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Be honest, nor take no shape nor semblance of disguise.
RULE XVI.-CONJUNCTIONS. Conjunctions connect either words or sentences: as, “Let there be no strife, I pray thee, between me and thee, and between my herdmen and thy herdmen; for we are brethren."--Gen., xiii, 8.
EXCEPTION FIRST. The conjunction that sometimes serves merely to introduce a sentence which is made the subject of a verb; as, “Thut mind is not matter, is certain."
EXCEPTION SECOND. When two corresponding conjunctions occur, in their usual order, the former should be parsed as referring to the latter, which is more properly the connecting word; as, “Neither sun nor stars in many days appeared.”- Acts, xxvii, 20.
EXCEPTION TIIRD. Either, corresponding to 07", and neither, corresponding to nor or not, are sometimes transposed, so as to repeat the disjunction or negation at the end of the sentence; as,
" Where thien was their capacity of standing, or his either ?"--Barclay. “It is not dangerous neither."--Bolingbroke.
* Ho is very tall, but not too tall neither.”—Spectator.
OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XVI.
OB9. 1.-Conjunctions that connect particular words, generally join similar parts of speech in a common dependence on some other term. Those which connect sentences or clauses, commonly unite one to an other, either as an additional affirmation, or as a condition, a canse, or an end. They are placed between the terms which they connect, except there is a transposition, and then they stand before the dependent term. OBs. 2.- Two or three conjunctions sometimes come together; as,
“What rests, but that the mortal sentence pass ?"--Milton. OB3. 3.—Conjunctions should not be unnecessarily accumulated; as, "But AND if that evil servant say in his heart.”—Matthew, xxiv, 48. Greek, “Eày dè činnó Kakòs doð los įkaivos," &c. Here is no and.
OBS. 4.- The conjunction as often unites words that are in apposition; as, "Ile offered himself as a journeyman.” [See Obs. 5, Rule xx.) So, likewise, when an intransitive verb takes the same case after as before it, by Rule xxi; as, “Johnson soon after engaged as usher in a school.”—Murray. “He was employed as usher. This also is a virtual apposition. If after the verb "engaged" we supply himself, usher becomes objective, and is in apposition with the pronoun.
Obs. 5.- As frequently has the force of a relative pronoun; as, “ Avoid such as are vicions." "But to as many as received him," &c.
He then read the conditions as follow.” Here as represents a noun, and is the subject of a verb. (See Tooke's Diversions of Purley.) But when a clause, or sentence, is the antecedent, it is better to consider as a conjunction, and to supply the pronoun it; as, "He is angry, as [it] appears by this letter.” OB9. 6.-The conjunction that is frequently understood; as,
“Thou warnst me [thatI have done amiss.”--Scott. OBS, 7.-After than or as expressing a comparison, there is usually an el
lipsis of some word or words. The construction of the words employed may be known by supplying the ellipsis; as, “Sho is younger than I” [am].“He does nothing who endeavours to do more than what] is allowed to humanity."-Johnson. “My punishment is greater than (what] I can bear.” -Bible.
NOTES TO RULE XVI. Note I.-When two terms connected refer jointly to a third, they must be adapted to it and to each other, both in sense and in form. Thus: in stead of, " It always has, and always will be laudable,” say, “It always has been, and it always will be laudable."
Note II.—The disjunctive conjunction lest or but, should not be employed where the copulative that, would be more proper: as, “I feared that I should be deserted;" not, “ lest I should be deserted.”
Note III.—After else, other, rather, and all comparatives, the latter term of comparison should be introduced by the conjunction than : as, “ Can there be any other than this ?”— Harris. 66 Is not the life more than meat ?"_Bible.
Note IV.—The words in each of the following pairs, are the proper correspondents to each other; and care should be taken, to give them their right place in the sentence.
1. Though—yet; as, “Though he were dead, yet shall he live."---John, xi, 25.
2. Whether-or; as, "Whether there be few or many." 3. Either-or; as, “ He was either ashamed or afraid."
4. Neither—nor; as, “ John the Baptist came neither eating bread nor drinking wine.”—Luke, vii, 33.
5. Both-and; as, “I am debtor both to the Greeks and to the Barbarians." --Rom., i, 14.
6. Such—as; as, “An assembly such as earth saw neve - Couper.
7. Such—that; with a finite verb following, to express a consequence: as, “ My health is such that I cannot go.
8. As-as; with an adjective or an adverb, to express equality: as, “The peasant is as gay as he.”—Cowper.
9. As--s0; with two verbs, to express equality or proporition: as, “As two are to four, so are six to twelve."
10. So-as; with an adjective or an adverb, to limit the degree by comparison: as, “ How can you descend to a thing 80 base as falsehood ?"
11. So--as; with a negative preceding, to deny equality : as, “ No lamb was e'er so mild as he.”- Langhorne.
12. So—as; with an infinitive following, to express a consequence: as, “ These difficulties were so great as to discourage
13. So-that; with a finite verb following, to express a consequence : as, “He was so much injured, that he could not walk." FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XVI.—CONJUNCTIONS.
Examples under Note 1.-Two Terms with One. The first proposal was essentially different and inferior to the
second. [FORMULE. —Not proper, becau se the preposition to, is used with joint reference to the two adjectives different and inferior, which require different prepositions. But, according to Note 1st under Rule 16th, “When two terms connected refer jointly to a third, they must be adapted to it and to each other, both in sense and in form.”
Tho sentence may be corrected thus; The first proposal was essentially different from the Bocond, and inferior to it.] He has made alterations and additions to the work. He is more bold, but not so wise, as his companion. Sincerity is as valuable, and even more so, than knowledge. I always have, and I always shall be, of this opinion. What is now kept secret, shall be hereafter displayed and
heard in the clearest light. We pervert the noble faculty of speech, when we use it to the
defaming or to disquiet our neighbours. Be more anxious to acquire knowledge than of showing it. The court of chancery frequently mitigates and breaks the teeth of the common law.
Under Note 2.-Lest or But for That.
afraid lest he will forget you ?
Under Note 3.--Prefer Than.
you no other proof except this?
Under Note 4 - Of Correspondents.
reverend. 'Whether he intends to do so, I cannot tell. Send me such articles only, that are adapted to this market.
As far as I am able to judge, the book is well written.
you think this is so good as that ?
So still he sat as those who wait
Prepositions show_the relations of things : as, “He came from Rome to Paris, in the company of many eminent men, and passed with them through many cities." - Analectic Magazine.
EXCEPTION FIRST. The preposition to, before an abstract infinitive, and at the head of a phrase which is made the sứbject of a verb, has no proper antecedent term of relation; as, “To learn to die, is the great business of life.”-Dillwyn.
" Nevertheless, to abide in the flesh, is more needful for you."-St. Paul. “To be reduced to poverty, is a great affliction.”
EXCEPTION SECOND. The preposition for, when it introduces its object before an infinitive, and the whole phrase is made the subject of a verb, has properly no antecedent term of relation; as, “For us to learn to die, is the great business of life."? “Nevertheless, for me to abide in the flesh, is more needful for you.”—4 an old man to be reduced to poverty, is a very great affliction."
OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XVII. Obs. 1.-In parsing any ordinary preposition, the learner should name the two terms of the relation, and apply the foregoing rule. The principle is simple and etymological, yet not the less important as a rule of syntax. Among tolerable writers, the prepositions exhibit more errors than any other equal number of words. This is probably owing to the careless manner in which they are usually slurred over in parsing.
Obs. 2.-If the learner be at any loss to discover the two terms of relation, let him ask and answer two questions ; first, with the interrogative what before the preposition, to find the antecedent; and then, with
the same pronoun after the preposition, to find the subsequent term. These questions answered according to the sense, will always give the true terms. If one term is obvious, find the other in this way; as, Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night showeth knowledge.''--Psal. What’unto day? Ans. "Uttereth unto day.” What unto night? Ans. “Showeth unto night.” To parse rightly is to understand rightly; and what is well expressed, it is a shame to misunderstand or misinterpret.
OBs. 3.-When a preposition begins or ends a sentence or clause, the terms of relation are transposed; as, "To a studious man, action is a relief.”— Burgh. “Science they (the ladies] do not pretend to. "Until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of.”—Gen., xxviii, 15.
Obs. 4.-The former or antecedent term of relation may be a noun, an adterin may
a noun, a pronoun, a pronominal adjective, an infinitive verb, or an imperfect or preperfect participle. The word governed by the preposition, is always the subsequent term, however placed.
Obs. 5.-Boih the terms of relation are usually expressed; though either of them may be understood ; as, 1. The former-" All shall know me, [reckoning) rrow the least to the greatest." —Heb., viii, 11. [I say] "In a word, it would entirely defeat the purpose."--Blair. 2. The latter-" Opinions and ceremonies (which they would die For.”—Locke. “IN (those) who obtain detence, or who defend.”—Pope.
OBs. 6.—The only proper exceptions to the foregoing rule, are those which are inserted above, unless the abstract infinitive used as a predicate is also to be excepted; as, “ To reason right, is to submit.”—Pope. But here most if not all grammarians would say, the verb is, is the antecedent or governing term. The relation, however, is not such as when we say, “He is to submit;" but, perhaps, to insist on a different mode of parsing these two infinitives, would be a needless refinement. In relation to the infinitive, Dr. Adam remarks, that the preposition to is often taken absolutely; as, “ To confess the truth.”—“ To proceed.” But the assertion is not entirely true; nor are his examples appropriate; for what he and many other grammarians call the infinitive absolute, evidently depends on something understood ; and the preposition is surely in no instance_indepen dent of what follows it, and is therefore never entirely absolute. Prepositions are not to be supposed to have no antecedent term, merely because they stand at the head of a sentence which is made the subject of a verb; for the sentence itself often contains that term, as in the following example : “In what way mind acts upon matter, is unknown.". Here in shows the relation between acts and way; because it is suggested, that mind acts in some way,"
OBs. 7.--The preposition (as its name implies) precedes the word which it governs. But, in poetry, the preposition is sometimes placed after its object; as,
“Wild Carron's lonely woods among.”—Langhorne. OBS. 8.-In the familiar style, a preposition governing a relative or an interrogativo pronoun, is often separated from its object, and connected with the other term of relation; as, * Whom did he speak to?" But it is more dignified, and in general more graceful, to place the preposition before the pronoun; as, “To whom did he speak ?
Obs. 9.-Two prepositions sometimes come together; as, “ Lambeth is over against Westminster-abbey.”- Murray.
“And from before the lustre of her face.”—Thomson.
“Blow's mildew from between his shrivel'd lips.-Cowper. These should be written as compounds, and taken together in parsing; for if we parse them separately, we must either call the first an adverb, or suppose some very awkward ellipsis.
Ons. 10.- Two separate prepositions have sometimes a joint reference to the same noun: as, “ He boasted of, and contended for, the privilege.” This construction is formal, and scarcely allowable, except in the law style. It is better to say, “ He boasted of the privilege, and contended for it."
Obs. 11. The preposition into, expresses a relation produced by motion or change; and in, the same relation, without reference to motion : hence, “to walk into the garden,” and “to walk in the garden," are very different.
Obs. 12.--Bétween or betwixt is used in reference to two things or parties: among or amidst, in reference to a greater number, or to something by which an other may be surrounded; as,
“Thou pendulum betwiet a smile and tear."-Byron.