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hibit slavery.-Constitution of Kentucky-provisions in respect to slavery.-Session of 1791.-Memorials for suppression of slave-trade, from Virginia, Maryland, New York, &c.—The Right of Petition discussed.--First fugitive slave law, 1793. First law to suppress African Slave Trade, 1794.--The Quakers again, 1797—their emancipated slaves roduced again to slavery, under expost facto law of North Carolina.—Mississippi territory-slavery clause debated.- Foreign slaves prohibited.-Constitution of Georgia - importation of slaves prohibited, 1798 - provisions against cruelty to slaves.- New York provides for gradual extinguishment of slavery, 1799.-Failure of similar attempt in Kentucky.- Colored citizens of Pennsylvania petition Congress against Fugitive Slave law and slave-trade-- their petition referred to a committee; bill reported and passed, 1800......

403

CHAPTER XXV.

POLITICAL HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES, FROM 1800 to 1807.

Slave population in 1800.- Georgia cedes territory- slavery clause.— Territory of

Indiana-attempt to introduce Slavery. in 1803—Petition Congress-Com. of H. R. report against it.-Session of 1804, committee report in favor of it, limited to ten years.—No action on report.- Foreign slave-trade prohibited with Orleans Territory, 1804.-South Carolina revives slave-trade; the subject before Congress. New Jersey provides for gradual extinction of slavery, 1804.-Attempt to gradually abolish slavery in District of Columbia, unsuccessful in Congress.-Renewed attempt to introduce slavery into Territory of Indiana, 1806, unsuccessful.—Legislature of Territory in favor of it, 1807-Congressional committee report against it.— Jefferson's Message-recommendation to abolish African slave-trade - the subject before Congress-bill reported— the debate Speeches of members-Act passed 1807, its provisions ..

430

CHAPTER XXVI.

POLITICAL HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES FROM 1807 To 1820.

Slave population in 1810.—Period of the war.–John Randolph's denunciations.

Proclamation of Admiral Cochrane to the slaves.-Treaty of Peace-arbitration on slave property.-Opinions of the domestic slave-trade by southern statesmen. -Constitution of Mississippi-slave provisions.-The African slave-trade and fugitive law.–Missouri applies for admission-proviso to prohibit slavery.-Debate-speeches of Fuller, Tallmadge, Seott, Cobb, and Livermore.—Proceedings, 1820.–Bill for organizing Arkansas Territory-proviso to prohibit slavery lost.Excitement in the North.-Publio meetings.--Massachusetts memorial.-Resolutions of state legislatures of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Kentacky.-Congress—the Missouri struggle renewed.—The compromise.Proviso to exclude slavery in territory north of 360 30' carried.-Proviso to prohibit slavery in Missouri lost.- Opinions of Monroe's cabinet.---Reflections of J.Q. Adams.-State Constitution of Missouri-final struggle.- Missouri admitted as a slave state.

447

CHAPTER XXVII.

PERIOD FROM 1820 To 1825.-- POLITICAL HISTORY OF SLAVERY.

Cousas of 1820.-Session of 1824–5.-Gov. Troup's demonstrations.-Georgia legis

lature-Secession threatened.–Slaves in Canada—their surrender refused by Eng. land.-Citizens of District of Columbia petition for gradual abolition.--Census of 1830--Anti-slavery societies formed in the north-counter movements north and south.—The mail troubles.—Manifesto of American Anti-slavery Society.–Petitions to congress—Discussion on the disposal of them.—Bill to prohibit the circulation of Anti-slavery publications through the mails.-Calhoun's report_Measure opposed by Webster, Clay, Benton, and others.-Buchanan, Tallmadge, &c., favor it-Bill lost.–Atherton's gag resolutions passed.........

498

CHAPTER XXVIII.

PERIOD FROM 1835 to 1842.–POLITICAL IIISTORY.

Free territory annexed to Missouri, 1836.— Texas applies for annexation.-Remon

strances.-Preston's resolution in 1838, in favor of it, debated by Preston, John Quincy Adams and Henry A. Wise.—The Amistad-Captives liberated.–Census of 1840.--Session of 1841-2.-Mr. Adams presents petition for dissolution of the Union.-Excitement in the house.-Resolutions of censure, advocated by Marshall.—Remarks of Mr. Wise and Mr. Adams.-Resolutions opposed by Underwood, of Kentucky, Botts, of Virginia, Arnold, of Tennessee, and others.—Mr. Giddings, of Ohio, presents a petition for amicable division of the Union--resolation of censure not received.—Case of the Creole.-Censure of Mr. Giddings; he resigns, is re-elected.....

61)

CHAPTER XXIX.

PERIOD FROM 1842 TO 1849.- ANNEXATION OF TEXAS.

Object of the acquisition set forth by Mississippi, Alabama and Tennessee legisla

tures, and by Mr. Wise and Mr. Gilmer, 1842.-Tyler's treaty of annexation-rejected by the senate.—Presidential campaign of 1844.—Clay and Van Buren on annexation.--Calhoun's Letter.-Session of 1844–5; joint resolution passed, and approved March 1, 1845.-Mexican minister protests.-War with Mexico.—The $2,000,000 bill.-- Wilmot Proviso.-Session of 1847–8.—Bill to organize Oregon territory.—Power of Congress over slavery in the territories discussed, -Dix and Calhoun.-Mr. Calhoun controverts the doctrines of the Declaration of Independence.-Cass' Nicholson letter.....

631

CHAPTER XXX.

POLITICAL HISTORY OF SLAVERY.- COMPROMISES OF 1850.

Message of President Taylor-Sam. Houston's propositions— Taylor's Special Message.

-Mr. Clay's propositions for arrangement of slavery controversy.—His resolutions. Resolutions of Mr. Bell.--The debate on Clay's resolutions, by Rusk, Foote, of Mississippi, Mason, Jefferson Davis, King, Clay, and Butler.-Remarks of Benton, Calhoun, Webster, Seward, and Cass.-Resolutions referred.-Report of Committee.—The omnibus bill.-California admitted.—New Mexico organized.—Texas boundary established.--Utah organized.--Slave-trade in the District of Columbia abolished.-Fugitive Slave law passed....

663

CHAPTER XXXI.

REPEAL OF MISSOURI COMPROMISE.—KANSAS AND NEBRASKA ORGANIZED

The platforms, slavery agitation repudiated by both parties.—Mr. Pierce's Inaugu

ral and Message denounce agitation.-Session of 1853-4:—the storm bursts forth.----Proposition to repeal the Missouri Compromise.-Kansas-Nebraska bill. Mr. Douglas' defense of the bill-Mr. Chase's reply-Remarks of Houston, Cass, Seward, and others.--Passage of the bill in the house.—Passed by senate, and approved.—The territories organized....

608

CHAPTER XXXII.

AFFAIRS OF KANSAS.-CONGRESSIONAL PROCEEDINGS.

Session of 1855-6.—The President's special message referred.-Report of committee

by Mr. Douglas.— Emigrant Aid Societies.— Minority report by Mr. Collamer.Special Committee of the House sent to Kansas to investigate affairs.— Report of the Committee.- Armed Missourians enter the territory and control the elections. -Second foray of armed Missourians.—Purposes of Aid Societies defended.—Mob violence.— Legislature assembles at Pawnee.- Its acts.— Topeka Constitutional Convention.--Free State Constitution framed.--Adopted by the people.-Election for State officers.-Topeka legislature.—The Wakarusa war.-Outrages upon the citizens.- Robberies and murders.- Lawrence attacked.-- Free state constitution submitted to Congress.-Bill to admit Kansas under free state constitution passes the house.-Douglas' bill before the senate.—Trumbull's propositions rejected. Amendments proposed by Foster, Collamer, Wilson and Seward, rejected.— Bill passed by senate.—Dunn's bill passed by house.--Appropriation bills.- Proviso to army bill.--Session terminates.— Extra session.- President stands firm, house firmer, nanate firmest.—The army bill passed without the proviso.... .... 643

".
CHAPTER XXXIII.

HISTORY OF THE TROUBLES IN KANSAS, CONTINUED. Judge Lecounpte's charge to Grand Jury— Presentments.—Official correspondence.

-Attack on Lawrence.- Free State bands organized — attack pro-slavery settlements.—Fights at Palmyra, Franklin, and Ossawattamie.-Murders.—Shannon removed.-- Atenison's army retreat.- Geary appointed governor. — Deplorable condition of the territory.—Letter to Secretary Marcy.-Inaugural address and proclamations.-Atchison's call upon the South.-Woodson's proclamation.-Armed bands enter the territory.-Lawrence doomed to destruction.—Gov. Geary's decisive measures.-Army dispersed and Lawrence saved.— Hickory Point-capture of Free State company.- Dispatch to Secretary Marcy.- Murder of Buffum.Geary and Lecompte in collision.— Official documents.—The Judiciary.Rumors of Lane's army.- Redpath's company captured—released by governor.-Capture of Eldridge's company.-Official correspondence.--Assembling of Topeka legislature-_Members arrested.—Terrftorial Legislative Assembly convened.—Inaugural -Vetoes of the governor.-The “Census Bill”—its provisions for forming State Constitution. Constitution not to be submitted to the people.-Gov. Geary's prope osition rejected.—He vetoes the bill-Bill passed.—Disturbances in the capital.Geary's requisition for U. S. refused.- His application for money refused. - Difficulties of his situation - he resigns — his farewell address.- Robert J.

Walker appointed his successor. - Secretary Stanton. — Fraudulent apportionment.-Walker's Inaugural-his recommendation to have Constitution submitted to the people.—This measure denounced at the South.—Convention assembles September, 1857.-Adjourns to October 26th, 1857....

719

CHAPTER XXXIV.

STATISTICAL TABLES CONSTRUCTED FROM THE CENSUS OF 1850.

TERRITORY-Area of Free States ; area of Slave States.-POPULATION—Free colored in

Free States; Free colored in Slave States; Slaves.-Amalgamation; Mulattoes of Free States; Mulattoes of Slave States; Proportion to Whites.—Manumitted Slaves; Fugitive Slaves ; Occupation of Slaves; Number of Slave Holders ; Proportion to Non-Slave Holders.— REPRESENTATION - Number of Representatives from Slave States.-Number of Representatives from Free States; Basis in numbers and classes.—MORAL AND SOCIAL—Churches, Church Property, Colleges, Public Schools, Private Schools ; Number of Pupils; Annual Expenditure ; Persons who cannot read and write; Lands appropriated by General Government for Education ; Periodical Press; Libraries.-CHARITIES–Pauperism in Free States ; in Slave States. -CRIMINALS- 5-Number of Prisoners.-AGRICULTURE—Value of Farms and Implements in Free and Slave States.—MANUFACTURES, MinixG, MECHANIC ARTS-Capital invested; Annual Product.-RAIL Roads AND CANALS—Number of Miles; Cost.-TOTAL REAL ANS Personal Estate.—Value of Real Estate in Free States; in Slave States; value of Personal in Free States; in Slave States, including and excluding Slaves.—Miscellaneous.

809

APPENDIX-Dred Scott decision.....

807

PRE FACE.

This book is intended for general reading, and may also serve as a book of reference. It is an attempt to compile and present in one volume the historical records of slavery in ancient and modern times the laws of Greece and Rome and the legislation of England and America upon the subject-and to exbibit some of its effects upon the destinies of nations. It is compiled from what are conceded to be authentic and reliable books, documents, and records. In looking up material for that portion of the book which treats of slavery in the nations of antiquity, the compiler found small encouragement among the historians. “There is no class so abject and despised upon which the fate of nations may not sometimes turn;" and it is strange that a system which pervaded and weakened, if it did not rain, the republics of Greece and the empire of the Cæsars, should not be more frequently noticed by historical writers. They refer, only incidentally, to the existence of slavery. An insurrection or other remarkable event with which the slaves are connected, occasionally reminds the reader of history of the existence of a servile class. The historian of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire devotes but two pages to what he describes as “that unhappy condition of men who existed in every province und every family, exposed to the wanton rigor of despotism," and who, according to his own account, numbered, in the age of the Antonines, sixty millions ! Yet “slavery was the chief and most direct cause of the ruin of the Roman Empire," if we may credit the assertions made in the legislature of Virginia shortly after an insurrection in that state. How few of the historians of England refer to the existence in that country of a system of unmitigated, hopeless, hereditary slavery. Yet it prevailed throughout England in Saxon and Norman times. In the time of the Heptarchy, slaves were an article of export. “Great numbers were exported, like cattle, from the British coasts." The Roman market was partially supplied with slaves from the shores of Brit

Pope Gregory the Great, struck with the blooming complexions and fair hair of some Saxon children in the slave market, sent over St. Augustine from Rome to convert the islanders to Christianity. In the time of Alfred, slaves were so numerous that their sale was regulated by law. As a general thing, however, feudalism strangled the old forms of slavery, and both disappeared in England in the advancing light of Christianity. The historians of the United States, also, with the exception of Hildreth, seldom refer to the subject of slavery. They perhaps imagine that they descend below the dignity of history if they treat of any thing but “ battles and seiges, and the rise and fall of administrations." Yet the printed annals of congress, from the foundation of the government to the present time, are filled with controversies upon

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