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A simple word is one that is not compounded, not composed of other words; as, watch, man, never, the, less.

A compound word is one that is composed of two or more simple words; as, watchman, nevertheless.

Permanent compounds are consolidated ; as, bookseller, schoolmaster : others, which may be called temporary compounds, are formed by the hyphen; as, glasshouse, negro-merchant.

RULES FOR THE FIGURE OF WORDS.

RULE I. COMPOUNDS.

Words regularly or analogically united, and commonly known as forming a compound, should never be needlessly broken apart.

RULE II. SIMPLES.

When the simple words would only form a regular phrase, of the same meaning, the compounding of any of them ought to be avoided.

RULE III. THE SENSE.

Words otherwise liable to be misunderstood, must be joined together or written separately, as the sense and construction may happen to require.

RULE IV. ELLIPSES.

When two or more compounds are connected in one sentence, none of them should be split to make an ellipsis of half @ word.

RULE V.-THE HYPHEN.

When the parts of a compound do not fully coalesce, as today, to-night, to-morrow; or when each retains its original accent, so that the compound has more than one, or one that is movable, as first-born, hanger-on, laughtər-loving, the hyphen should be inserted between them.

RULE VI.-NO HYPHEN,

When a compound has but one accented syllable in pronunciation, as watchword, statesman, gentleman, and the parts are such as admit of a complete coalescence, no hyphen should be inserted between them.

CHAPTER IV.-OF SPELLING.

Spelling is the art of expressing words by their proper letters.

OBS.-This important art is to be acquired rather by means of the spellingbook or dictionary, and by observation in reading, than by the study of written rules. The orthography of our language is attended with much uncertainty and perplexity: many words are variously spelled by the best scholars, and many others are not usually written according to the analogy of similar words. "But to be ignorant of the orthography of such words as are uniformly spelled and frequently used, is justly considered disgraceful. The following rules may prevent some embarrassment, and thus be of service to those who wish to be accurate.

RULES TOR SPELLING.

RULE I. -FINAL F, L, OR S. Monosyllables ending in f, l, or s, preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant; as, staff, mill, pass : except three in f-clef, if, of; four in 1-bul, nul, sal, sol; and eleven in s—as, gas, has, was, yes, is, his, this, us, thus, pus.

RULE II.OTHER FINALS.

Words ending in any other consonant than f, l, or s, do not double the final letter: except abb, ebb, add, odd, egg, inn, err, burr, purr, yarr, butt, buzz, fuzz, and some proper names.

RULE III.- DOUBLING.

Monosyllables, and words accented on the last syllable, when they end with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, or by a vowel after qu, double their final consonant before an additional syllable that begins with a vowel : as, rob, robber; permit, permitting ; acquit, acquittal, acquitting.

Exc.-X final, being equivalent to ks, is never doubled.

RULE IV.- NO DOUBLING.

A final consonant, when it is not preceded by a single vowel, or when the accent is not on the last syllable, should remain single before an additional syllable: as, toil, toiling; visit, visited ; general, generalize.

Exc.—But i and s final are usually doubled, (though perhaps improperly.) when the last syllable is not accented : as, travel, traveller; bias, biassed.

RULE V.--RETAINING.

Words ending with any double letter, preserve it double before any additional termination, not beginning with the same letter; as in the following derivatives : seeing, blissful, oddly, hilly, stiffness, illness, smallness, carelessness, agreement, agree. able. Exc.-The irregular words, fled, sold, told, dwelt, spelt, spilt

, shalt, wilt, blest, past, and the derivatives from the word pontif, are exceptions to this rule.

RULE VI. FINAL E.

The final e mute of a primitive word, is generally omitted before an additional termination beginning with a vowel: as, rate, ratable ; force, forcible ; rave, raving ; eye, eying.

Exc.-Words ending in ce or ge, retain the e before able or ous, to preserve the soft sounds of c and g: as, peace, peaceable ; change, changeable ; outrage, outrageous.

RULE VII.-FINAL E.

The final e of a primitive word, is generally retained before an additional termination beginning with a consonant: as, pale, paleness; lodge, lodgement.

Exc.—When the e is preceded by a vowel, it is sometimes omitted; as, true, truly; awe, awful: and sometimes retained; as, rue, rueful; shoe, shoeless.

RULE VIII. -FINAL Y.

The final y of a primitive word, when preceded by a conscnant, is changed into į before an additional termination : as, merry, merrier, merriest, merrily, merriment; pity, pitied, pities, pitiest, pitiless, pitiful, pitiable.

Exc.--Before ing, y is retained to prevent the doubling of i ; as, pity, pitying. Words ending in ie, dropping the e by Rule 6th, change i into y, for the same reason; as, die, dying.

OBS.-When a vowel precedes, y should not be changed: as, day, days; valley, valleys ; money, moneys ; monkey, monkeys.

RULE IX.-COMPOUNDS. Compounds generally retain the orthography of the simplo words which compose them; as, hereof, wherein, horseman, recall, uphill, shellfish.

Exc.-In perinanent compounds, the words full and all drop one l; as, handful, careful, always, withal: in others, they retain both; as, full-eyed, all-wise, save-all.

OBS.--Other words ending in ll, sometimes improperly drop one 1, when taken into composition; as, miscal, downhil. This excision is reprehensible, because it is contrary to general analogy, and because both letters are necessary to preserve thio sound, and show the derivation of the compound

Where is the consistency of writing, recall, miscal,-inthrall, bethral,-windfall, downfal,-laystall, thumbstal, --waterfall, overfal, molehill, dunghil, windmill, twibil,cod poll, enrol?' [See Johnson's Dictionary, first American ed, 410.]

CHAPTER V.-EXAMINATION.

LESSON 1.-GENERAL DIVISION.
What is English Grammar ?
How is it divided ?
Of what does Orthography treat ?
Of what does Etymology treat ?
Of what does Syntax treat ?
Of what does Prosody treat ?

QUESTIONS ON ORTIIOGRAPIIY.

LESSON II.-LETTERS.

Of what does Orthography treat ?
What is a Letter?
What is an elementary sound of a word ?
What name is given to the sound of a letter? and what epithet, to a letter

not sounded? How many letters are there in English ? and how many sounds do they

represent?
In what does a knowledge of the letters consist ?
What variety is noticed in letters that are always the same?
What different sorts of types, or letters, are used in English ?
What are the names of the letters in English ?
Which of the letters name themselves ? and which do not?
What are the names of all in both numbers, singular and plural ?

LESSON III.--CLASSES OF LETTERS.
Into what general classes are the letters divided ?
What is a vowel ?
What is a consonant?
What letters are vowels ? and what, consonants ?
When are w and y consonants ? and when vowels ?
How are the consonants divided ?
What is a semivowel?
What is a mute ?
What letters are semivowels ? and which of these are aspirates ?
What letters are called liquids, and why?
How many and which are the letters reckoned mutes ?

LESSON IV.-POWERS, OR SOUNDS.
What is meant, when we speak of “the powers of the letters ?"
In what series of short words are heard our chief vowel sounds!
How may these sounds be modified to form words or syllables !
Can you form a word from each by means of an f?
Will you form an other such series with a p?
How many and what are the consonant sounds in English
In what series of words may all these sounds be heard ?
In what series of words is each of them heard more than onoe :
Do our letters admit of combinations enough?
What do we derive from these elements of language ?

LESSON V-FORMS OF THE LETTERS.

What is said of the employment of the several styles of letters in English!
What distinction of form do we make in each of the letters ?
What is said of small letters ? and why are capitals used ?
How many rules for capitals are given? and what are their heads?
What says Rule 1st of titles of books ?—Rule 2d of first words ?—Rule 3d of

names of Deity ?-Rule 4th of proper names ?-Rule 5th of objects personified I–Rule 6th of words derived ?-Rule 7th of I and 0 ?—Rulé 8th of poetry ?—Rule 9th of examples, &c. ?—Rule 10th of chief words?

LESSON VI.-SYLLABLES. What is a syllable? Can the syllables of a word be perceived by the ear? What is a word of one syllable called ?–a word of two--of three :-of four

or more? What is a diphthong ? What is a proper diphthong ?-an improper diphthong ? What is a triphthong ? What is a proper triphthong ?-an improper triphthong? What chiefly directs us in dividing words into syllables ? How many rules of syllabication are given ? and what are their heads? What says Rule ist of consonants ?—Rule 2d of vowels ?—Rule 3d of termina

tions ?-Rule 4th of prefixes?—Rule 5th of compounds?—Rule 6th cf lines full?

LESSON VII.--WORDS.

What is a word ?
How are words distinguished in regard to species and figure?
What is a primitive word ?
What is a derivative word ?
What is a simple word ?
What is a compound word?
How do permanent compounds differ from others!
How many are the rules for the figure of words ? and what, their heads ?
What says Rule 1st of compounds ?—Rule 2d of simples ?—Rule 3d of the

sense ? --Rule 4th of ellipses ?--Rule 5th of the hyphen ?—Rule 6th of using no hyphen

LESSON VIII. - SPELLING.

What is spelling?
How is this art to be acquired ?
How many rules for spelling are there ? and what are their heads ?
What says Rule 1st of final f, 1, or 8?—Rule 2d of other finals ?-Rule 3d of

the doubling of consonants ?_Rule 4th against the doubling of consonants ! -Rule 5th of retaining?—Rule 6th of final e ?—Rule 7th of final clRule 8th of final y ?-Rule 9th of compounds ?

CHAPTER VI.-FOR WRITING.

EXERCISES IN ORTHOGRAPHY. B (Spelling is to be taught by example, rather than by rule. For oral exercises In this branch of learning, a spelling-book or vocabulary should be employed. The following examples of false orthography are inserted, that they may be corrected by the pupil in writing. They are selected with direct reference to the rules; which are at first indicated by figures. For it is evident, that exercises of this kind, without express rules for their correction, would rather perplex than instruct the learner; and that his ability to correct them without reference to the rules, must presupposo such knowledge as would render them useless.

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