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Present. Swim, Swing, Take, Teach, Tear, Tell, Think, Thrust, Tread, Wear, Win, Write,


Imp. Participle. Perfect Participle.
swum or swam, swimming, swum.
swung or swang, swinging, swung.

taking, taken.

teaching, taught. tore,


torn. told,


told. thought,

thinking, thought. thrust,

thrusting, thrust. trod,

treading, trodden or trod. wore,

wearing, won,

winning, wrote,

writing, written.*




A redundant verb is a verb that forms the preterit or the perfect participle in two or more ways, and so as to be both regular and irregular; as, thrive, thrived or throve, thriving, thrived or thriven. Of this class of verbs, there are about ninety-five, beside sundry derivatives and compounds.

OBS. 1.–Those irregular verbs which have more than one form for the preterit or for the perfect participle, are in some sense redundant; but, as there is no occasion to make a distinct class of such as have double forms that are never regular, these redundancies are either included in the preceding list of the simple irregular verbs, or omitted as being improper to be now recognized for good English. A few old preterits or participles may perhaps be account ed good English in the solemn style, which are not so in the familiar: as, “And none spake a word unto him.”Job, ii, 13. " When I brake the five loaves.”—Mark, viii, 19. “Serve me till I have eaten and drunken.--Luke, xvii, 8. “It was not possible that he should be holden it.”-- Acts, ii, 24. “Thou castedst them down into destruction.”--Psalms, lxxiii, 18. “ Behold I was shapen in iniquity.”Ib., li, 5. “A meat-offering baken in the oven.” -Leviticus, ži, 4.

"With casted slough, and fresh celerity."-Shakspeare.

" Thy dreadful vow, loaden with death.” — Addison. OBS. 2.-The list which is given below, (one that originated with G. B., and was prepared with great care,) exhibits the redundant verbs as they are now generally used, or as they may be used without grammatical impropriety. If the reader would see authorities for the forms admitted, he may find a great number cited in Brown's largest Grammar. No words are inserted in the following table, but such as some modern authors countenance. A word is not necessarily ungrammatical by reason of having a rival form that is more common; nor is every thing to be repudiated which some few grammarians condemn.

OBS. 3.—This school grammar, as now revised by the author in 1854, exhibits the several classes of verbs in the same manner as does the Grammar of English Grammars, which was first published in 1851. All former lists of our irregular and redundant verbs are, in many respects, defective and

*"Writ and wrote were formerly often used as participles, and writ also as a preterlt, but they are now generally discontinued by good writers."-Worcester's Dict.

erroneous; nor is it claimed for those which are here presented, that they are absolutely perfect. I trust, however, they are much nearer to perfection, than are any earlier ones. Among the many individuals who have published schemes of these verbs, none have been more respected and followed than Lowth, Murray, and Crombie; yet are these authors' lists severally faulty in respect to as many as sixty or seventy of the words in question, though the whole number but little exceeds two hundred, and is commonly reckoned less than one hundred and eighty.

OBs. 4.-The grammatical points to be settled or taught by these tables, are very many. They are more numerous than all the preterits and perfect participles which the lists exhibit; because the mere absence therefrom of any form of preterit or perfect participle implies its condemnation, and the omission from both, of any entire verb, suggests that it is always regular.



Imper. Participle. Perfect Participle.
abode or abided, abiding, abode or abided.
awaked or awoke, awaking, awaked or awoke.
þelayed or belaid, belaying, belayed or belaid.
bent or bended, bending, bent or bended.
bereft or bereaved, bereaving, bereft or bereaved.
þesought or beseeched, beseeching, besought or beseechod
betted or bet,

betting, betted or bet. betided or betid, betiding, betided or betid. bode or bided,

biding, bode or bided. blended or blent, blending, blended or blent. blessed or blest, blessing, blessed or blest. blew or blowed, blowing, blown or blowed. built or builded, building, built or builded. burned or burnt, burning, burned or burnt. burst or bursted, bursting, burst or bursted. caught or catched, catching, caught or catched. clothed or clad,

clothing, clothed or clad. crept or creeped, creeping, crept or creeped. crowed or crew,

crowing, crowed. cursed or curst,

cursing, cursed or curst. dared or durst,

daring, dared. dealt or dealed, dealing, dealt or dealed. dug or digged, digging, dug or digged. dived or dove, diving, dived or diven. dreamed or dréanıt, dreaming, dreamed or dreamto dressed or drest, dressing, dressed or drest. dwelt or dwelled, dwelling, dwelt or dwelled. froze or freezed,

freezing, frozen or freezed. gelded or gelt,

gelding, gelded or gelt. gilded or gilt,

gilding, gilded or gilt. girded or girt,

girding, girded or girt. graved,

graving, graved or graven. ground of grinded, grinding, ground or grinded. hung or hanged, hanging, hung or hanged. heated or het,


heated or het. heaved or hove, heaving, heaved or hoven. hewed,

hewing, hewed or hewn. kneeled or knelt, kneeling, kneeled or knelt. knit or knitted, knitting, knit or knitted. laded,

lading, laded or laden. laid or layed,

laying, laid or layed. leaned or leant,


leaned or leant. leaped or leapt,

leaping, leaped or lệapt. learned or learnt, learning, learned or learnto lighted or lit,

lighting, lighted or lit.

Present. Preterit.

Imper. Participle. Perfect Participle.
Mean, měant or meaned, meaning, měant or meaned.

mowing, mowed or mown. Mulct,

mulcted or mulct, mulcting, mulcted or mulct. Pass, passed or past,

passing, passed or past. Pay, paid or payed,

paying, paid or payed. Pen, (to coop,) penned or pent, penning, penned or pent. Plead, pleaded or pled, pleading, pleaded or pled. Prove, proved,

proving, proved or proven. Quit,

quitted or quit, quitting, quitted or quit. Rap, rapped or rapt,

rapping, rapped or rapt. Reave, reft or reaved,

reaving, reft or reaved. Rive, rived,

riving, riven or rived. Roast, roasted or roast, roasting,

roasted or roast. Saw, sawed,

sawing, sawed or sawn. Seethe, seethed or sod,

seething, seethed or sodden. Shake, shook or shaked, shaking, shaken or shaked. Shape, shaped,

shaping, shaped or shapen. Shave, shaved,

shaving, shaved or shaven. Shear,

sheared or shore, shearing, sheared or shorn. Shine,

shined or shone, shining, shined or shone. Show, showed,

showing, showed or shown. Sleep, slept or sleeped, sleeping, slept or sleeped. Slide, slid or slided,

sliding, slidden, slid or slide. Slit, slitted or slit,

slitting, slitted or slit. Smell, smelled or smelt, smelling, smelled or smelt. Sow, sowed,


sowed or sown. Speed, sped or speeded, speeding, sped or speeded. Spell, spelled or spelt, spelling, spelled or spelt. Spill, spilled or spilt,

spilling, spilled or spilt. Split,

split or splitted, splitting, split or splitted. Spoil, spoiled or spoilt, spoiling, spoiled or spoilt. Stave, stove or staved,

staving, stove or staved. Stay; staid or stayed,

staying, staid or stayed. String, strung, or stringed, stringing, strung or stringed. Strive, strived or strove,

striving, strived or striven. Strow, strowed,

strowing, strowed or strown. Sweat,

sweated or sweat, sweating, sweated or sweat. Sweep,

swept or sweeped, sweeping, swept or sweeped. Swell, swelled,

swelling, swelled or swollen. Thrive,

thrived'or throve, thriving, thrived or thriven. Throw,

threw or throwed, throwing, thrown or throwed. Wake,

waked or woke, waking, waked or woke.

waxing, waxed or waxen.
wove or weaved, weaving, woven or weaved.
wedded or wed, wedding, wedded or wed.
wept or weeped, weeping, wept or weeped.
wet or wetted,

wetting, wet or wetted. whetted or whet, whetting, whetted or whet. wound or winded, winding, wound or winded. wont or wonted, wonting, wont or wonted. worked or wrought, working, worked or wrought. wringed or wrung,

wringing, wringed or wrung.

Wax, Weave, Wed,

Weep, Wet,

Whet, Wind,


Work, Wring,

DEFECTIVE VERBS. A defective verb is a verb that forms no participles, and is used in but few of the moods and tenses; as, beware, ought, quoth.

OBS.—When any of the principal parts of a verb are wanting, the tenses usually derived from those parts are also, of course, wanting: All the auxiliaries, except do, be, and have, are defective; but, as auxiliaries, they become parts of other verbs, and do not need the parts which are technically said to be “wanting." The following brief catalogue contains all our defective verbs, except methinks, with its preterit methought, which is not only defect ive, but impersonal, irregular, and deservedly obsolescent.





May, might. Quoth, quoth,

ought. Wit,

wot. OBS. 1.-Beware is not used in the indicative present. Must is never varied in termination. Ought is invariable, except in the solemn style, where we find oughtest. Will is sometimes used as a principal verb, and as such is regular and complete. Quoth is used only in ludicrous language, and is not varied. It seems to be properly the third person singular of the present; for it ends in th, and quod was formerly used as the preterit: as,

“Yea, so sayst thou, (quod Tröylus,) alas !"—Chaucer. OBS. 2.– Wis, preterit wist, to kuow, to think, to suppose, to imagine, appears to be now nearly or quite obsolete; but it seems proper to explain it, because it is found in the Bible: as, “I wist not, brethren, that he was the high priest."--Acts, xxiii, 5. “ He himself wist' not that his face shone.'"

- Life of Schiller, p. iv. Wit, to know, and wot, knew, are also obsolete except in the phrase to wit; which, being taken abstractly, is equivalent to the adverb namely, or to the phrase, that is to say.

Obs. 3.-Some verbs from the nature of the subject to which they refer, can be used only in the third person singular; as, It rains ; it snows ; it freezes ; it hails ; it lightens ; it thunders. These have been called impersonal verbs. The neuter pronoun it, which is always used before them, does not seem to represent any noun, but, in connexion with the verb, merely to exo pross a state of things.


A Participle is a word derived from a verb, partici. ating the properties of a verb, and of an adjective or a noun; and is generally formed by adding ing, d, or ed, to the verb: thus, from the verb rule, are formed three participles, two simple and one compound; as, 1. ruling, 2. ruled, 3. having ruleda

OBS. 1. Almost all verbs and participles seem to have their very essence in motion, or the privation of motionin acting, or ceasing to act. And to all motion and rest, time and place are necessary concomitants; nor are the ideas of degree and manner often irrelevant. Hence the use of tenses and of ado

say, that

verbs. For whatsoever comes to pass, must come to pass sometime and somewhere;

and, in every event, something must be affected somewhat and somehow. Hence it is evident that those grammarians are right, who "all participles imply time." But it does not follow that the English participles divide time, like the tenses of a verb, and specify the period of action; on the contrary, it is certain and manifest that they do not. The phrase, "men labouring,conveys no other idea than that of labourers at work; it no more suggests the time, than the place, degree, or manner of their work. All these circumstances require other words to express them; as, “Men now here awkwardly labouring much to little purpose.

OBS. 2.- Participles retain the essential meaning of their verbs; and, like verbs, are either active-transitive, active-intransitive, passive, or neuter, in their signification. For this reason, many have classed them with the verbs. But their formal meaning is obviously different. They convey no affirmation, but usually relate to nouns or pronouns, like adjectives, except when they are joined with auxiliaries to form the compound tenses; or when they have in part the nature of substantives, like the Latin gerunds. Hence some have injudiciously ranked them with the adjectives. We have assigned them a separate place among the parts of speech, because experienco has shown that it is expedient to do so.

OBs. 3.—The English participles are all derived from the roots of their respective verbs, and do not, like those of some other languages, take their names from the tenses. They are reckoned among the principal parts in the conjugation of their verbs, and many of the tenses are formed from them. In the

compound forms of conjugation, they are found alike in all the tenses. They do not therefore, of themselves, express any particular time; but they denote the state of the being, action, or passion, in regard to its progress or completion. (See remarks on the Participles, in the Port-Royal Latin and Greek Grammars.]


English verbs have severally three participles; which have been very variously denominated, perhaps the most accurately thus: the Imperfect

, the Perfect, and the Preperfect. Or, as their order is undisputed, they may be conveniently called the First, the Second, and the Third.

I. The Imperfect Participle is that which ends commonly in ing, and implies a continuance of the being, action, or passion; as, being, loving, seeing, writingbeing loved, being seen, being writing.

II. Tbe Perfect Participle is that which ends commonly in ed or en, and implies a completion of the being, action, or passion; as, been, loved, seen, written.

III. The Preperfect Participle is that which takes the sign having, and implies a previous completion of the being, action, or passion; as, having loved, having seen, having written_having been loved, having been writing, having been written.

The First or Imperfecl Participle, when simple, is always formed by adding ing to the radical verb; as look, looking: when compound, it is formed by prefixing being

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