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CONTENTS

VOLUME II

DISINTEGRATION AND FOREIGN INTERVENT

PUBLICATION No. 330

LIST OF PRINCIPAL PERSONS.
LIST OF PAPERS_-
CHAPTER
I. SIBERIA AND MANCHURIA
Discussion of the contemplated dispatch of Japanese troops to

Russian attitude-Bolshevik activities in Siberia and Mar
The formation of local governments—Proposed use of
troops in the zone of the Chinese Eastern Railway-The
of warships to Vladivostok-French suggestion of Al

American intervention: attitude of the United States.-Proposed Japanese occupation of the Trans-Siberian Railw

reported activities of German and Austro-Hungarian pri

British and Japanese support of Semenov..
Declaration of the American Government against intervention

5, 1918: further discussion-Further reports concerning

prisoners-Japanese offer of support to HorvatLanding of Japanese forces at Vladivostok, April 5, 1918;

landing: attitude of the United States-Formation of the mous Siberian government, the Far Eastern Committee, Chinese Eastern Railway Governing Board—The Webst

reports on armed prisoners-Appearance of the Czecho-SI Attitude of the United States toward Siberian political organi

relations of diplomatic and consular officers with themand repulse of Semenov-Appeals, recommendations, an

for intervention.-
Clashes between the Czecho-Slovaks and Soviet forces: good c

American and French Consuls ----
Consideration of intervention by the American Governmei

velopment of the Czecho-Slovaks' conflict with Soviet force
test of the Allied and American representatives against the c
ment of the Czecho-Slovaks—Good offices of American of

Formation of the temporary Siberian government at Omsk Request of the Czecho-Slovak leaders for aid in establishing

eastern front-Overthrow of the Vladivostok Soviet by the ' Slovaks-Landing of American marines- Proclamation protection of Vladivostok by commanders of Allied and Ase forces--Proclamation of a government by Horvat: cont

with other political organizations.-American proposals for military action, July 17, 1918: dis

with the Japanese and British Governments—Chinese reqı participation-Rivalry of local organizations.

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CHAPTER
I. SIBERIA AND MANCHURIA—(Continued)
Japanese and American public statements regarding military action,

August 2 and 3, 1918—British statement, August 8, 1918...
Proposals for the political direction of intervention and for augmenta-

tion of the forces: attitude of the United States—Japanese activi-
ties in Manchuria-Arrival of American and Allied troops at
Vladivostok-Increase of the Japanese forces-Reply of the Soviet

government to American and Japanese statements---
Special mission of Ambassador Morris to Vladivostok: his recommen-

dation that an American force be sent to Omsk-Westward move-
ment of the Czecho-Slovaks from Vladivostok: reverses on the
Volga-Formation of a government by Constituent Assembly dele-

gates at Samara: conference at Ufa with other organizations... Declaration restricting American operations, September 26, 1918

Formation of the all-Russian provisional government at Ufa:
fusion with the Siberian government at Omsk-Further increase of

Japanese forces
Representations of the American Government against the size of

Japanese forces and the degree of control assumed in Manchuria
and Siberia, November 16, 1918—The establishment of Kolchak
as Supreme Governor at Omsk, November 18, 1918—Refusal of

Semenov to recognize Kolchak's authority --
Representations of the American Government against Japanese sup-

port of Semenov, December 16, 1918-Continuance of the con

flict-Reduction of the Japanese forces --
II. THE NORTHERN REGION
Opposition in Archangel to the Soviet régime German threat through

Finland to the Murman Railway-Shipment of arms and stores
to the interior of Russia-- British requests for the dispatch of Ameri-
can forces to Murmansk-Arrival of a French warship-Landing
of armed forces-Allied cooperation with the Murmansk Soviet-
Arrival of an American cruiser-German and Soviet demands for
withdrawal of Allied and American forces-Agreement of July 6,
1918, with the Murmansk Soviet-Argument of the Consul at

Archangel against intervention...
Occupation of Archangel by Allied forces, August 2, 1918–Overthrow

of the Soviet and formation of the Supreme government of the
northern region-Relations with the Allied and American diplo-
matic representatives and military authorities-- Arrival of Ameri-

can troops, September 4, 1918..--
Coup d'état of September 5, 1918: restoration of the deposed govern-

ment through efforts of the American Ambassador- Protest of
the American Government against the conduct of the British com-
mander in chief-Plan of the reinstated ministers to resign in favor
of the Samara government: efforts of the American Ambassador
to dissuade them.--

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CHAPTER
II. THE NORTHERN REGION-(Continued)
Proposal for increasing the American forces at Archangel and extend-

ing the operations: refusal of the American Government, Septem-
ber 26, 1918—Reorganization of the local government: subordina-
tion to the all-Russian government at Omsk-Disapproval of the
Ambassador's plan to recruit an American-Slavic legion-Replace-
ment of the commander in chief-Disaffection among the Ameri-

can soldiers and among the local Russian recruits -
Retention of American and Allied troops in north Russia after the

armistice with Germany-Local attitude toward the Kolchak

government at Omsk..
III. SOUTHEASTERN RUSSIA AND THE CAUCASUS
Nationalist and anti-Bolshevik movements: the Don Cossacks under

Kaledin, the Southeastern federation, the Trans-Caucasus, the
Volunteer Army under Alexeev and Kornilov-Attitude of the
American and Allied Governments toward de facto political and

military authorities.---
Bolshevik, Turkish, and German advances-Formation of the inde-

pendent states of North Caucasus, Georgia, Armenia, and Azer-
baijan-The Cossack organization under Krasnov-Revival of
the Volunteer Army: succession of Denikin as its commander-For-
mation of a governmental commission attached to the army-Recog-

nition by it of the supreme authority of Kolchak..
IV. THE UKRAINE AND THE CRIMEA
Establishment of a Ukrainian government-Relations with the Soviet

government, the Central powers, and the Allies—The treaty of

Brest Litovsk with the Central powers, February 9, 1918..
Capture of Kiev and Odessa by the Bolsheviks and subsequently by

the Austro-German forces-Austro-German occupation of the
Ukraine and the Crimea-Establishment of the Skoropadski gov-
ernment in the Ukraine, April 29, 1918—The Crimean govern-
ment of Sulkevich-Exploitation of these regions by the Central
powers-Appeal of the Ukrainian National Council to President

Wilson, October 15, 1918.---
Declaration of the intention of the Allied Governments to maintain

order in the Ukraine Landing of Allied troops at Odessa-Es

tablishment of the Directory by Petlyura---
V. BERSARABIA
The Moldavian Republic: military support by Rumania-Announce-

ment by the Soviet government of a state of war with Rumania:
expulsion of the Rumanian Minister and sequestration of Ruma-
nian gold-Agreement between Rumania and the Soviet govern-
ment, March 9, 1918Union of Bessarabia with Rumania, April
9, 1918.

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CHAPTER
VI. FINLAND
Indefinite relations with the Russian Provisional Government-

Autonomy law passed by the Diet, July 18, 1917—Dissolution of
the Diet; elections of October 2, 1917—Labor disturbances in protest

against bourgeois control.--
Proclamation of independence, December 4-6, 1917: attitude of the

American and other governments—Recognition by Sweden, Nor-
way, Denmark, and France, January 4-10, 1918-Seizure of
power by the Red Guards; civil war with the White Guards under
Mannerheim-Swedish occupation of the Åland Islands—Request
for American recognition by commissioners of the White govern-
ment: counter-representations by the delegate of the Red govern-

ment-Appeals for food.---
Treaties between Finland and the Soviet government, March 1, 1918,

and between Finland and the German Government, March 7, 1918. German military intervention against the Red Guards; victory of the

White Guards-Advances into Karelia and toward the Murman
Railway-New negotiations with the Soviet government-
British, French, and American attitude toward the White govern-
ment and representatives of the former Red government-Resig-
nation of Mannerheim-Monarchist movement: election of Fred-

erick Carl of Hesse, October 9, 1918----
Withdrawal of German troops-Formation of a new government under

Mannerheim-Decision of the American Government to ship food

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VII. THE BALTIC COUNTRIES

Appeals from Esthonia and Latvia for support of independence: attitude

of Great Britain-Declaration of the independence of Lithuania and
request for recognition: attitude of the United States; recognition
by Germany-Movement by the Baltic Germans for a monarchy in
personal union with Prussia: qualified response by the German
Government-Protests by delegates of the Esthonian Provisional
Government: reception of these delegates by the British, French,
and Italian Governments--Refusal of visa for an Esthonian delegate
to the United States—Protest of the Lettish National Committee
against German rule; claim to independence British project for a

Lettish legion: attitude of the United States..
The question of protection of the Baltic countries from Bolshevism

upon withdrawal of the German troops: Attempts to enlist the help
of the Scandinavian countries-Postponement of German with-
drawal in the armistice-Formation of national governments in
Esthonia, Latvia, and Lithuania-Reservation of consideration of
national claims by the United States until the peace conference-
Dispatch of a British naval force to the Baltic Sea-German with-
drawal and Bolshevik advance --Yudenich's project of an anti-
Bolshevik force to take Petrograd...

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LIST OF PRINCIPAL PERSONS 1

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1

Alexeev, Gen. M. V., from March to June 1917 Commander in Chief of the Rus

sian Army; in September 1917 Chief of Staff; after the November revolution took part in the Don in the formation of the Volunteer Army; in August 1918

Chief Director of that army. Avksentiev, N. D., a leader of the Socialist-Revolutionist Party and Minister of

the Interior in the first cabinet of Kerensky; leading member of the Ufa

Directory (later the Directory of the all-Russian government, Omsk). Baker, Newton D., Secretary of War. Bakhmeteff, Boris A., head of the Extraordinary Embassy from Russia to the

United States; July 5, 1917, Russian Ambassador at Washington. Baldwin, Capt. (later Maj.) Karl, Military Attaché at Tokyo. Balfour, Arthur J., British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Barclay, Colville A. de R., Counselor of the British Embassy at Washington. Bliss, Gen. Tasker H., Chief of Staff, U.S.A., September 22 to December 31, 1917;

member of the Allied Conference, 1917; member of the Supreme War Council

in France. Brusilov, Gen. A. A., in 1916 Commander of the Russian offensive in Galicia;

9

from June to July 1917 Commander in Chief of the Russian Army. Buchanan, Sir George W., British Ambassador at Petrograd. Caldwell, John K., Consul at Vladivostok. Cecil, Robert, Lord, British Minister of Blockade and Under-Secretary of State

for Foreign Affairs. Chaikovski, N. V., President of the Supreme government of the northern region;

member of the Ufa Directory (later the Directory of the all-Russian govern

ment, Omsk). Chenkelli, A. I., member of the Fourth Russian Duma; Georgian Minister of

Foreign Affairs. Chicherin, George V., Acting Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs, March 13,

1918; Commissar for Foreign Affairs, May 30, 1918. Clemenceau, Georges E. B., from November 16, 1917, to January 20, 1920, French

Premier and Minister for War. Cole, Felix, Vice Consul (later Consul) at Archangel. Crosby, Oscar T., delegate of the Treasury to the Inter-Allied Council on War

Purchases and Finance. Crosley, Capt. Walter S., Naval Attaché in Russia. Czernin, Ottokar, Graf von und zu Chudenitz, Austro-Hungarian Minister for

Foreign Affairs. Daniels, Josephus, Secretary of the Navy. Davison, Henry P., Chairman of the War Council of the American Red Cross. Denikin, Gen. A. I., from April to June 1917 Chief of Staff of the Russian Army;

from June to September 1917 successively commander of the western and southwestern fronts; after the November revolution took part in the Don in the formation of the Volunteer Army; succeeded Kornilov in April 1918 as

commander of that army. 1 Reference has been made to Khronika Grazhdanskoi Voiny v Sibiri (V. Maksakov and A. Turunov, compilers, Moscow, 1926) for data concerning Siberian officials.

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