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slaves.--The encampment.--Attack upon the villages.-Courage of the Natives.
-Their heroic resistance.-Cruelty of the victors.--Destruction of villages.--The
captives sold into slavery....

102

CHAPTER IX.

AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY,

England first engages in the Slave-Trade in 1562—Sir John Hawkins' voyages.-

British first establish a regular trade in 1618.-Second charter granted in 1631,
-Third charter in 1662.-Capture of the Dutch Forts.-Retaken by De Ruyter.
-Fourth charter in 1672; the King and Duke of York shareholders.—Monopoly
abolished, and free trade in Slaves declared. Flourishing condition of the Trade.
-Numbers annually exported.-Public sentiment aroused against the Slave-Trade
in England.-Parliament resolve to hear Evidence upon the subject. ---Abstract of
the Evidence taken before a Select Committee of the House of Commons in 1790
and 1791.-Revealing the Enormities committed by the Natives on the persons of
one another to procure Slaves for the Europeans.-War and Kidnapping-imput-
od Crimes. --Villages attacked and burned, and inhabitants seized and sold.
African chiefs excited by intoxication to sell their subjects....

106

CHAPTER X.

AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY, CONTINUED. THE

MIDDLE PASSAGE.

Abstract of Evidence before House of Commons, continued.--The enslaved Africans

on board the Ships—their dejection.-Methods of confining, airing, feeding and
exercising them.—Mode of stowing them, and its horrible consequences.—Inci-
dents of the terrible Middle Passage--shackles, chains, whips, filth, foul air, dis-
ease, suffocation.-Suicides by drowning, by starvation, by wounds, by strang-
ling.-Insanity and Death.-Manner of selling them when arrived at their desti-
nation.—Deplorable situation of the refuse or sickly Slaves.-Mortality among
Seamen engaged in the Slave-Trade.-Their miserable condition and sufferings
from disease, and cruel treatment...

126

CHAPTER XI.

SLAVERY IN THE WEST INDIES, 1750 to 1790.

Abstract of Evidence continued.-Slavery in the West Indies from 1750 to 1790.-

General estimation and treatment of the Slaves.-Labor of Plantation Slaves--
their days of rest, food, clothing, property.--Ordinary punishment by the whip
and cowskin.-Frequency and severity of these Punishments.-Extraordinary
Punishments of various kinds, for nominal offenses.-Capital offenses and Pun-
ishments.--Slaves turned off to steal, beg, or starve, when incapable of labor.-
Slaves had little or no redress against ill usage.

143

CHAPTER XII.

EARLY OPPONENTS OF AFRICAN SLAVERY IN ENGLAND AND AMERICA.

Period from 1660 to 1760; Godwin, Richard Baxter, Atkins, Hughes, Bishop War-

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burton.—Planters accustomed to take their Slaves to England, and to carry them back into slavery by force.--Important case of James Somerset decided, 1772.John Wesley.-Motion in House of Commons against Slave-Trade, 1776.–Case of ship Zong.–Bridgwater Petitions.—The Quakers in England oppose Slavery. Resolutions of the Quakers, from 1727 o 1760.—They Petition House of Commons.–First Society formed, 1783.–Thu Quakers and others in America.-ACtion of the Quakers of Pennsylvania from. 1988 to 1788.-Benezet writes tracts against Slavery.-His letter to the Queen. - Sentiment in America favorable to Africans, 1772.-House of Burgesses of Virgi. ia addresses the King.–Original draft of Declaration of Independence. First Society formed in America “for Promoting Abolition of Slavery,1774.-Opposition to the Surve-Trade in America.. 158

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CHAPTER XIII.

MOVEMENTS IN ENGLAND TO A BOLISH THE SLAVE TRADE.

Thomas Clarkson, the historian of the Abolition of the Slave-Trade.—Devotes his

life to the cause, 1785.—Publishes his Essay on Slavery.--His .coadjutors.--Wil- . liam Wilberforce, parliamentary leader in the cause.—Middleton, Dr. Porteus, Lord Scarsdale, Granville Sharp.-Clarkson's first visit to a slave-ship.--Association formed-Correspondence opened in Europe and America.—Petitions sent to Parliament.-Committee of Privy Council ordered by the King, 1788.-Great exertions of the friends of the cause.-Clarkson's interview with Pitt.....

179

OHAPTER XIV.

PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY.—THE TWENTY YEARS' STRUGGLE.

Mr. Pitt introduces the subject of the Abolition of the Slave-Trade into the House

of Commons, May 9, 1788.-Speech of Mr. Pitt on the occasion.--Parliamentary action in 1789.-Debate of 12th of May.--Speech of William Wilberforce.—Travels and exertions of Clarkson.-Sessions of 1791 and 1792.-Debates in the Commons.-Speeches of Wilberforce, Pitt, Fox, Bailie, Thornton, Whitbread, Dundas, and Jenkinson.-Gradual abolition agreed upon by House of Commons........ 188

CHAPTER XV.

PARLIAMENTARY HISTORY.-SLAVE TRADE RENDERED ILLEGAL.

Action of the House of Lords in 1792.-Clarkson retires from the field from ill

health, in 1794.-Mr. Wilberforce's annual motion.-Session of 1799.-Speech of Canning. Sessions of 1804 and 1805.-Clarkson resumes his labors.-Death of Mr. Pitt, January, 1806.-Administration of Granville and Fox.-Session of 1806. -Debate in the House of Lords.-Speeches of Lord Granville, Erskine, Dr. Porteus, Earls Stanhope and Spencer, Lords Holland and Ellenborough.—Death of Fox, October, 1806.—Contest and triumph in 1807.-Final passage of the Bill for the Abolition of the African Slave-Trade.-Slave-trade declared felony in 1811, and declared piracy in 1824, by, England.—England abolishes slavery in her colonies, 1833.—Prohibition of Slave-Trade by European governments.-Slavery abolished in Mexico, 1829–In Guatemala and Colombia....

237

CHAPTER XVI.

INDIAN AND AFRICAN SLAVERY IN ST. DOMINGO.---THE INSURRECTIONS.

Discovery and settlement of the island by the Spaniards.- The natives reduced to

slavery.-Cruelty of the Spaniards towards them.-Great mortality in consequence.-. Their numbers replenished from the Bahamas.—The Dominicans become interested for them.-Las Casas appeals to Cardinal Ximenes, who sends commissioners.—They set the natives at liberty.-The colonists remonstrate against the measure, and the Indians again reduced to slavery.-Las Casas seeks a remedy.—The Emperor allows the introduction of Africans.-Guinea slavetrade established.—The buccaneers.—The French Colony.-Its condition in 1789. -Enormous slave-population.—The Mulattoes.--The French Revolution—its effect on the Colonists.-First Insurrection.—Terrible execution of the leaders.Second Insurrection-massacre and confiagration-unparalleled horrors.-Burning of Port-au-Prince.-L'Ouverture appears, the spirit and ruler of the storm.French expedition of 25,000 men sent to suppress the Insurrection.-Toussaint sent prisoner to France--dies in prison. The slaves establish their freedom.-Independence of Hayti acknowledged by France.....

252

CHAPTER XVII.

AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE AFTER ITS NOMINAL ABOLITION.

State of the slave-trade since its nominal abolition.-Numbers imported and losses

on the passage.— Increased horrors of the trade.-Scenes on board a captured slaver in Sierra Leone.—The Progresso.—Walsh's description of a slaver in 1829. - The trade in 1820.-The slave-trade in Cuba-officers of governinent interested in it.--Efforts of Spain insincere.--Slave barraccons near Governor's palace--conduct of the inmates.—The Bozals.--Bryan Edwards’ description of natives of Gold Coast-their courage and endurance.--Number of slaves landed at Rio in 1838– barracoons at Rio-government tax.-Slave-trade Insurance-- Courts of Mixed Commission—their proceedings at Sierra Leone in 1838.-Joint stock slave-trade companies at Rio.—The Cruisers-intercepted letters.- Mortality of the trade.Abuses of the American flag.-Consul Trist and British commissioners.---- Correspondence of American Ministers to Brazil, Mr. Todd, Mr. Proffit, Mir. Wise.— Extracts from Parliamentary papers.-Full list of Conventions and Treaties made by England for suppression of Slave-trade.....

280

CHAPTER XVIII.

EFFORTS TO SUPPRESS THE SLAVE-TRADE.-OPERATIONS OF THE CRUISERS.

Treaty between England and the United States, signed at Washington in 1842.-U.

S. African Squadron under the treaty.-The Truxton captures an American slaver, the Spitfire, of New Orleans.—The Yorktown captures the Am. bark Pons, with 896 slaves on board.--Commander Bell's description of the sufferings of the slaves —they are landed at Monrovia and taken care of.—Squadron of 1846.-Capture of the Chancellor.-Slave establishment destroyed by thể English and natives.A slaver's history-embarkation and treatment of slaves.- How disposed of in Cuba.—Natural scenery of Africa.- Excursion to procure slaves -- their horror at the prospect of slavery.-- Passage from Mozambique---the small-pox on board. More horrors of the Middle Passage.-The Estrella-revolt of negroes on board.. 303 CHAPTER XIX.

OPERATIONS OF THE CRUISERS UNDER THE ASIIBURTON TREATY.

Tho American Squadrons from 1847 to 1851.- More captures.-U. S. brig Ferry

cruises off the southern coast.-Capture of a slaver with 800 slaves, by an English cruiser.— Abuses of the American flag.– The Lucy Ann captured.-Case of the Navarre.-Capture by the Perry of the Martha of New York-her condemnation.- Case of the Chatsworth of the Louisa Beaton.-- The Chatsworth seized and sent to Baltimore-is condemned as a slaver. State of the slave-trade on the southern coast.— Importance of the squadron.—The Brazilian slave-trade diminishes ..

344

CHAPTER XX.

HISTORICAL SKETCH OF SIERRA LEONE AND LIBERIA.

Colony of Sierra Leone founded by the English, 1787.- Free negroes colonized.

Present extent and condition of the colony.- Establishment of English factories on the slave coast.-Treaties with the African chiefs.--Scheme of African Colonization agitated in 1783 — by Jefferson and others.— Movements in Va., in 1800 and 1805.-Formation of the American Colonization Society in 1816.-Its object "to colonize the free people of color.”—Cape Mesurado purchased and colonized in 1821.-Defense of the infant settlement from an attack by the natives.-Mortality among the early settlers.- Increase of the colony in 1835.- State colonization societies establish settlements.- Consolidation of the state colonies, and establishment of the Commonwealth.--Governor Buchanan's efforts to suppress the slave-trade.- His death, 1841.- Republic of Liberia established in 1847.-Joseph J. Roberts (coloredl) first President.--- Its independence acknowledged by European powers.—The Republic attacks the slave establishments.-- Natural resources of Liberia — its climate, soil, productions, exports, schools, churches, &c.----Settlements and population.—The Maryland settlement at Cape Palmas.

358

CHAPTER XXI.

HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN TIIE NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES.

Early existence of Slavery in England.— Its forms.— The Feudal System.— Serf

dom.- Its extinction.-African Slavery introduced into the North American Colonies, 1620.-Slavery in Virginia.- Massachusetts sanctions Negro and Indian slavery, 1641 : Kidnapping declared unlawful, 1645.--- Negro and Indian slavery authorized in Connecticut, 1650.-Decree against perpetual slavery in Rhode Island, 1652.-Slavery in New Netherland among the Dutch, 1650— Its mild form.First slavery statute of Virginia, 1662.— In Maryland, 1663, against amalgamation.-Statute of Virginia, conversion and baptism not to confer freedom; other provisions, 1667.— Maryland encourages slave-trade.--Slave code of Virginia, 16S2, fugitives may be killed.--New anti-amalgamation act of Maryland, 1681.-Settlement of South Carolina, 1660.---Absolute power conferred on masters.--Law of Slavery in New York, 1665.--Slave code of Virginia, 1692: offenses of slaves, how punishable.- Revision of Virginia code, 1705: slaves made real estate. — Pennsylvania protests against importation of Indian slaves from Carolina, 1705.New act of 1712 to stop importation of negroes and slaves, prolıibition duty of £20.-Act repealed by Queen.- First slave law of Carolina, 1712.-- Its remarka

ble provisions.-Census of 1715.-Maryland code of 1715—baptism not to confer freedom.—Georgia colonized, 1732: rum and slavery prohibited.-Cruel delusion in New York: plot falsely imputed to negroes to burn the city, 1741.- Slavery legalized in Georgia, 1750.- Review of the state of Slavery in all the colonies in 1750.- Period of the Revolution.— Controversy in Massachusetts on the subject of slavery, 1766 to 1773.-- Slaves gain their freedom in the courts of Massachu. setts.—Court of King's Bench decision.— Mansfield declares the law of England, 1772.-Continental Congress declares against African slave-trade, 1784..

369

CHAPTER XXII.

SLAVERY UNDER THE CONFEDERATION.-EMANCIPATION BY THE STATES

Number of Slaves in the United States at the period of the declaration of Independ

ence.---Proportion in each of the thirteen States.- Declaration against slavery in the State Constitution of Delaware.- Constitutions of Massachusetts and New Hampshire held to prohibit slavery, by Supreme Courts, 1783.-Act of Pennsyl. vania Assembly, 1780, forbids introduction of slaves, and gives freedom to all persons thereafter born in that State.-A similar law enacted in Connecticut and Rhode Island, 1784.–Virginia Assembly prohibits further introduction of slaves, 1778, and emancipation encouraged, 1782.-Maryland enacts similar laws, 1783.Opinions of Washington, Jefferson, and Patrick Henry. New York and New Jersey prohibit further introduction of slaves.- North Carolina declares further introduction of slaves highly impolitic, 1786.-Example of other States not followed by Georgia and South Carolina.—Action of Congress on the subject of the Territories, 1784.- Jefferson's provision excluding slavery, struck out of ordinance.Proceedings of 1787.-Ordinance for the government of the territory north-west of the Ohio, including Jefferson's provision prohibiting slavery, passed by unanimous vote..

388

CHAPTER XXIII.

FORMATION OF THE CONSTITUTION-SLAVERY COMPROMISES.

Convention assembles at Philadelphia, 1787.- Proceedings in reference to the slave

basis of representation, the second compromise of the Constitution.— Debate.Remarks of Patterson, Wilson, King, Gouverneur Morris, and Sherman.-Debate on the Importation of slaves, by Rutledge, Ellsworth, Sherman, C. Pinckney.Denunciation of slavery by Mason of Virginia.—The third Compromise, the continuance of the African slave-trade for twenty years, and the unrestricted power of Congress to enact Navigation laws..

392

CHAPTER XXIV.

POLITICAL HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES FROM 1789 to 1800.

First session of First Congress, 1789.-—Tariff bill—duty imposed on imported slaves.

- The Debate-views of Roger Sherman, Fisher Ames, Madison, &c.—Review of the state of slavery in the States in 1790.— Second session.- Petitions from the Quakers of Pennsylvania, Deleware, and New York.- Petition of Pennsylvania Society, signed by Franklin.—Exciting debate-power of Congress over slavery. Census of 1790.- Slave population.-Vermont the first State to abolish and pro

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