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1. By an article or an adjective; as, The diligent scholar

improves." 2. By a noun or pronoun in the possessive case; as,

William's sister has lost her book.” 3. By a verb used as an adjective; as,

* The desire to excel is laudable.” 4. By a preposition and its object, used together as an

adjective; as, “A man of integrity obeys the dictates

of conscience." 5. By a noun or pronoun used as an explanatory adjunct;

as, “ His brother, Charles, is idle.” The predicate of a sentence may be modified by adverbial adjuncts of various forms; as,

1. By an adverb; as, “The sun shines brightly.
2. By a preposition and its object, used together as an

adverb; as, “ He came from Boston.

EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS AND PARSING.

PRAXIS III.- ETYMOLOGICAL.

In the Third Praxis, it is required of the pupilto classify

and analyze the sentence as in the preceding praxis ; to point out, in addition, the adjuncts of each of the principal parts, and distinguish their classes ; and to parse the sentence by distinguishing the different parts of speech, and the classes and modifications of the nouns, and adjectives, distinguishing also the article as definite or indefinite. Thus:

EXAMPLE ANALYZED AND PARSED.

“The Athenians carefully observed Solon's wise laws." ANALYSIS.--This is a simple declarative sentence.

The subject is Athenians; the predicate, observed ; the object, laws.
The subject is limited by the adjective adjunct, the; the predicate is modi-

fied by the adverbial adjunct, carefully; and the object is modified by

the adjective adjuncts, Solon's and wise. PARSING.The is the definite article, because it limits the noun Athenians. Athenians is a proper noun, becanse it is the name of a particular people.

(Modifications as in the preceding praxis.) Carefully is an adverb, because it is added to the verb observed, and ex

presses manner. Observed is a verb, because it expresses action. Solon's is a proper noun, because it is the name of a particular individual;

it is of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and in

the possessive case, because it indicates the possession of laws. Wise is a common adjective, because it simply expresses the quality of

laws. Laws is a common noun, because it is the name of a class of things.

Pleasure's call always wins an eager attention.
Avarice rapidly extinguishes every generous emotion.
King Belshazzar made a great feast.
Every person highly praised William's noble conduct.
Where did your kind father buy that interesting book ?

The French ambassador immediately presented his crodentials. This benevolent young lady kindly teaches many poor

children. Riotous indulgence rapidly destroys the bodily vigor. This enterprising merchant has just returned from Europe. The study of astronomy greatly clevates the mind. Indulgence in sloth can never lead to prosperity. Charles's resignation filled all Europe with astonishment.

The beautiful prospects of nature always excite the warmest admiration of mankind.

The powerful eloquence of Demosthenes excited the fierce indignation of Athens against Philip of Macedon.

CHAPTER V.-OF PRONOUNS.

A Pronoun is a word used in stead of a noun: as, The boy loves his book; he has long lessons, and he learns them well.

Obs. 1.-The word for which a pronoun stands, is called its antecedent, because it usually precedes the pronoun. But some have limited the term antecedent, to the word represented by a relative.

OBs. 2.- The pronouns I and thou in their different modifications, stand immediately for persons that are, in general, sufficiently known without being named; (I meaning the speaker, and thou the hearer ;) their antecedents are therefore generally understood.

OBS. 3.—The other personal pronouns are sometimes taken in a general or absolute sense, to denote persons or things not previously mentioned; as, "He that hath knowledge, spareth his words.”.

Obs. 4.-A pronoun with which a question is asked, stands for some person or thing unknown to the speaker; the noun, therefore, cannot occur before it, but may be used after it or instead of it.

OBs. 5.—The personal and the interrogative pronouns often stand in construction as the antecedents to other pronouns; as, He that arms his intent with virtue is invincible.”-“Who that has any moral sense, dares tell lies ?"

CLASSES. Pronouns are divided into three classes; personal, relative, and interrogative.

I. A personal pronoun is a pronoun that shows, by its form, of what person it is.

The simple personal pronouns are five: namely, I, of

the first person ; thou, of the second person; he, she, and il, of the third person.

The compound personal pronouns are also five: name. ly, myself, of the first person ; thyself, of the second

person; himself, herself, and itself, of the third person.

II. A relative pronoun is a pronoun that represents an antecedent word or phrase, and connects different clauses of a sentence.

The relative pronouns are who, which, what, and that ; and the compounds whoever or whosoever, whichever or whichsoever, whatever or whatsoever.

What is a kind of double relative, equivalent to that or those which; and is to be parsed, first as antecedent, and then as relative.

III. An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun with which a question is asked.

The interrogative pronouns are who, which, and what; being the same in form as relatives.

OBS 1.- Who is usually applied to persons only; which, though formerly applied to persons, is now confined to animals and inanimate things. what (as a mere pronoun) is applied to things only: that is applied indifferently to persons, animals, or things.

Obs. 2. — The pronoun what has a twofold relation, and is often used by ellipsis of the noun) both as antecedent and relative, being equivalent to that which, or the thing which. In this double relation, what represents two cases at the same time: as, “ He is ashamed of what he has done;" that is, of that [thing) which he has done. It is usually of the singular ' number, though sometimes plural; as, “I must turn to the faults, or what appear such to me."--Byron. “ All distortions and mimicries, as such, are what raise aversion in stead of pleasure.-Steele.

Obs. 3.— What is sometimes used both as an adjective and a relative at tho Bame time, and is placed before the noun which it represents: as,

"What money we had was taken away;" that is, All the money that we had, &c.

What man but enters, dies ;'' that is; Any man who, &c. but enters yon forbidden field.”—Pope. Indeed, it does not admit of being construed after a noun, as a simple relative. The compound whatever or whatsoever has the same peculiarities of construction; as, * We will certainly do whatsoever thing goeth forth out of our own mouth.”—Jer., xliv, 17.

Obs. 4.- Who, which, and what, when the affix ever or soever is added, have an unlimited signification; and, as some general term, such as an person, or any thing, is usually employed as the antecedent, they are all commonly followed by two verbs : as," Whoever attends, will improve ;” that is, Any person who attends, will improve. In parsing, supply the antecedent.

Obs. 5.-- Which and what are often prefixed to nouns as definitive or interrogative adjectives; and, as such, may be applied to persons as well as to things : as, 66 IV hat man' ?"_66 Which boy ?"

OBs. 6.—The word that is a relative pronoun, when it is equivalent to who, whom, or which ; as, “ The days that (which] are past, are gone forever.” It is a definitive or pronominal adjective, when it relates to a noun expressed or understood after it; as, That book is new.” In other cases, it is a conjunction, as, " Live well, that you may die well.”

Obs. 7.- The relative that has this peculiarity, that it cannot follow the word on which its case depends: thus, it is said, [John, xiii, 29,]

“ Buy

6. What god those things that we have need of ;” but we cannot say, “ Buy those things of that we have need."

OBS. 8.-The word as, though usually a conjunction or an adverb, has sometimes the construction of a relative pronoun; as, “ The Lord added to the church daily such (persons) as should be saved.”— Acts, ii, 47.

Oes. 9.– Whether was formerly used as an interrogative pronoun, referring to one of two things ; as, “Whether is greater, the gold or the temple ?"

-Matt., xxiii, 17.

OBS. 10.-Interrogative pronouns differ from relatives chiefly in this; that, as the subject referred to is unknown to the speaker, they do not relate to & preceding noun, but to something which is to be expressed in the answer to the question. Their person, number, and gender, therefore, are not regulated by an antecedent noun; but by what the speaker supposes of a subject which may, or may not, agree with them in these respects : as, “ What lies there ?" Ans. “Two men asleep.”

MODIFICATIONS. Pronouns have the same modifications as nouns; namely, Persons, Numbers, Genders, and Cases.

OBS. 1.-In tre personal pronouns, most of these properties are distinguished by the words themselves ; in the relative and the interrogative pronouns, they are ascertained chiefly by the antecedent and the verb.

OBs. 2.- The personal pronouns of the first and second persons, are equally applicable to both sexes; and should be considered masculine or feminine according to the known application of them. (See Levizac's French Gram., p. 73.] The speaker and the hearer, being present to each other, of course know the sex to which they respectively belong; and, whenever they appear in narrative, we are told who they are. In Latin, an adjective or a participle relating to these pronouns, is varied to agree with them in number, gender, and cuse; as,

Miseræ hoc tamen unum
Exequere, Anna, mihi : solam nam perfidus illo
Te colere, arcanos etiam tibi credere sensus ;

Sola viri molles aditus et tempora nôras.- Virgil. Obs. 3.—Many grammarians deny the first person of nouns, and the gender of pronouns of the first and second persons; and at the same time teach, that, “Pronouns must always agree with their antecedents, and the nouns for which they stand, in gender, number, and person.Murray's Gram., 21 Ed., 1796. Now, no two words can agree in any property which belongs not to both!

THE DECLENSION OF PRONOUNS. The declension of a pronoun is a regular arrangement of its numbers and cases.

SIMPLE PERSONALS.

The simple personal pronouns are thus declined:

1, of the FIRST PERSON, any of the genders. Sing. Nom. I,

Plur. Nom, we,
Poss. my, or mine,

Poss. our, or ours,
Obj. me;

Obj.

.

us,

* That the pronouns of the first and second persons are sometimes mascnline and sometimes feminine, is perfectly certain; but whether they can or cannot be neuter, is a question difficult to be decided. To things inanimato they are only applied figur.

Thou, of the SECOND PERSON, any of the genders. Sing. Nom. thou,

Plur. Nom. ye,* or you, Poss. thy, or thine,

Poss. your, or yours, Obj. thee;

Obj. you.
HE, of the THIRD PERSON, masculine gender.
Sing. Nom. he,

Plur. Nom. they,
Poss. his,

Poss. their, or theirs,
Obj. him;

Obj. them.
SHE, of the THIRD PERSON, feminine gender.
Sing. Nom. she,

Plur. Nom. they,
Poss. her, or hers,

Poss. their, or theirs,
Obj. her;

Obj. them.
It, of the THIRD PERSON, neuter gender.
Sing. Nom. it,

Plur. Nom. they,
Poss. its,

Poss. their, or theirs,
Obj. it;

Obj. them. Obs. 1.—Most of the personal pronouns have two forms of the possessive case, in each number; as, my, or mine, our or ours ; thy or thine, you or yours ; her or hers, their or theirs. The former is used before a noun expressed; the latter, when the governing noun is understood, or so placed as not immediately to follow the pronoun; as, “ My powers are thine.' -Montgomery.

OBs. 2.- Mine and thine were formerly used before all words beginning with a vowel sound; my and thy, before others : as, “ It was thou, a man, mine equal, my guide, and mine acquaintance.”Psalm. But this usage is now obsolete, or peculiar to the poets; as,

“ Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow.”Byron.

COMPOUND PERSONALS. The word self f added to the simple personal pronouns, forms the class of compound personal pronouns , which are used when an action reverts upon the agent, and also when

1

atively; and the question is, whether the figure always necessarily changes the gen. der of the antecedent noun. Pronouns are of the same gender as the nouns for which they stand; and if, in the following example, gold and diamond are neuter, so is the pronoun me. And, if not neuter, of what gender are they?

“Where thy true treasure ? Gold says, Not in me;'

And, Not in me,' the diamond. Gold is poor."— Young. * Tho use of the pronoun ye is mostly confined to the solemn style, and to the bur. lesque. In the latter, it is sometimes used for the objective case.

+ In ancient times, he, his, and him, were applied to things neuter. In our translation of the Bible, the pronoun it is employed in the nominative and the objective, but his is retained in the possessive, neuter; as, “ Look not thou upon the wine, when it is red, when it giveth his color in the cup, when it moveth itself aright.”—Prov., xxiii, 31. Its is not found in the Bible, except by misprint.

# The word self was originally an adjective; but when used alone, it is now genero ally a noun. This may have occasioned the diversity in the formation of the compound personal pronouns. Dr. Johnson calls selj' a pronoun; but he explains it as being both adjective and substantive,

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