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Shak. Heaps upon heaps," –"Skin for skin,"_"An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth,”—“Day after day,”—“World without end."- Bible.

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XXV.-NOM. ABSOLUTE. Him having ended his discourse, the assembly dispersed.

[FORMULE.-Not proper, because the pronoun him, whose case depends on no other word, is in the objective case. But, according to Rule 25th, “A noun or a pronoun is put absolute in the nominative, when its case depends on no other word. There fore, him should be he; thus, He having ended his discourse, the assembly dispersed.] Me being young, they deceived me. Them refusing to comply, I withdrew. Thee being present, he would not tell what he knew. The child is lost; and me, whither shall I go? Oh happy us! surrounded thus with blessings !—Murray, “Thee too! Brutus, my son!” cried Cæsar overcome.

But him, the chieftain of them all,
His sword hangs rusting on the wall.
Her quick relapsing to her former state,
With boding fears approach the serving train.
There all thy gifts and graces we display,
Thee, only. thee, directing all our way.

RULE XXVI.--SUBJUNCTIVES. A future contingency is best expressed by a verb in the Subjunctive present; and a mere supposition with indefinite time, by a verb in the Subjunctive imperfect: but a conditional circumstance assumed as a fact, requires the Indicative mood: as, "If thou forsake him, he will cast thee off forever.”—“If it were not so, I would have told you.”—“If thou went, nothing would be gained.”— “Though he is poor, he is contented.”

NOTES TO RULE XXVI.

week.

Note I.-In connecting words that express time, the order and fitness of time should be observed. Thus: in stead of, I have seen him last week,” say, “I saw him last week ;" and in stead of, “ I saw him this week,say, “ I have seen him this

Note II.—Verbs of commanding, desiring, expecting, hoping, intending, permitting, and some others, in all their tenses, refer to actions or events, relatively present or future: one should therefore say, “I hoped you would come,"—not, “ would have come ;” and,“ I intended to do it,”—not, “ to have done it;" &c.

Note III.—Propositions that are at all times equally true or false, should generally be expressed in the present tense; as, “He seemed hardly to know, that two and two make four," -not,“ made."

FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XXVI.-MOODS. Under the First Clause of Rule 26.-Future Contingencies. He will not be pardoned, unless he repents.

[FORMULE.—Not proper, because the verb repents, which is used to express a future contingency, is in the indicative mood. But, according to the first clause of Rule 26th, "A future contingency is best expressed by a verb in the subjunctive present. Therefore, repents, should be repent; thus, He will not be pardoned, unless he repent. He will maintain his cause, though he loses his estate, They will fine thee, unless thou offerest an excuse. I shall walk out in the afternoon, unless it rains. Let him take heed lest he falls. On condition that he comes, I consent to stay. If he is but discreet, he will succeed. Take heed that thou speakest not to Jacob. If thou castest me off, I shall be miserable. Send them to me, if thou pleasest. Watch the door of thy lips, lest thou utterest folly.

Under the Second Clause of Rule 26.-Mere Suppositions. And so would I, if I was he.

[FORMULE.—Not proper, because the verb was, which is used to express a mere sup, position, with indefinite time, is in the indicative mood. But, according to the second clause of Rule 26th, “A mere supposition, with indefinite time, is best expressed by a verb in the subjunctive imperfect." Therefore was should be were; thus, And so would I, if I were be.] If I was to write, he would not regard it. If thou feltest as I do, we should soon decide. Though thou sheddest thy blood in the cause, it would but

prove thee sincerely a fool. If thou lovedst him, there would be more evidence of it, I believed, whatever was the issue, all would be well. If love was never feigned, it would appear to be scarce. There fell from his eyes as it had been scales. If he was an impostor, he must have been detected. Was death denied, all men would wish to die. O that there was yet a day to redress thy wrongs ! Though thou wast huge as Atlas, thy efforts would be vain.

Under the Last Clause of Rule 26.-Assumed Facts. If he know the way, he does not need a guide.

[FORMULE.-Not proper, because the verb know, which is used to express a condi. tional circumstance assumed as a fact, is in the subjunctive mood. But, according te the last clause of Rule 26th, “A conditional circumstance assumed as a fact, requires the indicative mood.” Therefore, know should be knows; thus, If he knows the way, he does not need a guide.]

Though he seem to be artless, he has deceived us.
If he think as he speaks, he may be safely trusted.
Though this event be strange, it certainly did happen.
If thou love tranquillity of mind, seek it not abroad.
If seasons of idleness be dangerous, what must a continued

habit of it prove?-Blair. Though he were a son, yet learned he obedience by the things

which he suffered.
I knew thou wert not slow to hear.

Under Note 1.— Words of Time,
The work has been finished last week.
He was out of employment this fortnight.
This mode of expression has been formerly in use.
I should be much obliged to him if he will attend to it.
I will

pay

the vows which my lips have uttered when I was in trouble. I have compassion on the multitude, because they continue

with me now three days. I thought, by the accent, that he had been speaking to his

child. And he that was dead sat up and began to speak. Thou hast borne, and hast patience, and for my name's sako

hast laboured, and hast not fainted.- Rev., ii, 3.
Ye will not come unto me that ye might have life.
At the end of this quarter, I shall be at school two years.
We have done no more than it was our duty to have done.

Under Note 2.-Relative Tenses.
We expected that he would have arrived last night.
Our friends intended to have met us.
We hoped to have seen you.
He would not have been allowed to have entered.

Under Note 3.-Permanent Propositions.
The doctor affirmed, that fever always produced thirst.
The ancients asserted, that virtue was it own reward.

PROMISCUOUS EXAMPLES OF FALSE SYNTAX.

LESSON I. [It is here expected that the learner will ascertain for himself the proper form of correcting each example, according to the particular Rule or Note under which it be longs.] There is a spirit in man; and the inspiration of the Almighty

giveth them understanding. My people doth not consider.

I have never heard who they invited.

Then hasten thy return; for, thee away,

Nor lustre has the sun, nor joy the day.
I am as well as when you was here.
That elderly man, he that came in late, I supposed to be the

superintendent.
All the virtues of mankind are to be counted upon a few fin.

gers, but his follies and vices are innumerable.
It must indeed be confessed that a lampoon or a satire do not

carry in them robbery or murder.
There was more persons than one engaged in this affair.
A man who lacks ceremony, has need for great merit.
A wise man avoids the showing any excellence in trifles.
The most important and first female quality is sweetness of

temper.
We choose rather lead than follow.
Ignorance is the mother of fear, as well as admiration.
He must fear

many,

who
many

fear.
Every one partake of honour bestowed on the worthy.
The king nor the queen were not at all deceived.
Was there no difference, there would be no choice.
I had rather have been informed.
Must thee return this evening ?
Life and death is in the power of the tongue.
I saw a person that I took to be she.
Let him be whom he may, I shall not stop.
This is certainly an useful invention.
That such a spirit as thou dost not understand me.
"It is no more but justice,' quoth the farmer.

XY

LESSON II.

x

Great improvements has been made.
It is undoubtedly true what I have heard.
The nation is torn by feuds which threaten their ruin,
The account of these transactions were incorrect.
Godliness with contentment are great gain.
The number of sufferers have not been ascertained.

There are one or more of them yet in confinement.
1 *****They have chose the wisest part.
14:! He spent his whole life in doing of good.
1571 They know scarcely that temperance is a virtue.
16. I am afraid lest I have laboured in vain.
17, Mischief to itself doth back recoil.
15.2

This construction sounds rather harshly.

What is the cause of the leaves curling ? igal

23 Was it thee, that made the noise ?
tu- | Let thy flock clothe upou the naked.

Wisdom and knowledge is granted unto thee.
His conduct was surprising strange.

This woman taught my brother and I to read.
16 Let your promises be such that you can perform.
V. We shall sell them in the state they now are.

We may add this observation, however.
This came in fashion when I was young.
1 did not use the leaves, bugroot of the plant.
We have used every mean in our power continually

. 15 - / 2. Pass ye away, thou inhabitant of Saphir.Micah, i, 11. | Give every syllable, and every

letter their

proper

sound.

LESSON III.

To know exactly how much mischief may be, ventured upon

with impunity, are knowledge enough for some folks.
Every leaf and every twig teem'with life. 1/- 3
I was rejoiced at this intelligence. - 4
At this stage of advancement, there is little difficulty in the

pupil's understanding the passive and neuter verbs.
I was afraid that I should have lost the parcel.6-1
Which of all these patterns is the prettier?
They which despise instruction shall not be wise.
Both thou and thy advisers have mistaken their interest. 5-6
A idle soul shall suffer hunger.
The lips of knowledge is a precious jewel.
I and my cousin are requested to attend.
Can only say that such is my

belief,
This is different from the conscience being made to feel.
Here is ground for their leaving the world with peace. 14*
Where are you all running so fast? 16
A man is the noblest work of creation.
Of all other crimes willful murder is the most atrocious,
The tribes whom I visited, are partially civilized.
From hence I conclude they are in error.
The girls' books are neater than the boys, i
I intended to have transcribed it.
Shall a character made up of the very worst passions, pass

under the name of a gentleman ?'
Rhoda ran in, and told how Peter stood before the gate. /
What is latitude and longitude ?
Cicero was more eloquent than Roman.
Who dares apologize for Pizarro ? —who is but another namo

for rapacity?

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