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3. He may
may have been loved,
have been loved ;
2. You may have been loved,
2. Thou mightst have been loved,
3. He might have been loved;
2. You might have been loved,
1. If we be loved,
2. If you be loved,
3. If they be loved.
you were loved, 3. If he were loved; 3. If they were loved.
Present Tense. Singular. 2. Be [thou loved, or Do thou be loved; Plural. 2. Be [ye or you loved, or Do you be loved.
PARTICIPLES. 1. The Imperfect.
2. The Perfect.
3. The Preperfect. Being loved.
Loved. Having been loved. Obs.- In the familiar style, the second person singular of this verb, is usually formed thus : IND. Thou art loved, Thou was loved, Thou hast been loved, Thou had been loved, Thou will be loved, Thou will have been loved. Por. Thou may be loved, Thou might be loved, Thou may have been loved, Thou might have been loved. Subs. If thon be loved, If thou were loved Imp. Be (thou] loved, or Do thou be loved.
1. If we
IV. FORM OF NEGATION. A verb is conjugated negatively, by placing the adverb not after it, or after the first auxiliary ; but the infinitive and participles take the negative first: as,
Inf. Not to love, Not to have loved. Ind. I love not, or I do not love, I loved not, or I did not love, I have not loved, I had not loved, I shall not love, I shall not have loved. Pot. I may, can, or must not love; I might, could, would, or should not love; I may, can, or must not have loved; I might, could, would, or should not have loved. SUBJ. If I love not. If I loved not. Part. Not loving, Not loved, Not having loved.
V. FORM OF QUESTION. A verb is conjugated interrogatively, in the indicative and potential moods, by placing the nominative after it, or after the first auxiliary: as,
IND. Do I love? Did I love ? Have I loved ? Had I loved ? Shall I love? Shall I have loved ? Por. May, can, or must I love? Might, could, would, or should I love? May, can, or must I have loved ? Might, could, would, or should I have loved ?
VI. FORM OF QUESTION WITH NEGATION. A verb is conjugated interrogatively and negatively, in the indicative and potential moods, by placing the nominative and the adverb not after the verb, or after the first auxiliary: as,
Ind. Do I not love? Did I not love? Have I not loved ? Had I not loved ? Shall I not love? Shall I not have loved ? Pot. May, can, or must I not love? Might, could, would, or should I not love? May, can, or must I not have loved ? Might, could, would, or should I not have loved ?
IRREGULAR VERBS. An irregular verb is a verb that does not form the preterit and perfect participle by assuming d or ed; as, see, saw, seeing, seen.
OBS. 1.- When the verb ends in a sharp consonant, t is sometimes improperly substituted for ed, making the preterit and the perfect participle irregular in spelling, when they are not so in sound: as, distrest for distressed, lost for tossed, mixt for mixed, crackt for cracked.
OBs. 2.- When the verb ends with a smooth consonant, the substitution of t for ed produces an irregularity in sound, as well as in writing. In some such irregularities, the poets are indulged for the sake of rhyme; but the best speakers and writers of prose prefer the regular form wherever good use has sanctioned it: thus, learned is better than learnt; burned, than burnt; penned, than pent; absorbed, than absorpt; spelled, than spelt; smelled, than smelt; though both forms are allowable.
* When power is denied, can and not are united to prevent ambiguity; as, “I can. not go." But when the power is affirmed, and something else is denied, the words are written separately; as, “The Christian apologist can not merely expose the utter baseness of the infidel' assertion, but he has positive ground for erecting an opposita and confronting assertion in its place.”—Dr. Chalmers.
Obs. 3.-Several of the irregular verbs are variously used by the best authors; and many preterits and participles which were formerly in good use, are now obsolete, or becoming so.
Obs. 4.-The simple irregular verbs are about 110 in number, and are nearly all monosyllables. They are derived from the Saxon, in which language they are also, for the most part, irregular.
Oes. 5.—The following alphabetical list exhibits the simple irregular verbs, as they are now generally used. In this list, and also in that of the redundant verbs, those preterits and participles which are supposed to be preferable, and best supported by authorities, are placed first. Nearly all compounds that follow the form of their simple verbs, or derivatives that follow their primitives, are purposely omitted from both tables. Welcome and behave, unlike come and have, are always regular, and therefore belong not to either list. Some words which are obsolete, have also been omitted, that the learner might not mistake them for words in present use. Some of those which are placed last, are now little used.
LIST OF THE IRREGULAR, VERBS. Presenta Preterit.
Imp. Participle. Perfect Participle. Arise, arose,
arising, arisen. Be, was,
beating, beaten or beat.
bidden or bid. Bind, bound,
binding, bound. Bite, bit,
biting, bitten or bit. Bleed, bled,
bleeding, bled. Break, broke,
breaking, broken. Breed, bred,
bred. brought, bringing, brought. Buy, bought,
bought. Cast, cast,
casting, cast. Chide, chid,
chidden or chid. Choose, chose,
chosen. Cleave, I cleft or clove,
cleft or cloven. Cling,
clinging, clung. Come, came,
coming, come. Cost, cost,
costing, cost. Cut, cut,
cutting, cut. * Borne signifies carried; born signifies brought forth. + " And they shall pass through it, harılly bestead, and hungry.”—Isaiah, vili, 21.
# Cleave to split, is irregular as above; cleare, to stick, is regular, but cave was formerly used in the preterit, for cleaved.
Imp. Participle. Perfect Participle.
drinking, drunk or drank. Eat. ate or ěat,
eating, eaten or eat Fall, fell,
falling, fallen. Feed, fed,
fled. Fling, flung,
flinging, flung. Fly, flew,
getting, got or gotten.
hidden or hid.
holding, held or holden.*
hurting, hurt. kept,1
keeping, kept. Know, knew,
knowing, known. led,
leading, led. Leave, left,
leaving, left. Lend, lent,
lent. Let, let,
let. Lie, (to rest,) lay,
lain. Lose, lost,
reading, Rend, rent,
rending, rent. * "Holden is not in general use; and is chiefly employed by attorneys.”—Crombie p. 196. Wells marks this word as "obsolescent."--School Gram., p. 103. L. Murray rejected it; but Lowth gave it alone, as a participle, and held only as a preterit. + "I have been found guilty of killing cats I never hurtell."- Roderick Random.
"They keeped aloof as they passed her bye."-J. Hogg, Pilgrims of the Sun, § Perhaps there is authority sufficient to place the verb rend among those which are redundant.' See, in the Grammar of English Grammars, four examples of the regular form, “rended.”
Present. Rid, Ride, Ring, Rise, Run, Say, See, Seek, Sell, Send, Set, Shed, Shoe, Shoot, Shut, Shred, Shrink, Sing, Sink, Sit,
Imp. Participle. Perfect Participle. rid,
ridding, rid. rode,
riding, ridden or rode. rung or rang,
rising, risen. ran or run,
seeing, seen. sought,
selling, sold. sent,
shooting, shot. shut,
shutting, shut. shred,
shredding, shred. shrunk or shrank, shrinking, shrunk or shrunken. sung or sang, singing, sung. sunk or sank, sinking, sunk. sat,
sitting, sat. slew,
slaying, slain. slung,
slinging, slung. slunk or slank, slinking slunk. smote,
smiting, smitten or smit. spoke,
speaking, spoken. spent,
standing, stood. stole,
stealing, stolen. stuck,
sticking, stuck. stung,
stinging, stung. stunk or stank stinking, stunk. strode or strid, striding, stridden or strid.t struck,
striking, struck or stricken. swore,
Sling, Slink, Smite, Speak, Spend, Spin, Spit, Spread, Spring, Stand, Steal, Stick, Sting, Stink, Stride, Strike, Swear,
* "Shoe, shoed or shod, shoeing, shoed or shod."-old Gramo, by W. Ward, p. 64; and Fowle's True English Gram., p. 46.
+ The verb stride, and its derivative bestride, each of which is used in two irregular forms, show also a tendency to become redundant. “He will find the political hobby which he has bestrided no child's nag.”—The Vanguard, a Norospaper.
“Through the pressed nostril spectacle-bestrid."--Cowper.