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or exclamatory; to analyze it by pointing out the subject, predicate, and object; and to parse it by distinguishing the different parts of speech, and the classes and modifications of the

Thus :



“ Columbus studied geography." ANALYSIS.—This is a simple declarative sentence. Tho subject is Columbus ;

the predicate, studied; the object, geography. PARSING.. Columbus is a proper noun, because it is the name of a particular

individual ; it is of the third person, because it is the name of a person spoken of; of the singular number, because it denotes but one; of the masculine gender, because it is the name of a malo; and in the

nominative case, because it is the subject of the verb studied. Studied is a verb, because it signifies action. Geography is a common noun, because it is the name of a thing sui generis :

(see page 48). It is of the third person, because it is spoken of; of the singular number, because it denotes but one; of the neuter gender, because it is neither malo nor femalo; and in the objective case,

because it is the object of the verb studied. Generosity makes friends. Can indolence bestow wealth ? Despise meanness. Can man avoid errors ? Does Eliza understand Italian? Love truth. Perseverance overcomes obstacles. What did you say? Diligence deserves praise. It should be rewarded. Could he have avoided disgrace ? Romulus founded Rome. Forgetfulness cures sorrow. Can liars respect themselves? Do they fear God? Birds sing. Cowards fear death. Sinners feel remorse. Has John returned ? Time flies. Plants produce fruit.

Observation increases knowledge. Mortal, prepare. Take warning, youth! Liberty, it has fied) Electricity causes lightning. Avarice extinguishes generosty. Integrity inspires confidence. Who can trust liars ?


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An Adjective is a word added to a noun or pronoun, and generally expresses quality : as, A wise man; a new book. You two are diligent.

CLASSES. Adjectives may be divided into six classes ; namely, common, proper, numeral, pronominal, participial, and compound.


I. A. common adjective is any ordinary epithet, or adjective denoting quality or situation; as, Good, bad, peaceful, warlike-eastern, western, outer, inner.

II. A proper adjective is one that is formed from a proper name; as, American, English, Platonic.

III. A numeral adjective is one that expresses a definite number; as, One, two, three, four, five, six, &c.

IV. A pronominal adjective is a definitive word which may either accompany its noun, or represent it understood; as, “All join to guard what each desires to gain.”

- Pope. That is, All men join to guard what each man desires to gain.

V. A participial adjective is one that has the form of participle, but differs from it by rejecting the idea of time; as, An amusing story.

VI. A compound adjective, is one that consists of two or more words joined together; as, Nut-brown, laughterloving, four.footed.

Obs. 1.-Numeral adjectives are of three kinds: namely,

1. Cardinal ; as, One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, &c.

2. Ordinal; as, First, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, &c.

3. Multiplicative; as, Single or alone, double or twofold, triple or threefold, quadruple or fourfold, quintuple or fivefold, sextuple or sixfold, septuple or sevenfold, octuple or eightfold, &c.

Obs. 2.-Compound adjectives, being formed at pleasure, are very numerous and various. Many of them embrace numerals, and run on in a series; as, one-leaved, two-leaved, three-leaved, four-leaved, &c.

MODIFICATIONS. Adjectives have, commonly, no modifications but the forms of comparison.

Comparison is a variation of the adjective to express quality in different degrees; as, hard, harder, hardest

. There are three degrees of comparison; the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.

The positive degree is that which is expressed by tho adjective in its simple form; as, hard, soft, good. The comparative degree is that which exceeds the

pos: itive; as, harder, softer, better.

The superlative degree is that which is not exceeded; as, hardest, softest, best.

Those adjectives whose signification does not admit of

different degrees, cannot be compared; as, two, second, all, total, immortal, infinite.

Those adjectives which may be varied in sense, but not in form, are compared by means of adverbs; as, skillful, more skillful, most skillful-skillful, less skillful, least skillful.

REGULAR COMPARISON. Adjectives are regularly compared, when the comparative degree is expressed by adding er, and the superlative, by adding est to them; as,

Positive. Comparative. Superlative.



hottest. The regular method of comparison is chiefly applicable to monosyllables, and to dissyllables ending in y or mute e.


The different degrees of a quality may also be expressed, with precisely the same import, by prefixing to the adjective the adverbs more and most : as, wise, more wise, most wise ; famous, more famous, most famous ; amiable, more amiable, most amiable.

The degrees of diminution are expressed, in like manner, by the adverbs less and least: as, wise, less wise, least wise; famous, less famous, least famous ; amiable, less amiable, least amiable.

Obs. 1.-Adjectives of more than one syllable, except dissyllables ending in yor mute e, rarely admit a change of termination, but are rather compared by means of the adverbs: thus we say, virtuous, more virtuous, most virtuous; but not virtuous, virtuouser, virtuousest.

Obs. 2.—The pretixing of an adverb can hardly be called a variation of the adjective; the words may with more propriety be parsed separately, the degree being, ascribed to the adverb--or, if you please, to both words ; for both are varied in sense by the inflection of the former. OBS. 3.—The degrees in which qualities may exist in nature, are infinitely various; but the only degrees with which the grammarian is concerned, ars those which our variation of the adjective or adverb enables us to express. Whenever the adjective itself denotes these degrees, they properly belong to it; as, worthy, worthier, worthiest. If an adverb is employed for this purpose, that also is compared, and the two degrees formed are properly its own; as, worthy, more worthy, most worthy. But these same degrees may be otherwise

expressed; as, worthy, in ü higher degree worthy, in the highest degree worthy. Here also the adjective worthy is virtually compared as before; but only the adjective high is grammatically modified.' Many grammarians have erroneously parsed the adverbs more and most, less and least, as parts of the adjective.

* See Rules for Spelling III. and VI.

IRREGULAR COMPARISON. The following adjectives are compared irregularly: good, better, best; bad or ill, worse, worst; little, less, least ; much, more, most; many, more, most.

Obs. 1.-In English, and also in Latin, most adjectives that denote place or situation, not only form the superlative irregularly, but are also either redundant or defective in comparison. Thus:

I. The following nine have more than one superlative : far, farther, farthest, farmost or farthermost; near, nearer, nearest or next; fore, former, foremost or first; hind, hinder, hindmost or hindermost ; in, inner, inmost or innermost; out, outer or utter, outmost or utmost, outermost or uttermost; up, upper, upmost or uppermost; low, lower, lowest or lowermost; late, later, or latter, latest or last.

II. The following five want the positive : [aft, adv.,) after, aftmost, or aftermost; [forth, adv.,], further, furthest or furthermost; hither, hithermost ; nether, nethermost; under, undermost.

III. The following' want the comparative: front, frontmost ; rear, rearmost ; head, headmost ; end, endmost, top, topmost; bottom, bottommost; mid or middle, midst, midmost or middlemost ; north, northmost ; south, southmost ; northern, northernmost ; southern, southernmost ; eastern, easternmosi; western, westernmost.

OBS. 2.-Many of these irregular adjectives are also in common use, as nouns, adverbs, or prepositions; the sense in which they are employed will show to what class they belong.

Obs. 3.-The words fore and hind, front and rear, head and end, right and left, in and out, high and low, top and bottom, up and down, upper and

under, mid and after, are often joined in composition with other words; and some of them, when used as adjectives of place, are rarely separated from their nouns; as, in-land, mid-seå, after-ages, &c.

Obs. 4.—-It may be remarked of the comparatives, former and latter or hinder, upper and under or nether, inner and outer or utter, after and hither; as well as of the Latin superior and inferior, anterior and posterior, interior and exterior, prior and ulterior, senior and junior, major and minor; that they cannot, like other comparatives, be construed with the conjunction than, introdcuing the latter term of comparison; for we never say, one thing is former, superior, &c., Tuan an other.

OBs. 5.--Common adjectives, or epithets denoting quality, are more numerous than all the other classes put together. Many of these, and a few that are pronominal, may be varied by comparison; and some participial adjectives may be compared by means of the adverbs. But adjectives formed from proper names, all the numerals, and most of the compounds, are in no way susceptible of comparison.

OBS. 6.--Nouns are often used as adjectives; as, An iron bar-An evening school-A mahogany chair-A South-Sea dream. These also are incapablo of comparison.

Obs. 7.-The numerals are often used as nouns; and, as such, are regularly declined; as, Such a one-one's own self—The little ones-

8-By tens-For twenty's sake-By fifties-Two millions.

OBs. 8.-Comparatives, and the word other, are sometimes also employed as nouns, and have the regular declension; as, Our superiors-His bettergThe elder's advice-An* other's wo--Let others do as they will. But, as adjectives, these words are invariable.

Obs. 9.–Pronominal adjectives, when their nouns are expressed, simply relate to them, and have no modifications: except this and that, which form

* There seems to be no good reason for joining an and other. An here excludes any other article; and analogy and consistency require that the words be separated. Their union has led sometimes to an improper repetition of the article; as, Another such a man,'-for, ' An other such man.'

the plural these and those ; and much, many, and a few others, which are compared.

Obs. 10.–Pronominal adjectives, when their nouns are not expressed, may be parsed as representing them in person, number, gender, and case : but trose who prefer it, may supply the eflipsis, and parse the adjective simply as an adjective.

Oes. 11.–The following are the principal pronominal adjectives : All, any, both, certain, divers, each, either, eise, enough, every, few, former, first, latter, last, little, less, least, much, many, more, most, neither, no or none,* me, only, other, own, same, several, some, such, this, that, these, those, which, what.

OBS. 12.- Which and what, when they are not preñxed to nouns, are, for the most part, relative or interrogativo pronouns.


Words, added to either of the principal parts of a sentence to modify or limit its meaning, are called adjuncts. Adjuncts are sometimes called modifications.

They are divided into two classes, primary and secondary adjuncts.

Primary adjuncts are those added directly to either of the principal parts; as, " Good books always deserve a careful perusal."

Secondary adjuncts are those added to other adjuncts; as, “ Suddenly acquired wealth very rarely brings happiness."

Adjuncts are divided, with respect to their office, into three classes ; namely, adjective, adverbial, and explanatory.

An adjective adjunct is one used to modify or limit a noun or a pronoun; as,

Both those bad boys deserve severe punishment."

An adverbial adjunct is one used like an adverb; as, “Remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth.

An explanatory adjunct is one used to explain a preceding noun or pronoun; as, “ The emperor Napoleon was banished.”—* We, the people, ordain this constitution."

The subject or the object in a sentence, may be modified by adjective or explanatory adjuncts of various forms; as,

* No and none seem to be only different forms of the same adjective; the former Being used before a noun expressed, and the latter when the noun is understood, or not placed after the adjective; as, “ For none of us liveth to himself, and no man dieth to himself."-Romuns, xiv. 7.

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