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of government is so far from creating the modification governed, that it necessarily presupposes it to exist.

OBS. 2.- Prepositions are sometimes elliptically construed with edjectives ; as, in vain, in secret, at first, on high ; i. e., in a vain manner, in secret places, at the first time, on high places. Such phrases imply time, place, degree, or manner, and are equivalent to adverbs. In parsing, the learner may supply the ellipsis.

OBs. 3.—In a few instances prepositions precede adverbs ; as, at once, from above, for ever. These should be united, and parsed as adverbs, or else the adverb must be parsed as a noun, according to observation 3d on Rule 15th.

OBS. 4.-When nouns of time or measure are connected with verbs or adjectives, the prepositions which govern them, are generally suppressed: as, * We rode sixty miles that day;" that is, " through sixty miles on that day.” "The wall is ten feet high;' that is, “high to ten feet.” In parsing, supply the ellipsis; or else you must take the time or measure adverbially, as relating to the verb or adjective qualified by it. Such expressions as,

"A board of six feet long," _“ A boy of twelve years old,” are wrong. Strike out of; or say, “ A board of six feet in length,

»--"A boy of twelve years of Obs. 5.--After the adjectives like, near, and nigh, the preposition to or unto is often understood, as, “It is like (to or unto) silver." -Allen. “How like the former!”Dryden. Near yonder copse.”Goldsmith. Nigh this recess.”—Garth. As similarity and proximity are relations, and not qualities, it might seem proper to call like, near, and nigh, prepositions; and some grammarians have so classed the last two. Dr. Johnson seems to be inconsistent in calling near a preposition in the phrase, “So near thy heart,” and an adjective, in the phrase, to Being near their master!" We have not placed them with the prepositions for four reasons: (1.) Because they are sometimes compared ; (2.) Because they sometimes have adverbs evidently relating to them; (3.) Because the preposition to or unto is sometimes expressed after them; and, (4.) Because the words which usually stand for them in the learned languages, are clearly adjectives. Like, when it expresses similarity of manner, and near and nigh, when they express proximity of degree, are adverbs. OBS. 6.-The word worth is often followed by an adjective, or a participle,


govern; as, “If your arguments produce no conviction, they are worth nothing to me.' Beattie. “To reign is worth ambition.”. Milton. “This is life indeed, life worth preserving."-Addison. It is not easy to determine to what part of speech worth here belongs. Dr. Johnson calls it an adjective, but says nothing of the object after it, which some suppose to be governed by of understood. In this supposition, it is gratuitously assumed, that worth is equivalent to worthy, after which of should be expressed; as, “Whatsoever is worthy of their love, is worth their anger.”Denham. But, as worth appears to have no certain characteristic of an adjective, some call it a noun, and suppose a double ellipsis; as, “ The book is (of thé] worth [of] a dollar.” This is still less satisfactory; and, as the whole appears to be mere guess-work, we see no good reason why worth is not a preposition, governing the noun or participle. If an adverb precede worth, it may as well be referred to the foregoing verb, as when it occurs before any other preposition.

OBS. 7.—Both Dr. Johnson and Morne Tooke, (who never agreed if they could help it,) unite in saying that worth, in the phrases, “Wo worth the man;":—Wo worth the day,” &c., is from the imperative of the Saxon verb erythan or weorthan, to be; i. e., "Wo be [to] the man,” or, “Wo betide the man,” &c. And the latter affirms, that, as by is from the imperative of beon, to be, so with (though admitted to be sometimes from withan, to join) is often no other than this same imperative verb wyrth or worth: if so, the words by, with, and worth, were originally synonymous, and should now be referred to one and the same class. The dative case, or oblique object, which they gov. erned as Saxon verbs, becomes their proper object, when taken as English: prepositions, and in this also they appear to be alike.

Obs. 8.-After verbs of giving, procuring, and some others, there is usualla

which it appears

an ellipsis of to or for before the objective of the person; as, "Give [to] him water to drink."--" Buy (for} me a knife.” So in the exclamation, “Wo is me !"'—meaning, “Wo is to me!”

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XXII. -OBJECTIVES. It rests with thou and me to decide.

[FORMULE.-Not proper, because the pronoun thou is in the nominative case, and is governed by the preposition with. But, according to Rule 2211, “Prepositions govern the objective case.” Therefore, thou should be thee; thus, It rests with thes and me to decide.] Let that remain a secret between you and I. I lent the book to some one, I know not who. Who did he inquire for? Thou. From he that is needy, turn not away. We

e are all accountable, each for his own act's. Does that boy know who he is speaking to? I bestow my favours on whosoever I will.

RULE XXIII.-INFINITIVES. The preposition to governs the Infinitive mood, and commonly connects it to a finite verb; “I desire to learn."- Dr. Adam.

OBSERVATIONS ON RULE XXIII. OBS. 1.- No word is more variously explained by grammarians, than this word to, which is prefixed to the verb in the infinitive mood. Johnson, Walker, Scott, Todd, and other lexicographers, call it an adverb; but, in explaining its use, they say it denotes certain relations, which it is not the office of an adverb, to express., [See Johnson Dictionary, 4to.] Lowth, Murray, Webster, Coar, Comly, and others, call it a preposition ; and some of these ascribe it to the government of the verb, and others do not. Lowth says, “The preposition to placed before the verb, makes the infinitive mood.” Skinner, in his Canones Etymologici, calls it an equivocal article. Horne Tooke, who shows that most of our conjunctions and prepositions may be traced back to ancient verbs and nouns, says that to has the same origin as do, and he seems to consider it an auxiliary verb. Many are content to call it a prefix, a particle, a sign of the infinitive, &c., without telling us why or how it is so, or to what part of speech it belongs. If it be a part of the infinitive, it is a verb, and must be classed with the auxiliaries. Dr. Ash placed it among the auxiliaries; but he says, the auxiliaries “seem to have the nature of adverbs.We have given in the preceding rule that explanation which we consider to be the most correct and the most simple. Who first parsed the infinitive in this manner we know not; the doctrine is found in several English grammars, one of which, written by a clussical teacher, was published in London in 1796.-See Coar's Grammar, 12mo, p. 263.

Obs. 2.-Most English grammarians have considered the word to as a part of the infinitive; and, like the teachers of Latin, have referred the government of this mood to a preceding verb. But the rule which they give is partial, and often inapplicable; and their exceptions to it are numerous and puzzling. They teach that at least half the different parts of speech frequently govern the infinitive: if so, there should be a distinct rule for each; for why should the government of one part of speech be made an exception to that of an other ? and, if this be done, with respect to the infinitive, why not olso with respect to the objective case? In all'instances to which their rulo

is applicable, the ruie here given amounts to the same thing; and it obviates the necessity for their numerous exceptions, and the embarrassment arising from other constructions of the infinitive not noticed in them,

OBs. 3.—The infinitive thus admits a simpler solution in English, than ini most other languages. In French, the infinitive, though frequently placed in immediate dependence on an other verb, may also be governed by several different prepositions, (as à, de, pour, sans, après,) according to the sense. * In Spanish and Italian, the construction is similar. In Latin and Greek, tho infinitive is, for the most part, dependent on an other verb. But, according to the grammars, it may stand for a noun in all the six cases; and many have called it an indeclinable noun. See the Port-Royal Latin and Greek Grammars ; in which several peculiar constructions of the infinitive, are referred to the government of a preposition.

OBS. 4.-Though the infinitive is commonly made an adjunct to some finite verb, yet it may be joined to almost all the other parts of speech, or to an other infinitive; as,

1. To a noun; as, “ He had leave to go."
2. To an adjective; as, “We were anxious to see you."
3. To a pronoun; as,

I discovered him to be a scholar."
4. To a verb in the infinitive; as, “To cease to do evil.”'
5. To a participle; as, “Endeavouring to escape, he fell."
6. To an adverb; as, “She is old enough to go to school,'
7. To a conjunction; as, “ He knows better than to trust you."
8. To a preposition; as, “I was about to write."---Rev., x, 4.
9. To an interjection ; (by ellipsis;) as, “O to forget her !"— Young.

Obs. 5.-The infinitive the mere verb, without affirination; and, in some respect, reseinbles a noun. It may stand for

1. A subject ; as, “To steal is sinful”
2. A predicate; as, “To enjoy is to obey.Popol
3. A purpose, or an end ; as, He's gone to do it.”Edgeworth,
4. An employment; as,

He loves to ride." 5. A cause; as,

“I rejoice to hear it.” 6. A coming event; as, “ A structure soon to fall." - Coroper. 7. A term of comparison ; as, “ He was so much affected as to weep."

OBs. 6.- Anciently, the infinitive was sometimes preceded by jor as well as to; as, “I went up to Jerusalem for to worship."--- Acts, sxiv, 11. “What went ye out for to see ?"- Luke, vii, 26.

.6 Learn skilfullie how Each grain for to laie by itself on a mow."- Tusser. Modern usage rejects the former preposition.

Obs. 7.—The infinitive sometimes depends on a verb understood; as, To be candid with you, (I confess] I was in fault.” Some grammarians have orroneously taught that the infinitive in such sentences is put absolute.

OBs. 8. -The infinitive, or a phrase of which the infinitive is a part, boal introduced apparently as the subject of a verb, but superseded by some other word, is put aòsolute, or left unconnected, by pleonasm ; as,

To be, or not to be ; that is the question."--Shakspeare, OBs. 9.-The infinitive of the verb be, is often understood; as, " I suppose * [to be necessary.”. [See Obs. 2d on Rule xxiv.]

059. 10.-The infinitive usually follows the word on which it depends; but this order is sometimes reversed; as,

catch your vivid scenes, too gross her hand.”Thomson.

* "La préposition, est un mot indéclinable, placé devant les noms, les pronoms, et les verbes, qu'elle r git.-The preposition is an indeclinable word placed before the nouns, pronouns, and verbs, which it governs."--Perrin's Grammar, p. 152.

“Every verb placed immediately after an other verb, or after a preposition, ought to be put in the infinitive; because it is then the regimen of the verb or preposition which precedes "--Gram, des Gram. par Girault Du Vivier, p. 774.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XXIII. - INFINITIVES. Ought these things be tolerated ?

[FORMULE.—Not proper, because the infinitive be tolerated, is not preceded by the preposition to. But, according to Rule 232, “The preposition to governs the infinitive mooch, and commonly connects it to a finite verb. Therefore, to should be inserted; tbus, Ought these things to be tolerated?) Please excuse my son's absence.

go out from me.
Forbid them enter the garden.
Do you not perceive it move ?
Allow others discover your merit,
He was seen go in at that gate,
Permit me pass



Cause every


The active verbs, bid, dare, feel, hear, let, make, need, see, and their participles, usually take the Infinitive after them, without the preposition To: as, “If he bade thee depart

, how darest thou stay?"



OBs. 1.—The preposition is almost always employed after the passive form of these verbs, and in some instances after the active: as, “ He was heard to say.”—“I cannot see to do it.”—“What would dare to molest him who might call, on every side, to thousands enriched by his bounty?”Dr. John

OBS. 2.—The auxiliary be of the passive infinitive is also suppressed, after feel, hear, make, and see ; as, "I heard the letter read,—not, " be read.

OBs. 3.—A few other verbs, besides the eight which are mentioned in the foregoing rule, sometimes have the infinitive after them without to; such as, behold, find, have, help, mark, observe, and other equivalents of see. Example: “Certainly it is heaven upon earth, to have a man's mind move in charity, rest in Providence, and turn upon the poles of truth.”—Ld. Bacon.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XXIV.- INFINITIVES. They need not to call upon her.

(FORMULE.—Not proper, because the preposition to is inserted before cali, which follows the active verb need. But, according to Rule 24th, “The active verbs bid, dare, feel, hear, let, make, need, see, and their participles, usually take the infinitive after them, without the preposition to.” Therefore, to should be omitted; thus, They need not call upon her.] I felt a chilling sensation to creep over me. I have heard him to mention the subject. Bid the boys to come in immediately. 1 dare to say he has not got home yet. Let no rash promise to be made We sometimes see bad men to be honoured. A good reader will make himself to be distinctly heard.

RULE XXV.-NOM. ABSOLUTE. A noun or a pronoun is put absolute in the Nominative, when its case depends on no other word: as, " He failing, who shall meet success ?”—“Your fathers, where are they? and the prophets, do they live forever?"Zech., i, 5. This said, he form'd thee, Adam! thee, O man! Dust of the ground!”—Milton.


Obs. 1.-In parsing the nominative absolute, tell how it is put so, whether with a participle, by direct address, by pieonasm, or by exclamation ; for a noun or a pronoun is put absolute in the nominative, under the following four circumstances:

1. When, with a participle, it is used to express a cause, or a concomitant fact; as,

Thou looking on,
Shame to be overcome or overreach'd,

Would utmost vigor raise."--Milton. 2. When, by direct address, it is put in the second person, and set off from the verb by a comma; as, " At length, Seged, reflect and be wise.”—Dr. Johnson.

3. When, by pleonasm, it is introduced abruptly for the sake of emphasis ; as, "He that is in the city, famine and pestilence shall devour him.” “Gad, a troop shall overcome him.”Gen., xlix, 19. " The north and the south, thou hast created them.”Psalms, lxxxix, 12. (See the figure Pleonasm, in PART IV.]

4. When, by mere exclamation, it is used without address, and without other words expressed or implied to give it construction; as,

“Oh! deep enchanting prelude to repose,

The dawn of bliss, the twilight of our woes !”—Campbell. Obs. 2.-The nominative put absolute, with a participle, is equivalent to a dependent clause, commencing with when, while, if, since, or because ; as,

I being a child,”-equal to, “When I was a child.'

OBS. 3.—The participle being is often understood after nouns or pronouns put absolute; as,

"Alike in ignorance, his reason [- -] such,

Whether he thinks too little or too much."---Pope. Oes. 4.-All nouns in the second person are either put absolute, according to Rule 25th, or in apposition with their own pronouns placed before them, according to Rule 3d: as, “This is the stone which was set at nought af you builders."— Acts.

“Peace! minion, peace ! it boots not me to hear

The selfish counsel of you hangers-on.Author. Obs. 5.- Nouns preceded by an article, are almost always in the third person ; and, in exclamatory phrases, such nouns sometimes appear to have no determinable construction; as, O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God.”Rom., xi, 33.

Obs. 6.-The case of nouns used 'in exclamations, or in mottoes and abbreviated sayings, often depends, or may be conceived to depend, on something understood ; and, when their construction can be satisfactorily explained on the principle of ellipsis, they are not put absolute. The following examples may perhaps be resolved in this manner, though the expressions will lose much of their vivacity: “A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse !"

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