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OF

SLAVERY AND THE SLAVE TRADE,

ANCIENT AND MODERN.

THE FORMS OF SLAVERY THAT PREVAILED IN ANCIENT NATIONS,

PARTICULARLY IN GREECE AND ROME.

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COLUMBUS, OHIO:
PUBLISHED AND SOLD EXCLUSIVELY BY SUBSCRIPTION
BY

H. MILLER.

18 5 9.

THE SEIT 1
PUBLIC

1086!UB

ASTO", 1"A"
TILLA

1.J.'S
R

L

Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1857,

BY J. & H. MILLER,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District

of Ohio.

STEREOTYPED AND PRINTED BY OSGOOD & PEARCE,

COLUMBUS, O

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

PRELIMINARY SKETCH. ---ANCIENT SLAVERY.

Early existence of Slavery in the world.-The Mosaic institutions in regard to Slav.
ery.--Hebrews, how reduced to servitude.—The Jubilee.- Distinction between
native and foreign Slaves.--Voluntary Slaves: the Mercenarii of the Romans ;
the Prodigals or debtor Slaves; the Delinquents; the Enthusiasts.- Involuntary
Slaves; prisoners of war, and captives stolen in peace, with the children and de-
scendants of both.--Voluntary Slavery introduced decree of the Roman Sen-
ate.-Slavery in Rome: condition of the Slaves; cruelty to the old and sick ;
prisons for Slaves; Sicily: servile war and breaking up of the prisons.- Piracy
esteemed honorable by the early Greeks. — Piratical expeditions to procure
Slaves.-Causes of the gradual extinction of Slavery in Europe.—Origin of the
African Slave Trade by the Portuguese.—Followed by most of the maritime na-
tions of Europe.

17

CHAPTER II.

SLAVERY IN GREECE.-ATHENIAN SLAVES.

Grorienor hibrong To Feb 1947 DE

Early existence of Slavery in Greece.- Proportion of Slaves to Freemen.-Their

numbers in Athens and Sparta.Mild government of Slaves in Athens—the re-
verse in Sparta.—Instances of noble conduct of Slaves towards their masters.
Probable origin of Slavery, prisoners of war.—Examples in history of whole cities
and states being reduced to Slavery: Judea, Miletos, Thebes.-Slaves obtained by
kidnapping and piracy.—The traffic supposed to be attended by a curse.-Certain
nations sell their own people into Slavery.- Power of masters over their Slaves;
the power of Life and Death.--The Chians, the first Greeks who engaged in a
regular Slave-trade. Their fate in being themselves finally reduced to Slavery:-
First type of the Maroon wars.--The Chian Slaves revolt. -The hero slave Dri-
macos.--His history.-Honors paid to his memory.- Servile war among the Sa-
miang.–Athenian laws to protect Slaves from cruelty.-Slaves entitled to bring an
action for assault.--Death penalty for crimes against Slaves.-Slaves entitled to
purchase freedom.-Privileges of Slaves in Athens.—Revolt of Slaves working in
Mines. The temples a privileged sanctuary for Slaves who were cruelly treated.
Tyrannical masters compelled to sell their Slaves.—Slave auctions.—Diogenes.--
Price of Slaves.--Public Slaves, their employment.—Educated by the State, and
intrusted with important duties.-Domestic Slaves; their food and treatment.-
The Slaves partake in the general decline of morals.- History and Description of
Athens....

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23
CHAPTER III.

SLAVES OF SPARTA, CRETE, THESSALY, &c.--THE HELOTS.

1

Tho Helots :— leading events of their History summed up. Their Masters do-

scribed.—The Spartans, their manners, customs and constitutions.--Distinguish-
ing traits : severity, resolution and perseverance, treachery and craftiness.-Mar-
riage.-Treatment of Infants. Physical Education of Youth.—Their endurance
of hardships.-The Helots: their origin; supposed to belong to the State; power
of life and death over them; how subsisted; property acquired by them; their
military service.-Plato, Aristotle, Isocrates, Plutarch and other writers convict
the Spartans of barbarity towards them; the testimony of Myron on this point;
instances of tyranny and cruelty.-Institution of the Crypteia; annual massacre
of the Helots.-Terrible instance of treachery.--Bloody servile wars.—Sparta en-
gaged in contests with her own vassals.—Relies upon foreign aid.— Earthquake,
and vengeance of the Helots.--Constant source of terror to their masters.--Other
classes of Slaves.--Their privileges and advancement.--Slavery in Crete: classes
and condition.-Mild treatment.--Strange privileges during certain Festivals.-
Slaves of Syracuse rebel and triumph.-The Arcadians......

38

CHAPTER IV.

SLAVERY IN ROME.

Hlavery ander the kings and in the early ages of the Republic.-—Its spread, and

effect on the poorer class of Freemen.--The Licinian law.-Prevalence of the two
extremes, immense wealth and abject poverty.— Immense number of Slaves in
Sicily. They revolt.— Eunus, their leader.— Their arms.— Horrible atrocities
committed by them.-The insurrection crushed.— Fate of Eunus.- Increase of
Slaves in Rome. Their employment in the arts,— Numbers trained for the Am-
phitheatre.—The Gladiators rebel.-Spartacus, his history.- Laws passed to re-
strain the cruelty of masters.-Effects of Christianity on their condition.-Their
numbers increased by the invasion of northern hordes.-Sale of prisoners of war
into slavery.-Slave-dealers follow the armies.-Foreign Slave-trade.--Slave auc-
tions.-The Slave markets.- Value of Slaves at different periods.-Slaves owned
by the State, and their condition and occupations.--Private Slaves, their grades
and occupations.-Treatment of Slaves, publio and private.--- Punishment of of-
fenses.-Fugitives and Criminals.-Festival of Saturnus, their privileges. Their
dress. Their sepulchres.—The Gladiators, their combats

46

CHAPTER V.

SLAVERY IN ROME. CONTINUED.

Abstract of the laws in regard to Slavery.- Power of Life and Death.--Cruelty of

Masters.-Laws to protect the Slave.-Constitution of Antoninus: of Claudius.--
Husband and Wife could not be separated; nor parents and children.-Slave
could not contract marriage, nor own property.--His peculium, or private prop-
erty, held only by usage.--Regulations in respect to it.—Master liable for damages
for wrongful acts of his Slave.-The murderer of a Slave, liable for a capital
offense, or for damages.-Fugitive Slaves, not lawfully harbored: to conceal them,
theft.-Master entitled to pursue them.-Duties of the authorities.-Slave hunters.
-Laws defining the condition of children born of Slaves.-Laws to reduce free

persons to Slavery.-How the state of Slavery might be terminated; by manu-
mission ; by special enactments; what Slaves entitled to freedom.--Practice of
giving liberty to Slaves in times of civil tumult and revolution.--Effects of Slav-
ery under the Republic, and under the Empire.....

58

CHAPTER VI.

CHRISTIAN SLAVERY IN NORTHERN AFRICA.

Barbary—the Carthaginians, the Romans, the Vandals.— Northern Africa annexed

to the Greek Empire.— Conquered by the Saracens.— The Spanish Moors pass
over to Africa.—Their expeditions to plunder the coasts of Spain, and carry off
the Christian Spaniards into Slavery.-Cardinal Ximenes invades Barbary, 1509,
to release the captives.— Barbarossa, the sea-rover, becomes king of Algiers.-
The Christian Slaves build the mole.— Expeditions of Charles V. against the
Moors.-Insurrection of the Slaves.-Charles releases 20,000 Christians from Sla-
very, and carries off 10,000 Mohammedans to be reduced to Slavery in Spain.-
The Moors retaliate by seizing 6000 Minorcans for Slaves. Second expedition of
Charles - its disastrous termination — his army destroyed - prisoners sold into
Slavery.-The Algerines extend their depredations into the English Channel. -
Condition of the Christian slaves in Barbary-treated with more humanity than
African slaves among Christians.-Ransom of the Slaves by their countrymen.-
British Parliament appropriates money for the purpose.—The French send bomb
vessels in 1688.-Lord Exmouth in 1816 releases 3000 captives, and puts an end
to Christian Slave.ry in Barbary...

68

CHAPTER VII.

AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE FROM THE FIFTEENTH TO THE EIGHTEENTII CENTURY.

Negroland, or Nigritia, described.--Slavery among the Natives.-Mungo Park's esti-

nate of the number of Slaves.-The Portuguese navigators explore the African
roast.-Natives first carried off in 1434.–Portuguese establish the Slave-Trade on
he Western Coast-followed by the Spaniards.-America discovered--colonized
by the Spaniards, who reduce the Natives to Slavery-they die by thousands in
consequence.-The Dominican priests intercede for them.-Negroes from Africa
substituted as Slaves, 1510.-Cardinal Ximenes remonstrates.-Charles V. en-
courages the trade.-Insurrection of the Slaves at Segovia.-Other nations colo-
nize America.–First recognition of the Slave-Trade by the English government
in 1562, reigu of Elizabeth.-First Negroes imported into Virginia in a Dutch ves-
sel in 1620.--The French and other commericial notions engage in the traffic.-
The great demand for Slaves on the African coast.-Negroes fighting and kidnap-
ping each other.-Slave factories established by the English, French, Dutch,
Spanish, and Portuguese.-Slave factory described.--How Slaves were procured
in the interior.

93

CHAPTER VIII.

SLAVE TRAFFIC OF TIE LEVANT_NSBIAN SLAVES.

The Mohammedan slave-trade.-Nubian slaves captured for the glare market of the

Levant.--Moluammed Ali.- Grand expeditions for hunting.–Auntal tribute of

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