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Under Note 2.- Possessives Connected.
There is but little difference between the Earth and Vanus's

diameter.
This hat is John, or James's.
The store is opposite to Morris's and Company's.
This palace had been the grand Sultan's Mahomet's.
This was the Apostle's Paul's advice.
Were Cain's occupation and Abel the same?
Were Cain and Abel's occupation the same ?
Were Cain's and Abel's occupations the same?
Were Cain and Abel's parents the same?
Were Cain's parents and Abel the same?
Was Cain's and Abel's father there?
Were Cain's and Abel's parents there?

Thy Maker's will has placed thee here,
A Maker's wise and good.

Under Note 3.-Choice of Forms.
The world's government is not left to chance.
He was Louis the Sixteenth's son's heir.
The throne we honour is the choice of the people.
We met at my brother's partner's house.
An account of the proceedings of the court of Alexander.
Here is a copy of the Constitution of the Society of Teachers
of the city of New York.

Under Note 4.-Nouns with Possessives Plural.
Their healths perhaps may be pretty well secured.-Locke.
We all have talents committed to our charges.
For

your sakes forgave I it, in the sight of Christ.
We are, for our parts, well satisfied.
The pious cheerfully submit to their lots.
Fools think it not worth their whiles to be wise.

Under Note 5.Possessives with Participles,
I rewarded the boy for his studying so diligently.
Have you a rule for your thus parsing the participle ?
He errs in his giving the word a double construction.
By our offending others, we expose ourselves.
They deserve our thanks, for their quickly relieving us.

RULE XX.-OBJECTIVES. Active-transitive verbs, and their imperfect and pre: perfect participles, govern the objective case; as "I

found her assisting him."-"Having finished the work, I submit it."

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OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XX. Obs. 1.-Every objective is governed by some verb or participle, according to this Rule, or by some preposition, according to Rule 22d; except such as are put in apposition with others according to Rule 3d, or after an infinitiva or participle according to Rule 21st; as, “Like him of Gath, Goliath.“ They took him to be me."

OBS. 2.- The objective case generally follows the governing word: but when it is emphatic, it often precedes the nominative; as, "Me he restored to mine office, and him he hanged.”Gen., xli, 13. "Home he had not.' Thomson. “This point they have gained.” In poetry it is sometimes placed hetween the nominative and the verb; as," His daring foe securely him defied.”—Milton. “The broom its yellow leaf hath shed.”—Langhorne. A relative or an interrogative pronoun is commonly placed at the head of its clause, and of course it precedes the verb which governs it; as, “. I am Jesus, whom thou persecutest."—

Acts. Whom will the meeting appoint ?" OBS. 3.-All active-transitive verbs have some noun or pronoun for their object. Though verbs are often followed by the infinitive mood, or a dependent clause, forming a part of the logical predicate; yet these terms, being commonly introduced by a connecting particle, do not constitute such an object as is contemplated in our definition of a transitive verb. If, in the senfence, “ Boys love to play,” the verb is transitive, as several grammarians affirm; why not also in “ Boys like to play," " Boys delight to play,” “ Boys seem to play,” “Boys cease to play,” and ihe like? The construction is precisely the same. It must, however, be confessed, that some verbs which thus take the infinitive after them, cannot otherwise be intransitive.

Obs. 4.—The word that, which is often employed to introduce a clause, is, by some grammarians, considered as a pronoun, representing the clauso which follows it. And their opinion seems to be warranted both by the origin and the general import of the particle. But in conformity to general custom, and to his own views of the practical purposes of grammatical analysis, the author has ranked it with the conjunctions. And he thinks it better, to call those verbs intransitive, which are followed by that and a dependent clause, thart to supply the very frequent ellipses which the other explanation supposes. To explain it as a conjunction, connecting an activetransitive verb and its object, (as several respectable grammarians do,) appears to involve some inconsistency.

OBS. 5.-Active-transitive verbs are often followed by two objectives in apposition: as, “Thy saints proclaim thee king."'-Cowper.

" The Author of my being formed me man." -Murray. “ And God called the firmament Heaven."Bible. And, in such a construction, the direct object is sometimes placed before the verb; as, “And Simon he surnamed Peter.”Mark, iii, 15.

OBS. 6.—When a verb is followed by two words in the objective case, which are neither in apposition nor connected by a conjunction, one of them is governed by a preposition understood; as, “ I paid (to) hini' the money;" - They offered to me seat."'_“He asked [of] them the question.”—“ yielded, and unlock'd (to] her all my heart."- Milton.

Obs. 7.-In expressing such sentences passively, the object of the preposia tion is sometimes erroneously assumed" for the nominative; as,

He was paid the money,” in stead of, " The money was paid [to] him."

NOTES TO RULE XX.

Note I.— Those verbs and participles which require an object, should not be used intransitively; as, “She affects [kinch ness,] in order to ingratiate [herself] with you."-"I will not allow of it.” Expunge of, that allow may govern the pronoun it.

Note II.—Those verbs and participles which do not admit an object, should not be used transitively; as, “ The planters grow cotton.” Say raise, or cultivate.

OBS.—Some verbs will govern a kindred noun, or its pronoun, but no other; as, “ He lived a virtuous life.”—“Hear, I pray you, this dream which I have dreamed.Gen., xxxvii, 6.

Note III.—The passive verb should always take for its subject the direct object of the active-transitive verb from which it is derived; as, (Active) “ They denied me this privilege.” (Passive,) “ This privilege was denied me,"—not, "I was denied this privilege."

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XX.-OBJECTIVES. She I shall more readily forgive.

[FORMULE.—Not proper, because the pronoun she is in the nominative case, and is used as the object of the active-transitive verb shall forgive. But according to Rule 20th, * Active-transitive verbs, and their imperfect and preperfect participles, govern the objective case.”—Therefore, she should be her; thus, Her I shall more readily forgive.] Thou only have I chosen. Who shall we send on this errand ? My father allowed my brother and I to accompany him. He that is idle and mischievous, reprove sharply. Who should I meet but my old friend ! He accosts whoever he meets. Whosoever the court favours, is safe. They that honour me I will honour. Who do

you

think I saw the other day?

Under Note 1.-An Object Required.
The ambitious are always seeking to aggrandize.
I must premise with three circumstances.
This society does not allow of personal reflections.
False accusation cannot diminish from real merit,
His servants ye are to whom

ye obey.

Under Note 2.-False Transitives,
Good keeping thrives the herd.
We endeavoured to agree the parties.
Being weary, he sat him down.

Go, fee thee away into the land of Judah. pcThe popular lords did not fail to enlarge themselves on the

subject.

Under Note 3.-Passive Verbs.
They were refused the benefit of their recantation.
Believers are not promised temporal riches.
We were shown several beautiful pictures.
But, unfortunately, I was denied the favour.
You were paid a high compliment.
I have never been asked the question.

RULE XXI.-SAME CASES.

Active-intransitive, passive, and neuter verbs, and their participles, take the same case after as before them, when both words refer to the same thing: as, "He returned a friend, who came a foe.Pope. "The child was named John."-"It could not be he."

OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XXI. OBS. 1.—The verbs described in this rule do not, like active-transitive verbs, require a regimen, or case after them; but their finite tenses may be followed by a nominative, and their infinitives and participles by a nominative or an objective, explanatory of a noun or pronoun which precedes them. And as these cases belong after the verb or participle, they may in a certain sense be said to be governed by it. But the rule is perhaps more properly a rule of agreement; the word which follows the verb or participle, may be said to form a simple

concord with that which precedes it, as if the two were in apposition. (See Rule 3d.)

OBS. 2.—In this rule the terms after and before refer rather to the order of the sense and construction, than to the placing of the words. The proper subject of the verb is the nominative to it, or before it, by Rule 2d; and the other nominative, however placed, belongs after it, by Rule 21st.' In general, however, the proper subject precedes the verb, and the other word follows it, agreeably to the literal sense of the rule. But when the proper subject is placed after the verb, as in the nine instances specified under Rule Žd, the explanatory nominative, is commonly introduced still later; as, “But be thou an example of the believers.”—1 Tim., iv, 12.

OBS. 3.-In interrogative sentences, the terms are usually transposed, or both are placed after the verb; as,

“Whence, and what art thou, execrable shape ?"- Milton.

“Art thou that traitor angels art thou he ?-Idem. OBS. 4.-In a declarative sentence, there may be a rhetorical or poetical transposition of the terms; as, “I was eyes to the blind, and feet was I to the lame.”Job, xxix, 15.

“Far other scene is Thrasymenè now.”—Byron. Obs. 5.- In some peculiar constructions, both words naturally come before the verb; as, “I know not who she is.”—“ Inquire thou whose son the stripling is.”-1 Sam., xvii, 56. “Man would not be the creature which he now is. Blair. “I could not guess who it should be.”-Addison. And they are sometimes placed in this manner by hyperbaton, or transposition; as,

Yet He it is.”—Young.. “No contemptible orator he was.”—Dr. Blair.

OBS. 6.-As infinitives and participles have no nominatives of their own, such as are not transitive in themselves, may take different cases after them; and, in order to determine what case it is that follows them, the learner must carefully observe what preceding word denotes the same person or thing. This word being often remote and sometimes understood, the sense

is the only clew to the construction. Examples: “Who then can bear the thought of being an outcast from his presence ?"Addison. I cannot help being so passionate an admirer as I am.” -Steele. “To recommend what the soberer part of mankind look upon to be a trifle.-Id. It would be a romantic madness, for a man to be a lord in his closet.Id. 6. To affect to be a lord in one's closet, would be a romantic madness.In this last sentence, Lord is in the objective after to be; and madness, in the nominative after wouid be.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XXI.-SAME CASES. We did not know that it was him.

[FORMULE.-Not proper, because the pronoun him, which belongs after the neater verb was, is in the objective case, and does not agree with the pronoun it, which bo. longs before it as the nominative; both words referring to the same thing. But, ac cording to Rule 21st, “ Active-intransitive, passive, and neuter verbs, and their par ticiples, take the same case after as before them, when both words refer to the same thing." Therefore, him should be he; thus, We did not know that it was he.] We thought it was thee. I would act the same part, if I were him. It could not have been her. It is not me, that he is

angry

with.
They believed it to be I.
It was thought to be him.
If it had been her, she would have told us.
We know it to be they.
Whom do you think it is?
Who do you suppose it to be?
We did not know whom they were.
Thou art him whom they described.
Impossible! it can't be me.
Whom did he think you were?
Whom say ye that I am ?

RULE XXII.-OBJECTIVES,
Prepositions govern the Objective case; as,

"Truth and good are one:
And beauty dwells in them, and they in her,
With like participation."- Akenside.

OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XXII. Obs. 1.- Most of the prepositions may take the imperfect participle for their object; and some, the preperfect, or pluperfect: as, "On opening the trial, they accused him of having defrauded them.”—“A quick wit, a nice judgement, &c., could not raise this man above being received only upon the foot of contributing to mirth and diversion.”—Steele. And the preposition to is often followed by an infinitive. But, as prepositions, when they introduce declinable words, or words that have cases, always govern the objective, there are properly no exceptions to the foregoing rule.--Let not the learner suppose, that infinitives or participles, when they are governed by prepositions, are therefore in the objective case ; for case is no attribute of either of them. They are guverned as participles or as infinitives, and not as cases. The mere fact

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