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ter last mentioned, and the Farrarese was, for several generations, one of the happiest and most flourishing spots in Italy. In the year 1597 it was annexed to the ecolesiastical state, and has ever since been gradually falling into poverty and decay. It must be owing to some essential error in the government, when a town like this, situated in a fertile soil, upon a navigable river near the Adriatic, remains in poverty. Except the change of its sovereign, all the other causes, which I have heard assigned for the poverty of Ferrara, existed in the days of its prosperity.

Though the citizens of Ferrara have not been able to preserve their trade and industry, yet they still retain an old privilege of wearing swords by their sides. This privilege extends to the lowest mechanics, who strut about with great dignity. Fencing is the only science in a flourishing condition in this town, which furnishes all the towns in Italy with skilful fencing-masters. Ferrara was famous formerly for a manufactory of sword-blades. The Scotch Highlanders, who had a greater demand for swords, and were nicer in the choice of their blades than any other people, used to get them from a celebrated maker in this town, of the name of Andrea di Ferrara. The best kind of broad-swords are still called by the Highlanders True Andrew Ferraras.

There are two brass statues opposite to one of the prin cipal churches. One is of Nicholo marquis of Este, and the other of Borso of Este, the first duke of Ferrara, whose memory is still held in great veneration in this city. I had the curiosity to go to the Benedictine church merely to see the place where Ariosto lies buried. The degree of importance in which men are held by their cotempóraries and by posterity, is very different. This fine fanciful old bard has done more honour to modern Italy, than forty-nine in fifty of the popes and princes to which she has given birth, and while those, who were the gaze of the multitude during their lives, are now entirely forgotten, his fame increases with the progress of time. In his life

time, perhaps, his importance, in the eyes of his countrymen, arose from the protection of the family of Este; now he gives importance, in the eyes of all Europe, to the illustrious names of his patrons, and to the country where he was born.

The emperor, and two of his brothers, lodged lately at the inn where we now are. Our landlord is so vain of this, that he cannot be prevailed on to speak on any other subject; he has entertained me with a thousand particulars about his illustrious guests; it is impossible he should ever forget those anecdotes, for he has been constantly repeating them ever since the royal brothers left his house. I asked him what we could have for supper. He answered, that we should sup in the very same room in which his imperial majesty had dined. I repeated my question; and he replied, he did not believe there were three more affable princes in the world. I said, I hoped supper would 'be soon ready; and he told me, that the archduke was fond of fricassee, but the emperor preferred a fowl plain roasted. I said, with an air of impatience, that I should be much obliged to him if he would send in supper, He bowed, and walked to the door; but, before he disappeared, he turned about and assured me, that although his majesty ate no more than an ordinary man, yet he paid like an emperor.

To perpetuate the memory of this great event, of the emperor and his two brothers having dined at this house, the landlord got an ecclesiastic of his acquaintance to compose the following pompous inscription, which is now en graven upon a stone at the door of his inn.






REGINE, &c. &c.






No three persons ever acquired immortality on easier terms; it has only cost them one night's lodging at an indifferent inn, when better quarters could not be had,



WHEN we left Ferrara, our landlord insisted on our tak, ing six horses to each chaise, on account of the badness of the roads, the soil about the town being moist and heavy. I attempted to remonstrate that four would be sufficient; but he cut me short by protesting, that the roads were so very deep, that he would not allow the best friend he had in the world, not even the emperor himself, were he there in person, to take fewer than six. There was no more to be said after this; the same argument would have been irresistible, had he insisted on our taking twelve.

As you draw near to Bologna, the country gradually improves in cultivation; and, for some miles before you enter the town, seems one continued garden. The vine yards are not divided by hedges, but by rows of elms and mulberry trees; the vines hanging, in a most beautiful picturesque manner, in festoons from one tree to another. This country is not only fertile in vines, but likewise in corn, olives, and pasturage, and has, not without found. ation, acquired the name of Bologna la Grassa

This town is well built and populous; the number of inhabitants amounting to seventy, or perhaps eighty thou sand. The houses in general have lofty porticoes, which would have a better effect if the streets were not so nar row: but in this particular, magnificence is sacrificed to conveniency; for, in Italy, shade. is considered as a luxury,

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The duchy of Bologna had conditions granted to it, upon submitting to the papal dominion. Those conditions have been observed with a degree of punctuality and good faith, which many zealous Protestants would not expect in the church of Rome.

Bologna retains the name of a republic, sends an ambassador to the pope's court, and the word Libertas is inscribed on the arms and coin of the state, with the flattering capitals S. P. Q. B. The civil government and po lice of the town is allowed to remain in the hands of the magistrates, who are chosen by the senate, which former. ly consisted of forty members; but since this republic came under the protection, as it is called, of the pope, he thought proper to add ten more, but the whole fifty still retain the name of the Quaranta. Mankind, in general are more alarmed by a change of name, in things which they have long regarded with veneration, than by a real change in the nature of the things themselves, The pope may have had some good political reason for augmenting the number of the council to fifty; but he could have none for calling them the council of fifty, if the peo ple chose rather to call fifty men assembled together the council of forty. One of the senators presides in the se nate, and is called the Gonfalonier; from his carrying the standard (gonfalone) of the republic. He is chief magistrate, is attended by guards, and is constantly at the palace, or near it, to be ready on any emergency; but he remains only two months in office, and the senators take it by turns.

In the midst of all this appearance of independency, a cardinal legate from Rome governs this republic: he is

appointed by the pope, with a vice legate, and other assistants. The orders which the legate issues, are supposed to be with the approbation of the senate; at least, they are never disputed by that prudent body of men. The office, which is of higher dignity than any other now in the gift of the court of Rome, continues for three years: at the expiration of that time, his holiness either appoints a new legate, or confirms the old one in the office for three years longer.

This ecclesiastical viceroy lives in great magnificence, and has a numerous suit of pages, equerries, and halberdiers, who attend him in the city. When he goes into the country, he is accompanied by guards on horseback.

The gonfalonier and magistrates regulate all the usual matters which regard the police, and decide, in common causes, according to the laws and ancient forms of the republic; but there is no doubt that, in affairs of great importance, and, indeed, as often as he chooses to interfere, the cardinal legate influences decisions. This must be mortifying to the senators and noble families, but is less felt by the people in general, who have every appearance of living under a mild and beneficent government.

The inhabitants of Bologna carry on a very considerable trade in silks and velvets, which are manufactured here in great perfection. The country produces immense quantities of oil, wine, flax, and hemp; and furnishes all Europe with sausages, macaroni, liqueurs, and essences. The people seem to be industrious, and to be allowed to enjoy the fruits of their labour; the markets are most plentifully supplied with provisions; fruit is to be had in great variety, and all excellent in its kind; the common wine of the country is a light white wine of an agreeable taste, which strangers prefer to any of the French or German wines to be had here. Those who are not pleased with the entertainment they meet with at the inns in this city, it will be a difficult matter to please; they must be possessed of a degree of such nicety, both in

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