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Shak. “Heaps upon heaps," –"Skin for skin,"_"An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth,”—“Day after day,”—“World without end."- Bible.
FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XXV.-NOM. ABSOLUTE. Him having ended his discourse, the assembly dispersed.
[FORMULE.-Not proper, because the pronoun him, whose case depends on no other word, is in the objective case. But, according to Rule 25th, “A noun or a pronoun is put absolute in the nominative, when its case depends on no other word. There fore, him should be he; thus, He having ended his discourse, the assembly dispersed.] Me being young, they deceived me. Them refusing to comply, I withdrew. Thee being present, he would not tell what he knew. The child is lost; and me, whither shall I go? Oh happy us! surrounded thus with blessings !—Murray, “Thee too! Brutus, my son!” cried Cæsar overcome.
But him, the chieftain of them all,
RULE XXVI.--SUBJUNCTIVES. A future contingency is best expressed by a verb in the Subjunctive present; and a mere supposition with indefinite time, by a verb in the Subjunctive imperfect: but a conditional circumstance assumed as a fact, requires the Indicative mood: as, "If thou forsake him, he will cast thee off forever.”—“If it were not so, I would have told you.”—“If thou went, nothing would be gained.”— “Though he is poor, he is contented.”
NOTES TO RULE XXVI.
Note I.-In connecting words that express time, the order and fitness of time should be observed. Thus: in stead of, “I have seen him last week,” say, “I saw him last week ;" and in stead of, “ I saw him this week,” say, “ I have seen him this
Note II.—Verbs of commanding, desiring, expecting, hoping, intending, permitting, and some others, in all their tenses, refer to actions or events, relatively present or future: one should therefore say, “I hoped you would come,"—not, “ would have come ;” and,“ I intended to do it,”—not, “ to have done it;" &c.
Note III.—Propositions that are at all times equally true or false, should generally be expressed in the present tense; as, “He seemed hardly to know, that two and two make four," -not,“ made."
FALSE SYNTAX UNDER RULE XXVI.-MOODS. Under the First Clause of Rule 26.-Future Contingencies. He will not be pardoned, unless he repents.
[FORMULE.—Not proper, because the verb repents, which is used to express a future contingency, is in the indicative mood. But, according to the first clause of Rule 26th, "A future contingency is best expressed by a verb in the subjunctive present. Therefore, repents, should be repent; thus, He will not be pardoned, unless he repent. He will maintain his cause, though he loses his estate, They will fine thee, unless thou offerest an excuse. I shall walk out in the afternoon, unless it rains. Let him take heed lest he falls. On condition that he comes, I consent to stay. If he is but discreet, he will succeed. Take heed that thou speakest not to Jacob. If thou castest me off, I shall be miserable. Send them to me, if thou pleasest. Watch the door of thy lips, lest thou utterest folly.
Under the Second Clause of Rule 26.-Mere Suppositions. And so would I, if I was he.
[FORMULE.—Not proper, because the verb was, which is used to express a mere sup, position, with indefinite time, is in the indicative mood. But, according to the second clause of Rule 26th, “A mere supposition, with indefinite time, is best expressed by a verb in the subjunctive imperfect." Therefore was should be were; thus, And so would I, if I were be.] If I was to write, he would not regard it. If thou feltest as I do, we should soon decide. Though thou sheddest thy blood in the cause, it would but
prove thee sincerely a fool. If thou lovedst him, there would be more evidence of it, I believed, whatever was the issue, all would be well. If love was never feigned, it would appear to be scarce. There fell from his eyes as it had been scales. If he was an impostor, he must have been detected. Was death denied, all men would wish to die. O that there was yet a day to redress thy wrongs ! Though thou wast huge as Atlas, thy efforts would be vain.
Under the Last Clause of Rule 26.-Assumed Facts. If he know the way, he does not need a guide.
[FORMULE.-Not proper, because the verb know, which is used to express a condi. tional circumstance assumed as a fact, is in the subjunctive mood. But, according te the last clause of Rule 26th, “A conditional circumstance assumed as a fact, requires the indicative mood.” Therefore, know should be knows; thus, If he knows the way, he does not need a guide.]
Though he seem to be artless, he has deceived us.
habit of it prove?-Blair. Though he were a son, yet learned he obedience by the things
which he suffered.
Under Note 1.— Words of Time,
the vows which my lips have uttered when I was in trouble. I have compassion on the multitude, because they continue
with me now three days. I thought, by the accent, that he had been speaking to his
child. And he that was dead sat up and began to speak. Thou hast borne, and hast patience, and for my name's sako
hast laboured, and hast not fainted.- Rev., ii, 3.
Under Note 2.-Relative Tenses.
Under Note 3.-Permanent Propositions.
PROMISCUOUS EXAMPLES OF FALSE SYNTAX.
LESSON I. [It is here expected that the learner will ascertain for himself the proper form of correcting each example, according to the particular Rule or Note under which it be longs.] There is a spirit in man; and the inspiration of the Almighty
giveth them understanding. My people doth not consider.
I have never heard who they invited.
Then hasten thy return; for, thee away,
Nor lustre has the sun, nor joy the day.
gers, but his follies and vices are innumerable.
carry in them robbery or murder.
Great improvements has been made.
There are one or more of them yet in confinement.
This construction sounds rather harshly.
What is the cause of the leaves curling ? igal
23 Was it thee, that made the noise ?
Wisdom and knowledge is granted unto thee.
This woman taught my brother and I to read.
We may add this observation, however.
. 15 - / 2. Pass ye away, thou inhabitant of Saphir.—Micah, i, 11. | Give every syllable, and every
To know exactly how much mischief may be, ventured upon
with impunity, are knowledge enough for some folks.
pupil's understanding the passive and neuter verbs.
under the name of a gentleman ?'