committed the act, who hast

thus condemned it. There is a certain majesty in simplicity, which is far above the

quaintness of wit. Thou hast no right to judge who art a party concerned. It is impossible for such men as those, ever to determine this

question, who are likely to get the appointment. There are millions of people in the empire of China, whose support is derived almost entirely from rice.

Under Note 12.— What for That.
I had no idea but what the story was true.
The post-boy is not so weary but what he can whistlo.
He had no intimation but what the men were honest.

Under Note 13.-Adjectives for Antecedents.
Some men are too ignorant to be humble; without which

there can be no docility.-Berkley. Judas declared him innocent; which he could not be, had he

in any respect deceived the disciples.Porteus.

Be accurate in all you say or do; for it is important in all the

concerns of life. Every law supposes the transgressor to be wicked; which in

deed he is, if the law is just.


When the antecedent is a collective noun cont

TM the idea of plurality, the Pronoun must agree with it in the plural number; as, “The council were divided in their sentiments.”

OBSERVATION ON RULE VI. Most collective nouns of the neuter gender, may take the regular plural form, and be represented by a pronoun in the third person, plural, neuter; as, “The nations will enforce their laws." This construction comes under Rule 5th. To Rule 6th there are no exceptions.


A collective noun conveying the idea of unity, requires a pronoun in the third person, singular, neuter, agreeably to Rule 5th; as, “ The nation will enforce its laws.”

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE VI.-PRONOUNS. The jury will be confined till it agrees on a verdict. [FORMULE.-Not proper, because the pronoun it is of the singular number, and does not correctly represent its antecedent jury, which is a collective noun, conveying the idea of plurality. But, according to Rule 6th, “ When the antecedent is a collectivo noun conveying the idea of plurality, the pronoun must agree with it in the plural number.” Therefore, it should be they ; thus, The jury will be confined till they agree on a verdict.] In youth, the multitude eagerly pursue pleasure, as if it were

its chief good. The council were not unanimous, and it separated without

coming to any determination. The committee were divided in sentiment, and it referred the

business to the general meeting. There happened to the army a very strange accident, which

put it in great consternation. The

enemy were not able to support the charge, and he dis persed and fled. The defendant's counsel had a difficult task imposed on it. The board of health publish its proceedings. I saw all the species thus delivered from its sorrows.

Under Note to Rule 6th.— The Idea of Unity. I

saw the whole species thus delivered from their sorrows. This court is famous for the justice of their decisions,

The convention then resolved themselves into a committee of

the whole. The crowd was so great that the judges with difficulty made

their way through them.

RULE VII.-PRONOUNS. When a Pronoun has two or more antecedents connected by and, it must agree with them in the plural number; as, James and John will favour us with their company."

EXCEPTION FIRST. When two or more antecedents connected by and, serve merely to describe one person or thing; they are in apposition, and do not require a plural pronoun: as, “This great philosopher and statesman, continued in public lite till his eighty-second year.”—“ The same Spirit, light, and life, which enlighteneth, also sanctifieth, and there is not an other."-Penington.

EXCEPTION SECOND, When two antecedents connected by and, are emphatically distinguished; they belong to different propositions, and (if singular) do not require a plural pronoun; as,

“The butler, and not the baker, was restored to his office." -"The good man, and the sinner too, shall have his reward.”—“Truth, and truth only, is worth seeking for its own sake.”

EXCEPTION THIRD. When two or more antecedents connected by and, are preceded by the adjective each, every, or no; they are taken separately, and do not require a plural pronoun: as, "Every plant and every tree produces others after its kind." =" It is the original cause of every reproach and distress which has attended the government.”--Junius.

OBSERVATIONS ON RULE VII. Obs. 1.-When the antecedents are of different persons, the first person is preferred to the second, and the second to the third : as, “ John, and thou, and I, are attached to our country.”—“John and thou are attached to your country.”

Obs. 2: -The gender of pronouns, except in the third person singular, is distinguished only by their antecedents. In expressing that of a pronoun which has antecedents of different genders, the masculine should be preferred to the feminine, and the feminine to the neuter.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE VII.-PRONOUNS. Discontent and sorrow manifested itself in his countenance, [FORMULE.-Not proper, because the pronoun itself is of the singular number, and does not correctly represent its two antecedents discontent and sorrow, which aro connected by and, and taken conjointly. But, according to Rule 7th, " When a pronoun has two or more antecedents connected by and, it must agree with them in the plural number.” Therefore, itself should be themselves; thus, Discontent and sorrow inanifested themselves in his countenance.] Your levity and heedlessness if it continue, will prevent all

substantial improvement. Poverty and obscurity will oppress him only who esteems it


Good sense and refined policy are obvious to few, because it

cannot be discovered but by a train of reflection. Avoid haughtiness of behaviour, and affectation of manners: it

implies a want of solid merit. If love and unity continue, it will make you partakers of ono

an other's joy. Suffer not jealousy and distrust to enter: it will destroy, like

a canker, every germ of friendship. Hatred and animosity are inconsistent with Christian charity ..

guard, therefore, against the slightest indulgence of it. Every man is entitled to liberty of conscience, and free a

of opinion, if he does not pervert it to the injury of other and

RULE VIII.-PRONOUNS. When a Pronoun has two or more singular antecedents connected by or or nor, it must agree with them in the singular number: as, James or John will favour us with his company."

OBSERVATIONS ON RULE VIII. Obs. 1.–When a pronoun has two or more plural antecedents conneeted by or or nor, it is of course plural, and agrees with them severally. To the foregoing rule, there are properly no exceptions.

OBS. 2.—When antecedents of different persons, numbers, or genders, are connected by or or nor, they cannot be represented by a pronoun that is not applicable to each of them. The following sentence is therefore inaccurate: " Either thou or I am greatly mistaken in our judgement on this subject.”. Murray's Key. But different pronouns may be so connected as to refer to such antecedents taken separately; as, “ By requiring greater labour from such slave or slaves, than he or she or they are able to perform.”Prince's Digest. Or, if the gender only be different, the masculine may involve the feminine by implication; as, “If a man smite the eye of his servant or the eye of his maid that it perish, he shall let him go free for his eye's sake."Ecodus, xxi, 26.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE VIII.— PRONOUNS. Neither wealth nor honour can secure the happiness of their

votaries. [FORMULE.—Not proper, because the pronoun their is of the plural number, and does not correctly represent its two antecedents wealth and honour, which are connected by nor, and taken disjunctively. But, according to Rule Sth, "When a pronoun has two or more singular antecedents connected by or or nor, it must agree with them in the singular number.” Therefore, their should be its ; thus, Neither wealth nor honour can secure the happiness of its votaries.] Neither Sarah, Ann, nor Jane, has performed their task. One or the other must relinquish their claim. A man is not such a machine as a clock or a watch, which will

move only as they are moved. Rye or barley, when they are scorched, may supply the place

of cofree.

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