« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
7. Meekly is an adverb, because it is added to the verb performs,
and expresses manner. 8. And is a conjunction, because it connects submits and performs. 9. To is a preposition, because it expresses the relation of the verb
submits to the noun yoke.
Parse, in the following sentences, the verb, the noun, and the
article, in the order, and according to the method, indicated in Praxis I.
The tree bears fruit. Pizarro invaded Peru. Avarice causes crime. The miser loves goll. The ox bears a yoke. The river overflowed the banks. Johu's brother has entered college. The carpenter is using a saw. Julin Smith explored Virginia. Columbus was a Genoese. Napoleon Bonaparte died an exile. Lend Charles a book. The merchanu has made a fortune. Did the candidate obtain tlie oflice? The elephant is a quanruped. Virgil praised the emperor Augustus. The boys have told an untruth. The scholar's diligence deserves a reward. Could the criminal have escaped punishment? Queen Dido founded Carthage. Scipio defeated Hannibal.
Parse, in the following sentences, the verb, the noun, the article,
the adjective, the pronoun, and the adverb, in the order, and
I saw the whole transaction; both parties disgraced themselves. They had a fierce dispute.
Perseverance finally overcomes all obstacles.
A Being infinitely wise will not unnecessarily afflict his creatures.
Passionate men are very easily irritated.
Parse all the parts of speech to be found in the following sen
tences, according to Praxis I.
The rose, the lily, and the pink, are fragrant flowers.
The swallow builds her nest of mud, and lines it with soft feathers.
The setting sun gives a beautiful brilliancy to the western sky.
Virtuous youth gradually brings forward accomplished and flourishing manhood.
Sloth enfeebles equally the bodily and the mental powers. It saps the foundation of every virtue, and pours upon us a delure of crimes and evils.
( Virtue! how miserable are they who forfeit thy rewards! Alas! such miseries are too common among
mankind! Industry is needful in every condition of life; the price of all improvement is labor.
Wlien spring returns, the trees resume their verdure, and the plants and flowers display their beauty.
CILAPTER II.--OF ARTICLES.
An Article is the word the, an, or a, which we put before nouns to limit their signification: as, The air, the stars; an island, a ship.
An and a are one and the same article. An is used whenever the following word begins with a vowel sound; as, An art, an end, an heir, an inch, an ounce, an hour, an urn.--A is used whenever the following word begins with a consonant sound; as, A man, a house, a wonder, a one, a yew, a use, a
Thus the consonant sounds of w and y, even when expressed by other letters, require a and not an before them.
The articles are distinguished as the definite and the indefinite.
I. The definite article is the, which denotes some particular thing or things; as, The boy, the oranges. indefinite article is an or a, which denotes one
; , A , an orange.
Ons. 1.-The English articles have no grammatical modifications; they are not varied by numbers, genders, and cases, as are those of some other languages. In respect to class, each is sui generis.
OBS. 2.-A common noun without an article or other word to limit its sig. nification, is generally taken in its widest sense; as, “ A candid temper is proper for man; that is, for all mankind.”—Murray.
CHAPTER III.-OF NOUNS.
A Noun is the name of any person, place, or thing, that can be known or mentioned : as, George, York, man, apple, truth.
OBS. 1.-All words and signs taken technically, (that is, independently of their meaning, and merely as things spoken of,) are nouns; or, rather, are things read and construed as nouns; as, " Us is a personal pronoun.”—Jurruy.
" Th has two sounds.”_I1. “ Control is probably contracted from counterroll.”—Crabb. " Without one if or but."'--Cowper. “A is sometimes a poun; as, a great A.”—Todd's Johnson, “Formerly sp was cast in a piece, as st's are now.”—Hist. of Printing, 1770.
Obs. 2.-In parsing, the learner must observe the sense and use of each word, and class it accordingly: many words commonly belonging to other parts of speech, are occasionally used as nouns, and must be parsed as such; as, 1. “ The Ancient of days."--- Bible. “Of the ancients." --Swift.“ For such impertinents."--Steele. “He is an ignorant in it.”—ID" To the nines." —Burns.: 2." Or any he, the proudest of thy sort."-Shak. "I am the happiest she in Kent."-Steele. “The shes of Italy."-Shak. " The hes in birds.”—Bacon. 3.“ Avaunt all attitude, and stare, and start, theatric !" -Croper. A may-be of mercy is insufficient.”—Bridge. 4.“ For the producing of real happiness.".
--Crabb. “ Reading, writing, and ciphering, are indispensable to civilized man. 5. “ An ereafter."— Addison. ** The dread of a hereafter."-Fuller. “The deep amen." --Scott. “ The while."--Milton. 6. “With hark, and whoop, and wild kalloo."-Scott. " Will cuts him short with a 'What then?!"-Addison.
CLASSES. Nouns are divided into two general classes; proper and common.
I. A proper noun is the name of some particular individual, or people, or group; as, Adam, Boston, the Hudson, the Romans, the Azores, the Alps.
II. A common noun is the name of a sort, kind, or class, of beings or things; as, Beast, bird, fish, insect,creatures, persons, children.
The particular classes, collective, abstract, and verbal or par. ticipial, are usually included among common nouns. The name of a thing sui generis is also called common.
1. A collective noun, or noun of multitude, is the name of many individuals together; as, Council, meeting, committee, flock.
2. An abstract noun is the name of some particular quality considered apart from its substance; as, Goodness, hardness, pride, frailti.
3. A verbal or participial noun is the name of some action or state of being; and is formed from a verb, like a participle, but employed as a noun: as, “The triumphing of the wicked is short.”—Job, xx, 5.
4. A thing sui generis, (i. e., of its own peculiar kind,) is something which is distinguished, not as an individual of a species, but as a sort by itself, without plurality in either the noun or the sort of thing; as, Galvanism, music, geometry.
Obs. 1.–The proper name of a person or place with an article prefixed, is generally used as a common noun; as, “ He is the Cicero of his age,”——that is, the orator. “Many a fiery Alp,''-—that is, mountain : except when a common noun is understood; as, The (river] Hudson,—The (ship] Amity,- The treacherous [man] Judas.
Obs. 2.--A common noun with the definite article prefixed to it, sometimes becomes proper; as, The Park,—The Strand.
Obs. 3.—The common name of a thing or quality personified often becomes proper ; as, “. My power,' said Reason, 'is to advise, not to compel.'' Johnson.
Nouns have modifications of four kinds; namely, Persons, Numbers, Genders, and Cases.
PERSONS. Persons, in grammar, are modifications that distinguish the speaker, the hearer, and the person or thing merely spoken of
Obs. The distinction of persons is founded on the different relations which the objects mentioned may bear to the discourse itself. It belongs to pouns, pronouns, and finite verbs; and to these it is always applied, either by peculiarity of form or construction, or by inference from the principles of concord. Pronouns are like their antecedents, and verbs are like their subjects, in person.
There are three persons; the first, the second, and the third.
The first person is that which denotes the speaker or writer; as “I Paul have written it."
The second person is that which denotes the hearer, or the person addressed; as, “ Robert, who did this ?”
The third person is that which denotes the person or thing merely spoken of; as, “ James loves his book.”
Obs. 1.--In written language, the first person denotes the writer or author; and the second, the reader or person addressed : except when the writer doo scribes not himself, but some one else, as uttering to an other the words which he records.
Obs. 2.-The speaker seldom refers to himself by name, as the speaker; consequently, nouns are rarely used in the first person; and when they are, a pronoun is usually prefixed to them. Hence some grammarians deny the first person to nouns altogether; others ascribe it; and many are silent on the subject. Analogy clearly requires it; as may be seen by the following examples: “Adsum Troius Æneas." — Virg: “Callopius recensui.”— Ter. Com. apud finem. “Paul, an apostle, &c., unto Timothy, my own son in the faith.” -i l'im., i. 1.
OBs. 3.—When a speaker or writer does not choose to declare himself in the first person, or to address his hearer or reader in the second, he speaks of both or either in the third. Thus Moses relates what Moses did, and Cæsar records the achievements of Cæsar. So Judah humbly beseeches Joseph: “Let thy servant abide in stead of the lad a bondman to my lord.”—Gen., xliv, 33. And Abraham reverently intercedes with God: “Oh! let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak.”—Gen., xviii, 30.
Obs. 4.-When inanimate things are spoken to, they are personified; and their names are put in the second person, because by the figure the objects are supposed to be capable of hearing.
Numbers, in grammar, are modifications that distinguish unity and plurality.
Obs.—The distinction of numbers serves merely to show whether we speak of one object, or of more. It belongs to nouns, pronouns, and finite verbs ; and to these it is always applied, either by peculiarity of form, or by interence from the principles of concord. Pronouns are like their antecedents, and verbs are like their subjects, in number.
There are two numbers; the singular and the plural.
The singular number is that which denotes but one; as, The boy learns.
The plural number is that which denotes more than one; as, The boys learn.
The plural number of nouns is regularly formed by adding s or es to the singular : as, book, books; box, boxes.
RULE I.—When the singular ends in a sound which will unite with that of s, the plural is generally formed by adding s only, and the number of syllables is not increased : as, pen, pens ; grape, grapes.
Rule II.-But when the sound of s cannot be united with that of the primitive word, the plural adds s to final e, to other terminations, and forms a separate syllable: as, page, pages ; fox, foxes.
OBS. 1.-English nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant, add es, but do not increase their syllables : as, wo, woes ; hero, heroes ; negro, negroes ; potato, potatoes ; muskitto, muskittoes ; octavo, octavoes. The exceptions to this rule appear to be in such nouns as are not properly and fully Anglicized; thus many write cantos, juntos, solos, &c. Other nouns in o add s only; as, folio, folios ; bamboo, bamboos.' The plural of two is commonly written twos, but some prefer twoés.
Obs. 2.--Common nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y into é, and add es, without increase of syllables : as, Ay, flies ; duty, duties