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FIGURE IX.-PERSONIFICATION.
Hail, sacred Polity, by Freedom rear'd!
Hail, sacred Freedom, when by Law restrain'd!
Without you, what were man? A grov'ling herd,
In darkness, wretchedness, and want enchain'd.—Beattie.
Let cheerful Mem’ry, from her purest cells,
Lead forth a goodly train of Virtues fair,
Cherish'd in early youth, now paying back
With tenfold usury the pious care. -Porteus.

FIGURE X.-EROTESIS.

He that chastiseth the heathen, shall not he correct? he that teacheth man knowledge, shall not he know?—Psal., xciv, 10.

Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots ? then may ye also do good, that are accustomed to do evil. Jeremiah, xiii, 23.

FIGURE XI.-ECPHONESIS.

O that my head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the daughter of my people! Othat I had in the wilderness & lodging place of way-faring men, that I might leave my people, . and go from them !-Jeremiah, ix, 1.

LESSON X.-FIGURES OF RHETORIC.

FIGURE XII.ANTITHESIS. On this side, modesty is engaged; on that, impudence: on this, chastity; on that, lewdness : on this, integrity; on that, fraud: on this, piety; on that, profaneness: on this, constancy; on that, fickleness: on this, honour; on that, baseness: on this, moderation; on that, unbridled passion.--Cicero.

She, from the rending earth, and bursting skies,
Saw gods descend, and fiends infernal rise;
Here fix'd the dreadful, there the blest abodes;
Fear made her devils, and weak hope her gods.- Pope.

FIGURE XIII.-CLIMAX.

Virtuous actions are necessarily approved by the awakened conscience; and when they are approved, they are commended to practice; and when they are practised, they become easy; and when they become easy, they afford pleasure; and when they afford pleasure, they are done frequently; and when they pre done frequently, they are confirmed by habit: and com Vrmed habit is a kind of second nature.

FIGURE XIV.-IRONY.

And it came to pass at noon, that Elijah mocked them, and said, 'Cry aloud; for he is a god : either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is in [on] a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be awaked !–1 Kings, xviii, 27.

Some lead a life unblamable and just,
Their own dear virtue their unshaken trust;
They never sin—or if (as all offend)
Some trivial slips their daily walk 'attend,
The poor are near at hand, the charge is small,
A slight gratuity atones for all.— Cowper.

CTAPTER VI.-EXAMINATION.

QUESTIONS ON PROSODY.

LESSON 1.-PUNCTUATION. Of what does Prosody treat? What is Punctuation What are the principal points, or marks? What pauses are denoted by the first four points ? What pauses are required by the other four? What is the general use of tre comma? How many rules for the comna are there? and what are their heads ? What says Rule 1st of simple sentences ?—Rule 2d of simple members ?—Rule

3d of more than two words 1-Rule 4th of only two words ?-Rule 5th of words in pairs ? ---Rule 6th of worn's put absolute ?—Rule 7th of words in apposition ?--Rule 8th of adjectives Buio 9th of finite verbs ?—Rule 10th of infinitives ?—Rule 11th of participles ?--Rule 12th of adverbs ?--Rule 13th of conjunctions ?-Rule 14th of prepositions ?-Rule 15th of interjections ? Rule 16th of words repeated ?—Rule 17th of dependent quotations ?

LESSON II.-PUNCTUATION, How many and what exceptions are there to Rulo let for the comma?-to

Rule 28 ?-to Rule 3d ? --to Rule 4th ?-to Rule 5th f-to Rule 6th ?-to Rule 7th ?-to Rule 8th ?-to Rule 9th ?--to Rule 10ih?-to Rule 11th to Rule 12th ?-to Rule 13th ?-to Rule 14th ?-to Ruis 15th femto Rule

16th 3-to Rule 17th ? When are different words said to be in the same construction ?

LESSONS III.-PUNCTUATION. What is the general use of the semicolon ? How many rules are there for the semicolon! and what are their heads ? What says Rule ist of compound, members ?-Rule 2d of simple members ?

Rule 3d of words in apposition ?
What is the general use of the colon ?
How many rules are there for the colon? and what are their heads ?
What says Rule ist of additional remarks?—Rule 2d of greater pauses ?-

Rule 3d of independent quotations ?
What is the general use of the period ?
How many rules are there for the period ? and what are their heads ?
What says Rule 1st of distinct sentences ?-Rule 2d of allied sentences ?-Rule
3d of abbreviations?

LESSON IV.--PUNCTUATION.
What is the use of the dash ?
How many rules are there for the dash ? and what are their heads ?
What says Rule ist of abrupt pauses ?--Rule 2d of emphatic pauses ?—Rule

3d of faulty dashes ?
What iš the use of the eroteme, or note of interrogation ?
How many rules are there for it? and what are their heads ?
What says Rule 1st of questions direct ?—Rule 2d of questions united 1-Rule

3d of questions indirect ?
What is the use of the ecphonemo, or note of exclamation ?
How many rules are there for it? and what are their heads ?
What says Rule 1st of interjections ?-Rule ed of invocations ?—Rule 3d of
exclamatory questions ?

LESSON V.-PUNCTUATION. What is the use of the curves, or marks of parenthesis ? How many rules are there for them ? and what are their heads ? What says Rule 1st of the parenthesis ?—Rule 2d of included points ? What is said about other marks ? What is the use of the apostrophe ? _of the hyphen k-of the diæresis ?-of

the acute accent ?—of the grave accent ?-of the circumflex ?-of the breve ? -of the macron ?-of the ellipsis ?-of the caret ?-of the brace-of the section ?-of the paragraph ?-of the quotation points ?-of the crotchets !of the index?-of the asterisk, the obelisk, the double dagger, and the parallels ?-of the asterism ?-of the cedilla ?'

[Having correctly answered the foregoing questions, the pupil should be taught to apply what he has learned; and, for this purpose, he may be required to read the preface to this volume, or a portion of any other accurately pointed book, and to assign a reason for every mark he finds.]

LESSON V1.-UTTERANCE, What is Utterance ? and what does it include ? What is pronunciation ?-What does pronunciation require ? What aro the just powers of the letters ? What is accent?-Is every word accented ? Can a word have more than one accent ? What four things distinguish the elegant speaker ? What is elocution ?-What does elocution require ?- What is emphasis ? What are pauses ? and what is said of their duration ? What are inflections - What is called the rising inflection ?- What alled

the falling inflection ?-How are these inflections exemplified ?-How ara

they used in asking questions ? What are tones? and why do they deserve particular attention?

LESSON VII.--FIGURES.

What is a Figure in grammar ?-How many kinds of figures are there?
What is a figure of orthography ?- Name the figures of this kind.
What is mimesis I-What is an archaism ?
What is a figure of etymology?
How many and what are the figures of etymology?
What is aphæresis ?-prosthesis ?-syncope -apocope ?-paragoge?-diære

sis ?-synæresis ?-tmesis?
What is a figure of syntax ?-How many and what are the figures of syntaxi
What is ellipsis in grammar? Are sentences often ellipticas ?
How can there be an ellipsis of the article?-the noun ?-the adjective !-the

pronoun?-the verb?-the participle ?--the adverb?—the conjunction the preposition ?--thie interjection ?-a phrase or clause? What is pleonasm?-and when is this figure allowable ? What is syllepsis ?-enallage3-hyperbaton ?-what is said of hyberbaton?

LESSON VIII.-FIGURES,
What is a figure of rhetoric ?-What name have some such figures ?

Do figures of rhetoric often occur?-On what are they founded ?
How many and what are the principal figures of rhetoric?
What is a simile?-a metaphor?-an allegory 3-a metonymy?-synecdoche ?

-hyperbole ?- vision - apostrophe ? - personification ?--erotesis 3-eophonesis ?-antithesis E-climax ?-irony?

LESSON IX.- VERSIFICATION.
What is Versification ?- What is the quantity of a syllable ?
How is quantity denominated ?-How is it said to be proportioned ?
On what does quantity depend? and what sounds are the most easily

lengthened ?
What words are variable in quantity ? and what syllables are fixed ?
What is rhyme ?-What is blank verse ?
Of what does a line of poetry consist ?-Of what does a foot consist ?
What are the principal English feet?
What is an iambus ?-a trochee ?-an anapest ?-a dactyl?
How many kinds of verse have we?
What is scanning, or scansion ?

LESSON X.-VERSIFICATION.
What syllables are accented in an iambic line ?
What are the several measures of iambic verse ?
What syllables are accented in a trochaic line?
What are the several measures of trochaic verse ?
What syllables are accented in an anapestic line ?
What are the several measures of anapestic verse ?
What syllables are accented in a dactylic line ?
What are the several measures of dactylic verse ?

[Now parse the ten lessons of the Eighth Praxis; explaining every thing of which the teacher may demand an explanation.]

CHAPTER VII.FOR WRITING.

EXERCISES IN PROSODY. By When the pupil can readily answer all the questions on Prosody, and apply the rules of punctuation to any composition in which the points are rightly inserted, he should write out the following exercises, supplying what is required.]

EXERCISE 1.--PUNCTUATION. Copy the following sentences, and insert the COMMA where it is

requisite.

Examples under Rule 1.
The dogmatist's assurance is paramount to argument.
The whole course of his argumentation comes to nothing.
The fieldmouse builds her garner under ground.
Exc. The first principles of almost all sciences are few.
What he gave me to publish was but a small part.
To remain insensible to such provocation is apathy.
Minds ashamed of poverty would be proud of affluence.

Under Rule 2.
I was eyes to the blind and feet was I to the lame.
They are gone but the remembrance of them is sweet.

He has passed it is likely through varieties of fortune.
The mind though free has a governor within itself.
They I doubt not oppose the bill on public principles.
Be silent be grateful and adore.
He is an adept in language who always speaks the truth.
The race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong.
Exc. 1. He that has far to go should not hurry.
Hlobbes believed the eternal truths which he opposed.
Feeble are all pleasu

sures in which the heart has no share.
Exc. 2. A good name is better than precious ointment.
Thinkst thou that duty shall have dread to speak ?
The spleen is seldom felt were Flora reigns.

Under Rule 3.
The city army court espouse my cause.
Wars pestilences and diseases are terrible instructors.
Walk daily in a pleasant airy and umbrageous garden.
Wit spirits faculties but make it worse.
Men wives and children stare cry out and run.

Under Rule 4.
Hope and fear are essentials in religion.
Praise and adoration are perfective of our souls.
We know bodies and their properties most perfectly.
Satisfy yourselves with what is rational and attainable.
Exc 1. God will rather look to the inward motions of the

mind than to the outward form of the body. Gentleness is unassuming in opinion and temperate in zeal, Exc. 2. He has experienced prosperity and adversity. All sin essentially is and must be mortal. Exc. 3. One person is chosen chairman or moderator, Duration or time is measured by motion. The governor or viceroy is chosen annually. Exc. 4. Reflection reason still the ties improve. His neat plain parlour wants our modern style.

Under Rule 5. I inquired and rejected consulted and deliberated. Seed-time and harvest cold and heat summer and winter day and night shall not cease.

EXERCISE II.--PUNCTUATION. Copy the following sentences, and insert the COMMA where it is

requisite.

Under Rule 6.
The night being dark they did not proceed.

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