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some persons are to be distinguished from others : as, sing. myself, plur. ourselves; sing. thyself, plur. yourselves ; sing. himself,* plur. themselves; sing. herself, plur. themselves; sing. itself, plur. themselves. They all want the possessive case, and are alike in the nominative and objective.
RELATIVES AND INTERROGATIVES.
The relative and the interrogative pronouns are thus doclined :
Who, applied only to persons.
Plur. Nom. who,
Plur. Nom. which,
Plur. Nom. what,
Plur. Nom. that,
The compound relative pronouns, whoever or whosoever, whichever or whichsoever, and whatever or whatsoever, are declined in the same manner as the simples, who, which, what.
A clause is a sentence that forms a part of another sentence. Clauses are either dependent or independent.
A dependent clause is one used as an adjunct, or as
* Hisself, itsself, and theirselves, are more analogical than himself, itsself, them. selves; but custom has rejected the former, and established the latter. When an adjective is prefixed to self, the pronouns are written separately in the possessive case ; as, My single self,--My own self,– His own self;-- Their own selves.
+ Whose is sometimes used as the possessivo case of which ; as, “ A religion whose origin is divine.”-Blair.
one of the principal parts of a sentence. The clause on which it depends, is called the principal clause.
Clauses may be connected by conjunctions, relative pronouns, or adverbs.
A complex sentence is one composed of a principal clause, and one or more dependent clauses.
A compound sentence is one composed of two or more independent clauses.
Compound or complex clauses are sometimes called members.
OBS.-A clause introduced by a relative pronoun, is often called a relative clause ; it may be dependent or independent; thus the sentence, “ This is the man who committed the deed,” is complex; because the relative clause is an adjunct of man, modifying it like an adjective; but " I gave the book to John, who has lost it,” is a compound sentence, the relative clause not being an adjunct, but expressing an additional fact, and equivalent to “and he has lost it."
EXERCISES IN ANALYSIS AND PARSING.
PRAXIS IV.- ETYMOLOGICAL. In the Fourth Praxis, it is required of the pupil—to clas
sify the sentences ; to point out the component clauses ; to analyze and parse each as in the preceding praxis ; and to state the classes and modifications of the pronouns. Thus :
EXAMPLE ANALYZED AND PARSED. “ Children who disobey their parents, deserve punishment." ANALYSIS. - This is a complex declarative sentence; the principal clanse is,
Chiuren deserve punishment, and the dependent clause is, Who disobey their parents, an adjective adjunct of children ; the connective word
is who. The subject of the principal clause is children ; the predicate is deserve ;
and the object is punishment. The adjunct of the subject is the dependent clause; the other parts have no adjuncts. The subject of the dependent clause is who, the predicate is disobey; the object is parents. The subject and the predicato have no adjuncts; the ad
junct of parents is their. PARSING.-Who is. a relative pronoun, because it represents the antecedent
word children, and connects the two clauses of the sentence ; it is of the third person, because it represents the persons spoken of; of the plural number, because it denotes more than one; of the masculine gender, because it is a term equally applicable to both sexes (see Obs. 3, page 51);* and in the nominative case, because it is the subject of the yerb disobey ; its declension in both numbers is, Nom. who;
Poss. whose ; Obj. whom. Their is a personal pronoun, because it shows by its form that it is of tho third person ; it is of the plural number, masculine gender, and in the possessive case, because it denotes the possession of parents. Its
* It would be preferable, in the opinion of the editor of these exercises, to desig. nate this the common gender, there being no reason to consider the masculine gender moro "worthy” than the feminine. Besides, gender is not a distinction of objects as to ser, but a distinction of words with respect to the sex which they denote; and therefore such words as belong, in common, to both sexes, are manifestly of the common gender.
declension is, Nom, they, Poss, their, or theirs, Obj. them. (Parse the other words as in the preceding praxes.)
He who conquers his passions, overcomes his greatest enemies. Every teacher must love a pupil who evinces a love of study. Savages who have no settled abode, wander from place to place. Avoid rudeness of manners, which always hurts the feelings of others. A good reader will often make a pause, where no gram. marian would place a point. He who, in nature, recognizes the Creator's hand, will ever survey its varied scenes with reverence. The poems of Homer celebrate the exploits of Achilles, who slew the Trojan prince, Hector. Prosperity gains many friends, but adversity tries them. I disregard their imputations, be cause I do not merit them. When he had sold his patrimony, he engaged in traffic.
CHAPTER VI.—OF VERBS.
A Verb is a word that signifies to be, to act, or to be acted upon: as, I am, I rule, I am ruleil ; I love, thou lovest, he loves.
CLASSES. Verbs are divided, with respect to their form, into four classes; regular, irregular, redundant, and defective.
I. A regular verb is a verb that forms the preterit and the perfect participle by assuming d or ed; as, love, loved, loving, loved.
II. An irregular verb is a verb that does not form the preterit and the perfect participle by assuming d or ed; as, see, saw, seeing, seen.
III. A redundant verb is a verb that forms the preterit or the perfect participle in two or more ways, and so as to be both regular and irregular; as, thrive, thrived or throve, thriving, thrived or thriven.
IV. A defective verb is a verb that forms no participles, and is used in but few of the moods and tenses; as, beware, ought, quoth.
OBS.—Regular verbs form their preterit and perfect participle, by adding d to final e, and ed to all other terminations. The verb hear, heurd, hearing, keard, adds d to r, and is therefore irregular.
Verbs are divided again, with respect to their signification, into four classes ; active-transitive, active-intransitive, passive, and neuter.
I. An active-transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action which has some person or thing for its object; as, "Cain slew Abel."
II. An active-intransitive verb is a verb that expresses an action which has no person or thing for its object; as, “John walks."
III. A passive verb is a verb that represents its subject, or nominative, as being acted upon; as, “I am compelled.”
IV. A. neuter verb is a verb that expresses neither action nor passion, but simply being, or a state of being; as, “Thou art.”—“He sleeps.”
Obs. 1.-In most grammars and dictionaries, verbs are divided into three classes only; active, passive, and neuter. In such a division, the class of ao tive verbs includes those only which are active-transitive, and all the activeintransitive verbs are called neuter. But, in the division adopted above, active-intransitive verbs are made a distinct class; and those only are regarded as neuter, which imply a state of existence without action. When, therefore, we speak of verbs without reference to their regimen, we apply the simple termn active to all those which express action, whether transitive or intransitive. “We act whenever we do any thing; but we may act without doing any thing.”—Crabb's Synonymes.
OBs. 2.-Active-transitive verbs generally take the agent before them and the object after them; as, “ Cæsar conquered Pompey.” Passive verbs (which are derived from active-transitive verbs) reverse this order, and denote that the subject, or nominative, is affected by the action; and the agent follows, being introduced by the preposition by: as, “Poinpey was conquered by Casar."
OBs. 3.-Most active verbs may be used either transitively or intransitively. Active verbs are transitive when there is any person or thing expressed or clearly implied, upon which the action terminates; when they do not govern such an object, they are intransitive.
Obs. 4.- Some verbs may be used either in an active or a neuter sense. In the sentence, "Here I rest,” rest is a neuter verb; but in the sentence, “ Here I rest my hopes,” rest is an active-transitive verb, and governs hopes.
Obs. 5:—An active-intransitive verb, followed by a preposition and its object, will sometimes admit of being put into the passive form, the object of the preposition being assumed for the nominative, and the preposition being retained with the verb, as an adverb: as, (Active,) “They laughed at him." -(Passive,) “He was laughed at.”
MODIFICATIONS. Verbs have modifications of four kinds; namely, Moods, Tenses, Persons, and Numbers.
MOODS. Moods are different forms of the verb, each of which
expresses the being, action, or passion, in some particular manner.
There are five moods; the Infinitive, the Indicative, the Potential, the Subjunctive, and the Imperative.
The Infinitive mood is that form of the verb, which expresses the being, action, or passion, in an unlimited manner, and without person or number: as, To reud, to speak.
The Indicative mood is that form of the verb, which simply indicates, or declares a thing: as, I write; you know: or asks a question; as, Do you know?
The Potential mood is that form of the verb, which expresses the power, liberty, possibility, or necessity, of the being, action, or passion: as, I can read; we must go.
The Subjunctive mood is that form of the verb, which represents the being, action, or passion, as conditional, doubtful, and contingent: as, “If thou go, see that thou offend not."
The Imperative mood is that form of the verb, which is used in commanding, exhorting, entreating, or permitting: as, “Depart thou.”—“Be comforted.”—"Forgive me."--"Go in peace.
Obs. 1.—The infinitive mood is distinguished by the preposition to, whil, with a few exceptions, immediately precedes it. In dictionaries, to is geherally prefixed to verbs, to distinguish them from other parts of speech. A verb in any other mood than the infinitive, is called, by way of distinction, a finite verb.
Ons. 2.-The potential mood is known by the signs may, can, must, might, could, would, and should. This mood as well as the indicative may be used in asking a question; as, Must we go?
Obs. 3.-The subjunctive mood is always connected with an other verb. Its dependence is usually denoted by a conjunction; as, if, that, though, lest,
Obs. 4.-The indicative and potential moods, in all their tenses, may be used in the same dependent manner; but this seems not to be a sutlicient reason for considering them as parts of the subjunctive mood.*
* In regard to the number and form of the tenses which should constitute the subjunctivo mood in English, grammarians are greatly at variance; and some, supposing its distinctive parts to be but elliptical forms of the indicative or the potential, even deny the existence of such a mood altogether. On this point, the instructions published by Lindley Murray are exceedingly vague and inconsistent. The early editious of his Grammar gave to this mood six tenses, none of which had any of the personal inflections; consequently there was, in all the tenses, some difference between it and the indicative. His later editions make the subjunctive exactly like the indicative, except in the present tense, and in the choice of auxiliaries for the second-future.
Both ways he
goes too far. And while at last he restricts the distinctive form of the subjunctive to narrower bounds than he ought, and argues against, If thou loved, I thou knew, &c., he gives this mood not only the last five tenses of the indicative, but also all thoso of the potential; alleging, “ that as the indicative mood is converted into the subjunctive, by the expression of a condition, motive, wish, supposition, &c. being superadded to it, so the potential mood may, in like manner, be turned into the subjunctive."-Mur. Gram., Oct., p. 82. According to this, the subjunctivo mood of overy rogular