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should be in the objective case, governed by felt; and in the latter, in the possessive, governed by declining.
NOTE V.-Participles, in general, however construed, should have a clear reference to the proper subject of the being, action, or passion. The following sentence is therefore faulty : “By giving way to sin, trouble is encountered.” This suggests that trouble gives way to sin. It should be, "By giving way to sin, we encounter trouble.”
NOTE VI.—The preterit of irregular verbs should not be used for the perfect participle: as, “A certificate wrote on parchment"-for, "A certificate written on parchment." This error should be carefully avoided.
NOTE VII.- Perfect participles being variously formed, caro should be taken to express them agreeably to the best usage: thus, earnt, snatcht, checkt, snapt, mixt, tost, are erroneously written for earned, snatched, checked, snapped, mixed, tossed ; and holden, foughten, proven, are now mostly superseded by held, fought, proved.
FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XIV.-PARTICIPLES.
Examples under Note 1.-Expunge Of. In forming of his sentences, he was very exact.
[FORMULE.-Not proper, because the preposition of is used after the participle form. ing, whose verb does not require it. But, according to Note 1st under Rule 14th, “ Participles have the same government as the verbs from which they are derived; the preposition of, therefore, should not be used after the participle, when the verb does not require it.” Therefore, of should be omitted; thus, In forming his sentences, he was very exact.] By observing of truth, you will command respect. I could not, for my heart, forbear pitying of him. I heard them discussing of this subject. By consulting of the best authors, he became learned. Here are rules, by observing of which, you may avoid error,
Under Note 2.-Insert Of. Their consent was necessary for the raising any supplies. Thus the saving a great nation devolved on a husbandman. It is an overvaluing ourselves, to decide upon every thing. The teacher does not allow any calling ill names. That burning the capitol was a wanton outrage. May nothing hinder our receiving so great a good. My admitting the fact will not affect the argument. Cain's killing his brother, originated in envy.
Under Note 3.- Change the Expression. Cæsar carried off the treasures, which his opponent had nega
lected taking with him.--Goldsmith.
It is dangerous playing with edge tools.
Under Note 4.-The Leading Word.
Under Note 5.--Reference of Participles.
Under Note 6.—Preterits for Participles.
Under Note 7.--Form of Participles.
RULE XV.-ADVERBS. Adverbs relate to verbs, participles, adjectives, of other adverbs: as, “Any passion that habitually discomposes our temper, or unfits us for properly discharging the duties of life, has most certainly gained a very danger ous ascendency.”—Blair.
EXCEPTION FIRST. Tho adverbs yes and yea, expressing a simple affirmation, and the adverbs
no and nay, expressing a simple negation, are always independent. They generally answer a question, and are equivalent to a whole sentence. Is it clear, that they ought to be called adverbs? No
EXCEPTION SECOND. The word amen, which is commonly called an adverb, is often used inden pendently at the beginning or end of a declaration or prayer; and is itself a prayer, meaning, 80 let it be.
OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XV. OBS. 1.-On this rule Dr. Adam remarks, “Adverbs sometimes likewise qualify substantives ;” and gives Latin examples of the following import: " Homer plainly an'orator;"—"Truly Metellus;"—“To-morrow morning ;" " Yesterday morning.". But this doctrine is not well proved by such imperfect phrases, nor can it ever be consistently admitted; because it destroys the characteristic difference between an adjective and an adverb.
OBS. 2.-Whenever any of those words which are commonly used adverbially, are made to relate directly to nouns or pronouns, they must be reckoned adjectives, and parsed by Rule 4th; as, "The above* verbs.”—Dr. Adam. “God only.”—Bible. " He alone."--Id. A far country:"-Id. “No wine, -No new thing,--No greater joy.”—Id. Nothing else.”— Blair. “Tomorrow noon." --Scott. ««This beneath world.”—Shak. “Calamity enough.” -Tr. of Sallust. “My hither way.”
OBs. 3.-When words of an adverbial character are used after 1:3 manner of nouns, they must be parsed as nouns and not as adverbs : as, “ The Son of God—was not yea and nay, but in him was yea.”—Bible.
“ For a great while to come.” -II. “On this perhaps, this peradventure infamous for lies." -Young. “From the extremest upward of thine head.”-Shak. “Prate of my whereabout.”—Id. “An eternal now does always last.”—Cowley. “ Discourse requires an animated no.”—Cowper.
OBs. 4.-Adverbs sometimes relate to verbs understood ; as, “The former has written correctly; but the latter, elegantly." “ And, [Í say] truly, if they had been mindful of that country from whence they came out, they might have had opportunity to have returned.”-Heb., xi, 15.
OBS. 5.—To abbreviate expressions, and give them vivacity, verbs of selfmotion (as go, come, rise, get, &c.) are sometimes suppressed, being suggested to the mind by an emphatic adverb; as,
“I'll hence to London on a serious matter."—Shakspeare.
_ Waller. “Up, up, Glentarkin! rouse thee, ho!”- W. Scott. OBs. 6.—Most conjunctive adverbs relate to two verbs at the same time, and thus connect the two clauses; as, “And the rest will I set in order when I come."-1 Cor., xi, 34. Here when is an adverb of time, relating to the two verbs, will set and come; the meaning being, “ And the rest will I set in order at the time at which I come."
NOTES TO RULE XV.
Note I.-Adverbs must be placed in that position which will render the sentence the most perspicuous and agreeable.
* Murray and his copyists strongly condemn this use of above, and we do not contend for it; but, both he and they, (as well as others,) have repeatedly employed the word in this manner: as, “ The above construction." -Murray's Grim., 8vo, p. 149. "The above instances."--p. 202. “The above rule."-P. 270. “In such instances 43 the above."—p. 24. “The same as the above."-p. 66.
OBS. For the placing of adverbs, no definite general rule can be given. Those which relate to adjectives, immediately precede them; and those which belong to compound verbs, are commonly placed after the first auxiliary.
Note II.-Adverbs should not be used as adjectives; nor should they be employed, when quality is to be expressed, and not manner: as, “The soonest time;" -“ T'hine often infirmities ;"—“It seems strangely.” All these are wrong.
Note III.— With a verb of motion, most grammarians prefer hither, thither, and whither, to here, there, and where, which are in common use, and perhaps allowable, though not so good; as, “Come hither Charles,”—or, “Come here."
NOTE IV.-To the adverbs hence, thence, and whence, the preposition from is frequently (though not with strict propriety) prefixed. It is well to omit all needless words.
NOTE V.—The adverb how should not be used before the conjunction that, nor in stead of it; as,“ He said how he would
Expunge how. This is a vulgar error. NOTE VI.-The adverb no should not be used with reference to a verb or a participle. Such expressions as, “Tell me whether you will go or no,” are therefore improper: no should be not; for “go" is understood after it.
Obs.- No is sometimes an adverb of degree ; and as such it has this peculiarity, that it can relate only to comparatives : as, "No more,"-"No better, "No greater,”—“No sooner." When this word is prefixed to a noun, it is clearly an adjective, corresponding to the Latin nullus ; as, “No clouds, no vapours intervene."
"-Dyer. NOTE VII.--A negation, in English, admits but one negative word: as, “I could not wait any longer,”—not, “no longer.” Double negatives are vulgar.
Obs. 1.–The repetition of a negative word or clause, strengthens the negation; as, “ No, no, no." But two negatives in the same clause, destroy the negation, and render the meaning affirmative; as, "Nor did they not perceive their evil plight.”-Milton. That is, they did perceive it.
Obs. 2.-Ever and never are directly opposite in sense, and yet they are frequently confounded and misapplied even by respectable writers; as "Seldom, or never, can we expect," &c.-Blair's Lectures, p. 305. “Seldom, or ever, did any one rise," &c.-Ibid., p. 272. Here never is right, and ever is wrong. But as the negative adverb applies only to time, ever is preferable to never, in sentences like the following: “Now let man reflect but never so little on himself.”—Burlamaqui, p. 29. " Which will not hearken to the voice of charmers, charming never so wisely.”—Ps., lviii, 5. For the phrase sver so, (which ought perhaps to be written as one word,) is a very common expression, denoting degree, however great or small; as,
everso little" severso wisely." . And it seems to be this, and not time, that is intended in the last two examples.
OBs. 3.-By the customary (but faulty) omission of the negative before but, that conjunction has acquired the adverbial sense of only; and it may, when used with that signification, be called an adverb. Thus, the text, “ ile hath not grieved me but in part,” (2 Cor., ii, 5,] might drop the negative, and still convey the same meaning: “He hath grieved me but in part.”
“ Reason itself, but gives it edge and power.”—Pope.
FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XV.-ADVERBS.
Examples under Note 1.—The Placing of Adverbs. We were received kindly.
[FORNULE.—Not proper, because the adverb kindly is not in the most suitable place. But, according to Note 1st under Rule 15th, “ Adverbs must be placed in that position which will render the sentence the most perspicuous and agreeable." Tko sentence will be improved by placing kindly beforo received ; thus, We wero kindly received.] The work will be never completed. We always should prefer our duty to our pleasure. It is impossible continually to be at work. He impertinently behaved to his master. The heavenly bodies are in motion perpetually. Not only he found her busy, but pleased and happy even,
Under Note 2.—Adverbs for Adjectives.
Under Note 3.-Here for Hither, doc.
Under Note 4.-From Hence, &c.
Under Note 5.—The Adverb How.
Under Note 6.-The Adverb No.
Under Note 7.— Double Negatives.
be compared with this.