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A man may see a metaphor or an allegory in a picture, as well

as read them in a description. Despise no infirmity of mind or body, nor any condition of

life, for they may be thy own lot.


A finite Verb must agree with its subject, or nominative, in person and number: as, “I know; thou knowst, or knowest ; he knows, or knoweth.—“The bird flies; the birds fly."

OBSERVATIONS ON RULE IX. OBs. 1.- To this general rule for the verb, there are properly no exceptions. The infinitive mood, having no relation to a nominative, is of course exempt from such agreement; and all the special rules which follow, virtually accord with this.

Obs. 2.-Every finite verb (that is, every verb not in the infinitive mood) must have some noun, pronoun, or phrase equivalent, known as the subject of the being, action, or passion; and with this subject the verb must agree in person and number.

OBS. 3.--Different verbs always have different subjects, expressed or understood; except when two or more verbs are connected in the same construction, or when the same verb is repeated for the sake of emphasis.

OBS. 4.–Verbs in the imperative mood, commonly agree with the pronoun thou, ye, or you, understood; as, “Do [thou) as thou list.”-Shak. Trust God and be doing, and leave the rest with him.”Dr. Sibs.

OBs. 5.- The place of a verb can have reference only to that of the subject with which it agrees, and that of the object which it governs; this matter is thereforo sufficiently explained in the observations under Rule 2d and Rule 20th.


Note I." The adjuncts of the nominative do not control its agreement with the verb: as, Six months' interest was due.”

-W. Allen. “ The propriety of these rules is evident."-Id. “The mill, with all its appurtenances, was destroyed.

NOTE II.—The infinitive mood, a phrase, or a sentence, is sometimes the subject to a verb: a subject of this kind, however composed, if it is taken as one whole, requires a verb in the third person singular; as, “To lie is base.”—“To see the sun is pleasant.”—That you have violated the law, is evident.”

-For what purpose they embarked, is not yet known.”How far the change would contribute to his welfare, comes to be considered.”_Blair.

Obs. 1.-The same meaning will be expressed, if the pronoun it be placed before the verb, and the infinitive, phrase, or sentence, after it; as, It is basc to lie.”It is evident that you have violated the law.” The construction of the following sentences is rendered defective by the omission of the pronoun: “Why do ye that which [it] is not lawful to do on the sabbath days ?"

Luke, vi, 2. "The show-bread which [it] is not lawful to eat, but for the priests only."-Luke, vi, 4.

Obs. 2.-'When tho infinitivo mood is made the subject of a finite verb, it is used to express some action or state in the abstract; as, To be contents his natural desire.”Pope. Here to be stands for simple eristence. In connexion with the infinitive, a concrete quality may also be taken as an abstract; as, To be good is to be happy. Here good and happy express the quality of goodness and the state of happiness, considered abstractly; and therefore these adjectives do not relate to any particular noun. So also the passive infinitive, or a perfect participle taken in a passive sense; as,

7 be satisfied with a little, is the greatest wisdom.”_"To appear discouraged, is the way to become so.” Here the satisfaction and the discouragement are considered abstractly, and without reference to any particular person.

OBs. 3.-When the action or state is to be limited to a particular person or thing, the noun or pronoun may be introduced before the infinitive, by the preposition for; as, "For a prince to be reduced by villany to my distressful circumstances, is calamity enough."— Tr. of Sallust.

Note III.-A neuter or a passive verb between two nomin. atives should be made to agree with that which precedes it; as, “ Words are wind :” except when the terms are transposed and the proper subject is put after the verb by questio hyperbaton; as, “His pavilion were dark waters and k clouds of the sky.”Bible. 6 Who art thou ?Ib. The wages of sin is death.Ib.

Note IV.-When the verb has different forms, that form should be adopted, which is the most consistent with present and reputable usage in the style employed: thus, to say familiarly, “ The clock hath stricken,”—“Thou laughedst and talkedst, when thou oughtest to have been silent,”—“He readeth and writeth, but he doth not cipher,”— would be no better, than to use don't, won't, can't, shan't, and didn't, in preaching.

Note V.-Every finite verb not in the imperative mood, should have a separate nominative expressed; as, “I came, 1 saw, I conquered :” except when the verb is repeated for the sake of emphasis, or connected to an other in the same construction; as,

"They bud, blow, wither, fall, and die."- Watts.

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FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE IX.-VERBS. You was kindly received.

[FORMULE. -Not proper, because the passive verb was received is of the singular number, and does not agree with its nominative you, which is of the second personi, plural. But, according to Rule 91h, “ A finite verb must agree with its subject, or nominative, in person and nunaber.” Therefore, was received should be wore rom ceived; thus, You were kindly received.] We was disappointed.

She dare not oppose it.
His pulse are too quick.
Circumstances alters cases.
He need not trouble himself.
Twenty-four pence is two shillings.
On one side was beautiful meadows.
He may pursue what studies he please.

What have become of our cousins ?
There was more impostors than one.


his friends on this subject ?
Thou knows the urgency of the case.
What avails good sentiments with a bad life ?
Has those books been sent to the school ?
There is many occasions for the exercise of patience.
What sounds have each of the vowels ?
There were a great number of spectators.
There are an abundance of treatises on this easy science.

While ever and anon there falls

Huge heaps of hoary moulder'd walls.—Dyer. He that trust in the Lord, will never be without a friend. Errors that originates in ignorance, is generally excusable. Be ye not as the horse, or as the mule, which have no under.

standing. Nut one of the authors who mentions this incident, is entitled

to credit. The man and woman that was present, being strangers to him,

wondered at his conduct. There necessarily follows from thence these plain and unquestionable consequences.

O thou, for ever present in my way,
Who all my
motives and


Under Note 1.--Nominatives with Adjuncts.
The derivation of these words are uncertain.
Four years' interest were demanded.
One added to nineteen, make twenty.
The increase of orphans render the addition necessary.
The road to virtue and happiness, are open to all.
The ship, with all her crew, were lost.
A round of vain and foolish pursuits, delight some folks.

Under Note 2.- Composite Subjects.
To obtain the praise of men, were their only object.
To steal and then deny it, are a double sin.
To copy and claim the writings of others, are plagiarism.
To live soberly, righteously, and piously, are required of all


our duty to promote peace and harmony among men, admit of no dispute.

Under Note 3.- Verb between Nominatives.
The reproofs of instruction is the way of life,
A diphthong are two vowels joined in one syllable.

šo great an affliction to him was his wicked sons. What is the latitude and longitude of that island ?. He churlishly said to me, “Who is you?"

Under Note 4.-Adapt Form to Style.

1. For the Familiar Style.
Was it thou that buildedst that house?
That boy writeth very elegantly,
Couldest not thou write without blotting thy book ?
: Thinkest thou not it will rain to-day ?
Doth not your cousin intend to visit you?
That boy hath torn my, book.
Was it thou that spreadest the hay?
Was it James or thou that didst let him in ?
He dareth not say a word.
Thou stoodest in my way and hinderedst me.

2. For the Solemn Style. The Lord has prepar'd his throne in the heavens; and his king.

dom rules over all. Thou answer'd them, O Lord our God: thou was a God that

forgave them, though thou took vengeance of their inventions. Then thou spoke in vision to thy Holy One, and said So then it is not of him that wills, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. Under Note 5.-Express the Nominative.

New York, Fifthmonth 30, 1823. Dear friend, Am sorry to hear of thy loss; but hope it may

be retrieved. Should be happy to render thee any assistance in my power. Shall call to see thee to-morrow morning. Accept assurances of my regard.

A. B. New York, May 3d, P. M., 1823. Dear sir, Have just received the kind note favoured me with

this morning, and cannot forbear to express my gratitude
to you. On further information, find have not lost so much
as at first supposed; and believe shall still be able to meet
all my engagements. Should, however, be happy to see
you. Accept, dear sir, my most cordial thanks.

Will martial fames forever fire thy mind,
And never, never be to Heaven resign'd?—Pope.

C. D.

When the nominative is a collective noun conveying

the idea of plurality, the Verb must agree with it in the plural number; as, “The council were divided.


To this rule there are no exceptions. Whenever the collective noun conveys the idea of plurality without the form, the verb is to be parsed by Rule 10th; but if the nominative conveys the idea of unity or takes the plural form, the verb is to be parsed by Rule 9th. The only difficulty is, to determine in what sense the noun should be taken. In modern usage, a plural verb is commonly adopted wherever it is admissible; as, “The public ars informed,"—“The plaintiff's counsel are of opinion,”—“The committee wert instrucied.


A collective noun conveying the idea of unity, requires a verb in the third person, singular; and generally admits also the regular plural construction : as, “His army was defeated.. “ His armies were defeated.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE X.-VERBS. The people rejoices in that which should cause sorrow.

[FORMULE.—Not proper, because the verb rejoices is of the singular number, and does not correctly agree with its nominative people, which is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality. But, according to Rule 10th, “When the nominative is a collective noun conveying the idea of plurality, the verb must agree with it in the plural number.” Therefore, rejoices should be rejoice; thus, The people rejoice in that which should cause sorrow.] The nobility was assured that he would not interpose. The committee has attended to their appointment. Mankind was not united by the bonds of civil society. The majority was disposed to adopt the measure. The peasantry gocs barefoot, and the middle sort makes use

of wooden shoes. All the world is spectators of your conduct. . Blessed is the people that know the joyful sound.

Under Note to Rule 10.-The Idea of Unity. The church have no power to inflict corporal punishments. The fleet were seen sailing up the channel. The meeting have established several salutary regulations. The regiment consist of a thousand men. A detachment of two hundred men were immediately sento Every auditory take this in good part. In this business, the house of commons were of no weight. Are the senate considered as a separate body? There are a flock of birds. No society are chargeable with the disapproved conduct of

particular members.

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