« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
A simple word is one that is not compounded, not composed of other words; as, watch, man, never, the, less.
A compound word is one that is composed of two or more simple words; as, watchman, nevertheless.
Permanent compounds are consolidated ; as, bookseller, schoolmaster : others, which may be called temporary compounds, are formed by the hyphen; as, glasshouse, negro-merchant.
RULES FOR THE FIGURE OF WORDS.
RULE I. COMPOUNDS.
Words regularly or analogically united, and commonly known as forming a compound, should never be needlessly broken apart.
RULE II. SIMPLES.
When the simple words would only form a regular phrase, of the same meaning, the compounding of any of them ought to be avoided.
RULE III. THE SENSE.
Words otherwise liable to be misunderstood, must be joined together or written separately, as the sense and construction may happen to require.
RULE IV. ELLIPSES.
When two or more compounds are connected in one sentence, none of them should be split to make an ellipsis of half @ word.
RULE V.-THE HYPHEN.
When the parts of a compound do not fully coalesce, as today, to-night, to-morrow; or when each retains its original accent, so that the compound has more than one, or one that is movable, as first-born, hanger-on, laughtər-loving, the hyphen should be inserted between them.
RULE VI.-NO HYPHEN,
When a compound has but one accented syllable in pronunciation, as watchword, statesman, gentleman, and the parts are such as admit of a complete coalescence, no hyphen should be inserted between them.
CHAPTER IV.-OF SPELLING.
Spelling is the art of expressing words by their proper letters.
OBS.-This important art is to be acquired rather by means of the spellingbook or dictionary, and by observation in reading, than by the study of written rules. The orthography of our language is attended with much uncertainty and perplexity: many words are variously spelled by the best scholars, and many others are not usually written according to the analogy of similar words. "But to be ignorant of the orthography of such words as are uniformly spelled and frequently used, is justly considered disgraceful. The following rules may prevent some embarrassment, and thus be of service to those who wish to be accurate.
RULES TOR SPELLING.
RULE I. -FINAL F, L, OR S. Monosyllables ending in f, l, or s, preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant; as, staff, mill, pass : except three in f-clef, if, of; four in 1-bul, nul, sal, sol; and eleven in s—as, gas, has, was, yes, is, his, this, us, thus, pus.
RULE II.OTHER FINALS.
Words ending in any other consonant than f, l, or s, do not double the final letter: except abb, ebb, add, odd, egg, inn, err, burr, purr, yarr, butt, buzz, fuzz, and some proper names.
RULE III.- DOUBLING.
Monosyllables, and words accented on the last syllable, when they end with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, or by a vowel after qu, double their final consonant before an additional syllable that begins with a vowel : as, rob, robber; permit, permitting ; acquit, acquittal, acquitting.
Exc.-X final, being equivalent to ks, is never doubled.
RULE IV.- NO DOUBLING.
A final consonant, when it is not preceded by a single vowel, or when the accent is not on the last syllable, should remain single before an additional syllable: as, toil, toiling; visit, visited ; general, generalize.
Exc.—But i and s final are usually doubled, (though perhaps improperly.) when the last syllable is not accented : as, travel, traveller; bias, biassed.
Words ending with any double letter, preserve it double before any additional termination, not beginning with the same letter; as in the following derivatives : seeing, blissful, oddly, hilly, stiffness, illness, smallness, carelessness, agreement, agree. able. Exc.-The irregular words, fled, sold, told, dwelt, spelt, spilt
, shalt, wilt, blest, past, and the derivatives from the word pontif, are exceptions to this rule.
RULE VI. FINAL E.
The final e mute of a primitive word, is generally omitted before an additional termination beginning with a vowel: as, rate, ratable ; force, forcible ; rave, raving ; eye, eying.
Exc.-Words ending in ce or ge, retain the e before able or ous, to preserve the soft sounds of c and g: as, peace, peaceable ; change, changeable ; outrage, outrageous.
RULE VII.-FINAL E.
The final e of a primitive word, is generally retained before an additional termination beginning with a consonant: as, pale, paleness; lodge, lodgement.
Exc.—When the e is preceded by a vowel, it is sometimes omitted; as, true, truly; awe, awful: and sometimes retained; as, rue, rueful; shoe, shoeless.
RULE VIII. -FINAL Y.
The final y of a primitive word, when preceded by a conscnant, is changed into į before an additional termination : as, merry, merrier, merriest, merrily, merriment; pity, pitied, pities, pitiest, pitiless, pitiful, pitiable.
Exc.--Before ing, y is retained to prevent the doubling of i ; as, pity, pitying. Words ending in ie, dropping the e by Rule 6th, change i into y, for the same reason; as, die, dying.
OBS.-When a vowel precedes, y should not be changed: as, day, days; valley, valleys ; money, moneys ; monkey, monkeys.
RULE IX.-COMPOUNDS. Compounds generally retain the orthography of the simplo words which compose them; as, hereof, wherein, horseman, recall, uphill, shellfish.
Exc.-In perinanent compounds, the words full and all drop one l; as, handful, careful, always, withal: in others, they retain both; as, full-eyed, all-wise, save-all.
OBS.--Other words ending in ll, sometimes improperly drop one 1, when taken into composition; as, miscal, downhil. This excision is reprehensible, because it is contrary to general analogy, and because both letters are necessary to preserve thio sound, and show the derivation of the compound
Where is the consistency of writing, recall, miscal,-inthrall, bethral,-windfall, downfal,-laystall, thumbstal, --waterfall, overfal, molehill, dunghil, windmill, twibil,cod poll, enrol?' [See Johnson's Dictionary, first American ed, 410.]
LESSON 1.-GENERAL DIVISION.
QUESTIONS ON ORTIIOGRAPIIY.
Of what does Orthography treat ?
not sounded? How many letters are there in English ? and how many sounds do they
LESSON III.--CLASSES OF LETTERS.
LESSON IV.-POWERS, OR SOUNDS.
LESSON V-FORMS OF THE LETTERS.
What is said of the employment of the several styles of letters in English!
names of Deity ?-Rule 4th of proper names ?-Rule 5th of objects personified I–Rule 6th of words derived ?-Rule 7th of I and 0 ?—Rulé 8th of poetry ?—Rule 9th of examples, &c. ?—Rule 10th of chief words?
LESSON VI.-SYLLABLES. What is a syllable? Can the syllables of a word be perceived by the ear? What is a word of one syllable called ?–a word of two--of three :-of four
or more? What is a diphthong ? What is a proper diphthong ?-an improper diphthong ? What is a triphthong ? What is a proper triphthong ?-an improper triphthong? What chiefly directs us in dividing words into syllables ? How many rules of syllabication are given ? and what are their heads? What says Rule ist of consonants ?—Rule 2d of vowels ?—Rule 3d of termina
tions ?-Rule 4th of prefixes?—Rule 5th of compounds?—Rule 6th cf lines full?
What is a word ?
sense ? --Rule 4th of ellipses ?--Rule 5th of the hyphen ?—Rule 6th of using no hyphen
LESSON VIII. - SPELLING.
What is spelling?
the doubling of consonants ?_Rule 4th against the doubling of consonants ! -Rule 5th of retaining?—Rule 6th of final e ?—Rule 7th of final clRule 8th of final y ?-Rule 9th of compounds ?
CHAPTER VI.-FOR WRITING.
EXERCISES IN ORTHOGRAPHY. B (Spelling is to be taught by example, rather than by rule. For oral exercises In this branch of learning, a spelling-book or vocabulary should be employed. The following examples of false orthography are inserted, that they may be corrected by the pupil in writing. They are selected with direct reference to the rules; which are at first indicated by figures. For it is evident, that exercises of this kind, without express rules for their correction, would rather perplex than instruct the learner; and that his ability to correct them without reference to the rules, must presupposo such knowledge as would render them useless.