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RULE XI.--VERBS. When a Verb has two or more nominatives connected by and, it must agree with them in the plural number:
Judges and senates have been bought for gold,
When two or more nominatives connected by and, serve merely to describe one person or thing; they are in apposition, and do not require a plural verb: as, " This p«ilosopher and poet was banished from his country." -Toll, tribuir, and custom, wus paid unto them.”—Ezra, iv, 20.
“Whose icy current and compulsive course,
Ne'er feels retiring ebb, but keeps due on.”—Shakspeare.
EXCEPTION SECOND, When two nominatives connected by and, are emphatically distinguished; they belong to different propositions, and (if singular) do not require a plura? verb: as, "Ambition, and not the sufety of the state, was concerned.”—Gold smith.
"Ay, and no too, was no good divinity." --Shakspeare.
EXCEPTION THIRD. When two or more nominatives connected by and, are preceded by the adjective each, every, or w; they are taken separately, and do not require a plural verb: as, “ When w part of their substance, and no one of their prop erties, is the same."--Butiér. “Every limb and feature appears with its respective grace."'--Steele.
EXCEPTION FOURTH, When the verb separates its nominatives, it agrees with that which procedes it, and is understood to the rest; as,
-Forth in the pleasing spring,
OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XI.
Obs. 1 -The conjunction is sometimes understood ; as,
1rt, empire, earth itself, to change are doomed!”– Beattie. OBs. 2.-In Greek and Lalin, the verb frequently agrees with the nearest nominative, and is understood to the rest; and this construction is sometitnes improperly imitated in English : as, «Νυνί δε ΜΕΝΕΙ πίστις, ελπίς, αγάπη, τα τρία ταύτα.”. * Nunc verò manet fides, spes, charitas ; tria hæc."~" Now abideth faith, hope, charity; these three."-- 1 Cor., xiii, 13.
OBS. 3.-When the rominatives are of different persons, the verb agrees with the first person in preference to the second, and with the second in preference to the third ; for thou and I (or he, thou, and I) are equivalent to we ; and thou and he are equivalent to you : as, “Why speakest thou any more of thy matters? I have said, thou and Zibu divide the land.”—2 Sam., xix, 29. I. c., “ divide yo the land.”
NOTES TO RULE XI.
Note I.-- When two subjects or antecedents are connected, one of which is taken affirmatively, and the other negatively,
they belong to different propositions; and the verb or pronoun must agree with the affirmative subject, and be understood to the other: as, “Diligent industry, and not mean savings, produces honourable competence.”—“Not a loud voice, but strong proofs bring conviction.”
Note II.— When two subjects or antecedents are connected by as-well-as, but, or save, they belong to different propositions; and, (unless one of them is preceded by the adverb not,) the verb and pronoun must agree with the former and be understood to the latter : as, “Veracity, as well as justice, is to be our rule of life." -Butler. “ Nothing, but wailings, was heard.—“ None, but thou, can aid us.”—“No mortal man, save he, &c., had e'er survived to say he saw.”— W. Scott.
Obs. 1.—The conjunction as, when it connects nominatives that are in ape position, is commonly placed at the beginning of the sentence, so that the verb agrees with its proper nominative following the explanatory word; thus, “As a poet, he holds a high rank.” -- Murray. But when this conjunc tion denotes a comparison between two nominatives, there must be two verbs expressed or understood, each agreeing with its own subject; as, “Such writers as he [is] have no reputation among the learned."
Obs. 2.--Some grammarians say that but and sare, when they denote exception, should govern the objective case, as prepositions ; but this is not according to the usage of the best authors. The objective case of nouns being like the nominative, the point can be proved only by the pronouns ; as, “ There is none but he alone.”—Perkins's Theology, 1608. There is none other but he.”—Mark, xii, 32. (This text is good authority as regards the case, though it is incorrect in an other respect: it should have been, “There is none but he," or, “ There is no other thun he.”) “No man bath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven.”—John, iii, 13. “Not that any man hath seen the Father, save he which is of God."- John, vi, 46. “Few can, suve he and I.”—Byron's Werner. “There is none justified, but he that is' in measure sanctified.”—Penington. Save, as a conjunction, is nearly obsolete. In Rev., ii, 17, we read, "Which no man knoweth, saving ke that receiveth it."
Note III.- When two or more subjects or antecedents are preceded by the adjective each, every or no, they are taken separately, and require a verb and pronoun in the singular number: as,
" And every sense, and every heart is joy."--Thomson. “Each beast, each insect, happy in its own.”—Pope.
Note IV.—When words are to be taken conjointly as subjects or antecedents, the conjunction and must connect them.
OBS.-In Latin, cum with an ablative, sometimos has the force of the conjunction et with a nominative; as, “ Dux cum aliquot principibus capiuntur.'' Liry. In imitation of this construction, some English writers lave substituted with for and, and varied the verb accordingly; as, “A long course of time, with a variety of accidents and circumstances, are requisite to produce these revolutions.”— Hume. But, as the preposition makes its object only an adjurict of the preceding now, this construction cannot be justified,
Note V.—Two or more distinct subject phrases connected by and, require a plural verb: as, “ To be wise in our own eyes,
to be wise in the opinion of the world, and to be wise in the sight of our Creator, are three things so very different, as rarely to coincide.”—Blair,
FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XI-VERBS. Industry and frugality leads to wealth.
[FORMULE.—Not proper, because the verb leads is in the singular number, and does not correctly agree with its two nominatives, industry and frugality, which are connected by and, and taken conjointly. But, according to Rule 11th, " When a verb has two or more nominatives connected by and, it must agree with them in the plural number.”
Therefore leads should be lead ; thus, Industry and frugality lead to wealth.) Temperance and exercise preserves health. Time and tide waits for no man. My love and affection towards thee remains unaltered. Wealth, honour, and happiness, forsakes the indolent. My flesh and my heart faileth. In all his works, there is sprightliness and vigour. Elizabeth's meekness and humility was extraordinary. In unity consists the security and welfare of every society. High pleasures and luxurious living begets satiety. Much does human pride and folly require correction. Our conversation and intercourse with the world is, in several
respects, an education for vice. Occasional release from toil, and indulgence of ease, is what
nature demands, and virtue allows. What generosity, and what humanity, was then displayed !
What thou desir'st, And what thou fearst, alike destroys all hope.
Under Note 1.-Affirmation with Negation. Wisdom, and not wealth, procure esteem. Prudence, and not pomp, are the basis of his fame. Not fear, but labour have overcome him. The decency, and not the abstinence, make the difference. Not her beauty, but her talents attracts attention. It is her talents, and not her beauty, that attracts attention. It is her beauty, and not her talents, that attract attention.
Under Note 2.--As Well As, But, or Save. His constitution, as well as his fortune, require care. Their religion, as well as their manners, were ridiculed. Every one, but thou, hadst been legally discharged. The buyer, as well as the seller, render themselves liable. All songsters, save the hooting owl, was mute. None, but thou, O mighty prince! canst avert the blow. Nothing, but frivolous amusements, please the indolent. Cæsar, as well as Cicero, were admired for their eloquence.
Under Note 3.- Each, Every, or No. Each day, and each hour, bring their portion of duty. Every house, and even every cottage, were plundered. Every thought, every word, and every action, will be brought
into judgement, whether they be good or evil.
No bandit fierce, no tyrant mad with pride,
Under Note 4.- And Required.
British parliament. The man with his whole family are dead. A small house in addition to a trifling annuity, are still granted him.
Under Note 5.—Distinct Subject Phrases. To profess, and to possess, is very different things. To do justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with God, is
duties of universal obligation, To be round or square, to be solid or fluid, to be large or
small, and to be moved swiftly or slowly, is all equally alien from the nature of thought.
RULE XII.-VERBS. When a Verb has two or more singular nominatives connected by or or nor, it must agree with them in the singular number: as, "Fear or jealousy affects him.”
OBSERVATION ON RULE XII. To this rule there are properly no exceptions. But in the learned languages, A plural verb is often employed with singular nominatives thus connected;
"Tunc nec mens mihi, nec color
Certa sede manent." —Horace. And the best scholars have sometimes improperly imitated this construo tion in English ; as,
“Io comes-nor want nor cold his course delay :
Hide, blushing Glory! hide Pultowa's day.”—Dr. Johnson.'
NOTES TO RULE XII.
Note I.—When a verb has nominatives of different persons or numbers, connected by or or nor, it must agree with that
which is placed next to it, and be understood to the rest, in the person and number required; as, 6 Neither he nor his brothers were there.”_ “ Neither you nor I am concerned.”“ That neither they nor ye also die.”—Numb., xviii, 3.
Obs. 1.- When the latter nominative is parenthetical, the verb agrees with the former only; as, “ One example (or ten) says nothing against the universal opinion." --- Leigh Hunt. “And we (or future ages) may possibly have & proof of it.”—Bp. Butler.
Obs. 2.- When the alternative is merely in the words, not in the thought, the terms are virtually in apposition, and the principal nominative alonó controls the verb; but there is always a harshness in this mixture of different numbers: as, '" A parathesis, or brackets, consists of two angular strokes, or hooks, enclosing one or more words."— Whiting. • To show us that our own schemes, or prudence, have no share in our advancements.”— Addison. "The Mexican figures, or picture-writing, represent things, not words; they exhibit images to the eye, not ideas to the understanding."- Murray's Grum., p. 243.
Note II.—But when the nominativès require different forms of the verb, it is in general more elegant to express the verb, or its auxiliary, in connexion with each of them; as, “ Either thou art to blame, or I am.”—“Neither were their numbers, nor was their destination known."
Note III.—The speaker should generally mention himself last; as, “Thou or I must go.”—“ He then addressed his discourse to my father and me.”' But in confessing a fault he may assume the first place; as, I and Robert did it."-M. Edgeworth.
Note IV.—Two or more distinct subject phrases connected by or or nor, require a singular verb; as, “ That a drunkard should be poor, or that a fop should be ignorant, is not strange.”
FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XII.-VERBS. Ignorance or negligence have caused this mistake.
[FORMULE.-Not proper, because the verb have caused is of the plural number, and does not correctly agree with its two nominatives, ignorance and negligence, which are connected by or, and taken disjunctively. But, according to Rule 12th, “When a verb has two or more singular nominatives connected by or or nor, it must agreo with them in the singular number.” Therefore, have caused should be has caused; thus, Ignorance or negligence has caused this mistake.] Neither imprudence, credulity, nor vanity, have ever been im
puted to him. What the heart or the imagination dictate, flows readily. Neither authority nor analogy support such an opinion. Either ability or inclination were wanting. Redundant grass or heath afford abundance to their cattle. The returns of kindness are sweet; and there are neither hon
our, por virtue, nor utility, in repelling them. The sense or drift of a proposition, often depend upon a single