« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
rounding counties. The castle of Stirling holds Stobæus called his whole work an Antholoa prominent place in the history of Scotland, gy," and divided it into 4 books; but it has and is connected with most of the important come down in a somewhat different form and events that occurred in that kingdom before it as two separate works. The original 1st and was annexed to England. The royal palace is 2d books are now entitled “Physical and Ethstill standing in an apartment of which the earl ical Extracts," and the remainder the “ Anof Douglas was mortally stabbed by James II.; thology," or by the Latin writers Sermones. and in another room the same James, as well These works, with extracts from many still exas James V., was born. There is also a palace tant ancient writers, contain passages from a commenced by the latter and finished by his large number of writers whose works are lost, daughter Mary. The parliament house has and who are not otherwise known. A combeen much defaced by being occupied by troops. plete edition of both the “Extracts" and the Part of the royal chapel is used as an armory. Sermones was published by Tauchnitzo(3 vols. There are several ancient churches and some 16mo., Leipsic, 1838). modern ones within the town, beside numer- STOCK EXCHANGE, the appellation origious schools. The town house is very ancient, nally given to the building in which stocks and the old residence of the earl of Mar is a were bought and sold, but which has now come very curious building. Stirling has some man- to signify transactions of all kinds in stocks. ufactures, the principal of which are woollens In England the term stocks is confined to the of different descriptions, leather, ropes, &c. government stocks, annuities, &c., and the The river is shallow, but a considerable trade is term shares is used for the capital or stock of carried on. The Scottish central railway passes railroad, banking, and other companies; but it, and 3 others have their termini at the town. in the United States the obligations of the The salmon fishery of the Forth is valuable. national debt,' as well as of states, counties,
STIRLING, EARL OF. See ALEXANDER, and cities, and the shares of railroads, banks, WILLIAM.
mining, manufacturing, and insurance comSTIRLING, WILLIAM, a Scottish author, born panies, are all called stocks. In France the at Kenmure, near Glasgow, in 1818. He was word rentes has the same limitation as stocks graduated at Trinity college, Cambridge, in in England. The amount of the public debt of 1839, and soon after turned his attention to the Great Britain at the end of 1860 was £801,477,study of Spanish literature, history, and art, 741, and the interest £26,833,469. The debt for which purpose he travelled and resided of France in 1860, of which the rentes are the several years in Spain. In illustration of these evidences, was $1,714,000,000, and the interest subjects he has published “ Annals of the on it $114,000,000. The dealing in the variArtists of Spain" (3 vols. 8vo., 1848), “The ous stocks, bonds, and annuities is the business Cloister Life of the Èmperor Charles the Fifth” of the stock exchange, and the dealers in them (1852), and a life of Velasquez, entitled “Ve- are usually known as stock brokers and stock lasquez and his Works” (12mo., 1855). In 1852 jobbers. In New York the traffic in stocks is of he was elected in the conservative interest a two kinds, the regular sales at the first and seomember of parliament for Perthshire, which ond boards, and the operations of the street. The constituency he still represents.
first are, or are supposed to be, legitimate in STIRLINGSHIRE, a central county of Scot- their character, and the sales bona fide; the secland, bounded by the counties of Perth, Clack- ond are speculative in character, often illegal, mannan, Linlithgow, Lanark, and Dumbarton; and as often mere gambling or betting by parties area, 462 sq. m.; pop. in 1861, 91,926. The without capital. The board of brokers in New principal towns are Stirling, Falkirk, Alva, York is composed of 200 regular members, who Bannockburn, and Denny. The chief rivers are men of reputed wealth, and who at their are the Forth, Avon, Kelvin, Endrick, and two daily sessions, either on their own account Carron. Half of Loch Lomond belongs to or on account of persons for whom they act, Stirlingshire. Loch Coulter, Loch Elrigg, and purchase or sell the various stocks which are some others are also in the county; and the called in order. Many of these sales and purW. end of Loch Katrine forms the N. E. bound- chases are made for speculative purposes, but ary for a short distance. Ben Lomond, in the very seldom on account of brokers themselves. N. W. part of the county, rises to the height The delivery of stocks and the payment at full of 3,197 feet above the sea. Coal and iron price is the almost invariable custom. It is only are mined, and woollen' and cotton goods are when a failure occurs that differences are fixed manufactured; the iron works situated at Car- between members of the board.
When a ron are among the largest in the world.
member of the board fails to deliver or pay STIVER, a Dutch copper coin, of the value for stocks as agreed, his name is struck from of about two cents in the currency of the Uni- the list. He may be reinstated, however, upted States.
on effecting a settlement with his creditors. STOAT. See ERMINE.
The efforts by one class of brokers to depreSTOBÆUS, JOANNES, the compiler of a val- ciate stocks, and by another to enhance their uable collection of passages from Greek au- value, have led to the technical names of bears thors, probably born at Stobi in Macedonia, and bulls, and in the French bourse to the similived in the latter half of the 5th century. lar terms baissiers and haussiers. (See BEARS AND Bulls.) The measures resorted to for the the month to annul his contract by the pay. purpose of raising or depressing values are ex- ment of a small fixed sum. If he adheres to traordinary and not always creditable. The his bargain, when called upon on these days, stock exchange has its own peculiar terms, not it is then called ferme, “fixed.” The parquet generally understood by outsiders. The phrase is in session from 1 to 3 P. M. every day;
buyer's option," added to the memorandum the coulisse is in session then, as well as before of a sale of stocks, implies that the purchaser, and after. The transactions of the latter are who buys at 30 or 60 days, can at his own as irregular as those of our curbstone brochoice call for the delivery of the stocks at any kers," and its premiums for annulling a sale time within the period by giving one day's no- are less than those of the parquet. The stock tice and paying interest at 6 per cent. up to the exchange at London has very similar rules, time he calls. Such purchases are usually made and its street operators are similar in charat a little above the cash price. “Seller's op
“Seller's op- acter.--The excitement at the hour of “high tion," on the contrary, is a little below the cash 'change,” in London, Paris, or New York, price, and the seller has the right to deliver any is often such as beggars description ; sevday within the limited time, by giving one day's eral hundred men are shouting, calling out notice, receiving interest up to the time of de- what they have to sell or what they wish to livery. A “corner" is an operation by several buy, at the top of their voices, all together, brokers, who form a clique to compel others and leaping and gesticulating, almost as if into pay a heavy difference on the price of stock. sane; in speculative periods, immense sums are Sometimes the clique purchase gradually a large made or lost in a few minutes. Nathan Mayer amount of stock on time, buyer's option; they Rothschild, the day after the battle of Waternext sell nearly the same amount on time, sell- loo, made, it is said, over £1,000,000 sterling in er's option, so as to secure an eventual market the purchase of stocks. for their stock; then buy for cash, thus raising STOOK FISH. See COD. the price, and make a sudden call for the stock STOCK JOBBING. See STOCK EXCHANGE. they have purchased on buyer's option, which, STOCKBRIDGE, a township of Berkshire if they have calculated correctly, compels the co., Mass., on the Housatonic river and railroad, parties from whom they have purchased to buy 168 m. by railroad from Boston, and 17 m. of them at a high price in order to deliver at & from Pittsfield; pop. in 1860, 2,000. The surlow one.
The operation is attended with con- face of the township is varied; in the S. is Monusiderable hazard. A "lame duck” is a broker ment mountain, separating it from Great Barwho is unable to respond with the shares or rington, in the W. West Stockbridge mountain, money when contracts mature. A “spread in the S. E. the Beartown mountains, and in the eagle” is the operation of a broker who sells N. W. Rattlesnake mountain. Between these are a given quantity of stock on time, say 60 days, valleys of great beauty. The Housatonic and buyer's option, and buys the same quantity at its affluents drain the town. The Stockbridge a lower price, on the same time, seller's option. or Housatonic Indians, among whom John SerIf both contracts run their full time, he makes geant and Jonathan Edwards labored as mishis difference; but if the buyer or seller com- sionaries, formerly had their home here, but pel him to deliver before the time, he may be removed westward in 1788. There are two seriously embarrassed. The “street” or “the hanufacturing villages in the township, Glencurbstone brokers," as the board call them, dale and Curtisville, where woollen goods to though often men of probity and honor, and the amount of $200,000 annually are made, transacting a very large amount of business, as well as some castings, hollow ware, &c. The are not governed by as strict rules, nor as care- village of Stockbridge has a bank, an insurance ful to abide by the letter of the law. Many of office, an incorporated academy, several private them are “lame ducks." They have a room schools, and 3 churches (Congregational, Episadjoining that occupied by the board, and copal, and Roman Catholic). during its sessions in communication with it. STÖCKHARDT, JULIUS ADOLPH, a German Their operations are mostly speculative, and writer and lecturer upon chemistry and agrithere are few of the tricks of the trade in which culture, born at Röhrsdorf, near Meissen, Saxthey are not skilled. Few of them possess any ony, Jan. 4, 1809. After receiving a classical considerable capital, and if they are successful education he studied practical pharmacy and one day, they often lose the next.--In Paris, the natural sciences for several years, and in the bourse is conducted on a very similar plan. 1833 was graduated by the board of governThere are 60 agents de change, 60 courtiers de ment examiners at Berlin as an apothecary of commerce, and 8 courtiers d'assurance, who to the first class. In 1834 he travelled in Belgium, gether make up the parquet, answering to the England, and France, and on his return entered board of brokers. The coulisse answers to our as assistant the laboratory of Dr. Struve's phar"street." The time transactions are usually maceutical establishment in Dresden. In 1838, “the end of the current month," or the end of having received the degree of Ph.D. from the the next month. The 4th of each month is university of Leipsic, he became teacher of settling day. There is a class of transactions natural science in Blockmann's institute in called "free or premium sales,” in which the Dresden, and in the following year teacher of purchaser has the right on the 15th or 30th of chemistry, physics, -and mineralogy in the technological school at Chemnitz, and royal has also contributed to various kindred publiinspector of apothecaries. His rare talent for cations. In 1851 he travelled through the presenting, both in the recitation and lecture farming districts of England, Scotland, France, room, scientific knowledge upon subjects which and Belgium, and in 1856 through Holland and are usually exceedingly obscure to the com- Belgium. It is said that, principally through munity at large, was soon recognized both by his efforts, two bushels of grain are now harthe students and the citizens, and the remark- vested in Saxony where formerly but one grew. able power of critical observation displayed STOCKHOLM, the capital and largest city in his writings (Untersuchung der Zwickauer of Sweden, in lat. 59° 20' 31" N., long. 17° 54' Steinkohle, 1840; Ueber Erkennung und Anwen- E., 330 m. N. E. from Copenhagen, and 440 m. dung der Giftfarbe, 1844, &c.) was the occasion W. S. W. from St. Petersburg; pop. in 1861, of almost innumerable applications for the in- 116,972. It is beautifully situated at the juncvestigation of commercial problems, and de- tion of Lake Mælar with an arm of the Baltic mands for his opinion upon scientific legal ques- called the Skængard, the latter being more tions. In 1843 he travelled in Belgium and properly an archipelago indented as it were France to perfect himself in technological sci- into the land. The city is built chiefly upon ence, and in 1846 published his Schule der Che- a number of islands, and consists of three mie. In Germany new editions of this work principal divisions: the Stad, or original city, have been published almost every year since its the Norrmalm (northern suburb), and Söderorigin; and it has been translated into at least malm (southern suburb). It is handsomely 8 different languages. It was translated into designed and built, with several squares and English by O. H. Peirce, M.D., under the title public walks ornamented with trees and statues. of “The Principles of Chemistry illustrated by The surrounding country, and much of the Simple Experiments" (Cambridge, Mass., 1850). ground upon which the city stands, are rocky In 1844 Stöckhardt began a course of popular and solid; yet it has been necessary, from the agricultural lectures before the Chemnitz agri- nature of other parts, to build much upon piles, cultural society. The interest excited by these whence the name is derived, meaning island of lectures led to the establishment of the system piles. The city has been likened to Venice, and of agricultural experimental stations (Land- there are several points of view which recall wirthschaftliche Versuchs-Stationen), the im- the southern city of the sea; but the resemportance of the influence exerted by which, blance is imperfect. The approaches by water throughout Germany, in diffusing scientific are uncommonly beautiful, both on the lake side knowledge, and in bringing it to bear immedi- and from the Baltic, commanding views probately upon the affairs of practical life, can ably unsurpassed of their kind. The most strikhardly be overrated. From 1846 to 1849 Stöck- ing object from every point is the great rechardt edited (with Dr. Hulse) the Polytech- tangular palace, an immense structure, standing nisches Centralblatt, and from 1850 to 1855 upon an eminence in the central island. Its (with Schober) the Zeitschrift für Deutsche vast and massive walls rise far above all the Landwirthe. In 1848 he was appointed pro- neighboring buildings, and its long straight lines fessor of agricultural chemistry in the royal need the relief afforded by the towers of the academy at Tharand, a new chair having been neighboring cathedral church. The palace, of founded purposely for him; and he still holds Italian architecture, is a regular quadrangle, that position (1862). Since then, extending flanked upon the E. and W. sides by handsome his idea of popular agricultural instruction, he parallel wings. There are few cities in Europe has given, chiefly at his own expense, plain whose general aspect is more attractive than conversational lectures (Feldpredigten) in the that of Stockholm. There are vast ranges of various farmers' clubs and societies of Saxony buildings, relieved and overshadowed in the and other parts of Germany, explaining the Stad by the majestic palace and church towers improvements in agriculture which chemical rising from their midst, in the Norrmalm laid science has shown to be desirable, and illus- out with modern symmetry and elegance, and trating these with experiments whenever this in the Södermalm rising from the harbor could be done. Several of the more impor- terraced upon a noble amphitheatre of rocky tant portions of these lectures have been pub- cliff, and all or nearly all reflected in the clear lished in a popular form by their author, as waves of lake and fiord. From the corner of his Guanobüchlein (1851 ; 4th ed., 1856), and almost every street debouching upon the wide Chemische Feldpredigten (1851; 4th ed., 1857), water fronts, the eye encounters the richest and both of which have been translated into sev- most remarkable pictures. Nowhere has naeral foreign languages; and of the latter sev- ture disposed her undulations of soil and curves eral English editions exist, as “Chemical Field of water boundary with more endless variety; Lectures for Agriculturists,” translated by J. and nowhere does she produce effects and perE. Teschemacher (Cambridge, Mass., 1853), and spective of more striking beauty. In the com
Agricultural Chemistry, or Chemical Field pass of a single evening walk one may pass Lectures” (London, 1855). In 1855 he estab- through sombre forest and smooth pasture lished at Leipsic a popular journal, Der chemi- slopes, climb tall granite cliffs overhanging sche Ackersmann, in which his so called field glassy lake and bay, and glide through the busy sermons have since been published; and he seaport filled with sails and moving industry,
the granite quays lined and adorned with archi- gun boats, is stationed at an island opposite the tectural beauty, with statues and monuments palace, called Skeppsholm (ship island). The of art. The various subdivisions of the city, in- city, covered by a strong fortress in the neightersected by the waters of the lake and by the borhood (Waxholm), is perhaps impregnable by sinuosities of the sea, are chiefly islands con- water. By land it is quite without defensive nected by bridges, some of which are of superb. works. Stockholm is the chief seat of Swedish granite masonry. Picturesque ferry boats, pro- manufactures, which are here extensive, and pelled by Dalecarlian women in their showy include woollen, linen, cotton, and silk fabrics, provincial costume, add greatly to the original- iron ware, leather, earthenware, tobacco, reity of the scene in summer. In winter the fined sugar, soap, &c. Iron is the principal waters are compact plains of snow-clad ice, article of export, amounting in 1857 to 49,261 covered with all the moving activity of thor- tons, in 1858 to 34,984, and in 1859 to 45,162. oughfares. The whole city is contained within the other chief exports are tar, planks and a circumference of about 16 miles; but the boards, and copper. The imports consist pringreat park, about 2} miles in circumference and cipally of cotton and cotton yarn, coffee, occupying an entire island nearly opposite the grain, rice, hides, tobacco, wool, sugar, salt, Stad, is not comprised within this area. It is coal, breadstuffs, and spirits. The imports of probably the most beautiful public resort in the coffee in 1856 amounted to 6,087,741 lbs., of world. There are over 25 churches; and one of tobacco to 2,076,870 lbs., of sugar to 11,553,425 the most interesting objects in the town is the lbs., and of hides to 1,970,588 lbs. In the Riddarholm church, containing the tombs and same year 217,026 barrels of breadstuffs were trophies of many heroic personages, and among imported, and 135,817 barrels exported. The them those of Gustavus Adolphus, Oharles XII., total imports in 1856 amounted to about $9,and Charles XIV. (Bernadotte). The houses of 000,000, and the exports to $3,000,000. The the city, about 5,500 in number, are large and following is compiled from the official Sweconvenient, usually 4 stories high, and occupied dish reports of tonnage owned in Stockholm: by families living independently in flats or étages; they are generally of brick stuccoed, and colored usually of uniform buff or yellow. Their aspect is cheerful and agreeable, but undistin
26,048 1,160 guished by architectural elegance. In the prin- 1850.
1,228 cipal streets, especially in the Norrmalm, there
23,868 are a few elegant shops; but this species of luxury is still almost in its infancy in Stock--The foundation of the town of Stockholm holm. In the Norrmalm, the fashionable quar- has been ascribed to Birger Jarl, the father and ter, are the residences of the wealthy classes guardian of Waldemar, elected king in 1250. and of the nobility. Here the streets are wider A settlement had been in existence at the spot, and straighter than in most European capitals however, since the destruction of Sigtuna bý of the second class. It is so also in the Söder- Finnish pirates in 1187. At this epoch the malm, which is the site of the principal facto- island upon which the modern palace stands ries. In the Stad, on the contrary, the com- was originally fortified with walls and towers mercial quarter, the streets, with 2 or 3 excep- of wood, and the pirates were kept in check tions, are crooked, narrow, and dark. The city by works which thus defended 7 towns which generally is sheltered from high winds. The stood on the banks of the lake. The strength air is pure and healthy, and the climate in all of its fortifications subsequently exposed the respects preferable to that of St. Petersburg. city to repeated sieges. It became the resiThe mean annual temperature of Stockholm is dence of the Swedish monarchs soon after 42° F., and the mean temperature of 6 winter Birger's death, but Upsal continued long aftermonths has been observed at 29.4° F. The ward to be the seat of government. With Lüharbor is one of the finest in the world, and the beck and Hamburg reciprocity of free trade largest sized ships may penetrate into the very was established; and similar relations with heart of the city. -As the seat of government Riga soon followed. Birger also sought to and residence of the king, Stockholm is the form commercial relations with England. On central point of Swedish public affairs, of di- two memorable occasions Stockholm was deplomacy, of several academies of belles-lettres, fended by women—“Shakespearian women, " science, and the arts, of elegant society, and as a Swedish historian aptly terms them. In of a great number of institutions useful and 1501 the citadel was held against insurgents by charitable. There are several fine theatres and Christina, queen of Denmark, whose husband, other public places of amusement. The city King John, ruled over the 3 united kingdoms government is confided to a governor, lieuten- of Scandinavia. King John had left his queen ant-governor, and a municipal corps composed in command of a garrison of 1,000 men, whose of 3 burgomasters and 19 councillors. A strong number, after a siege of 5 successive months, military garrison of lifeguards is always quar- was reduced by famine and the sword to 80. tered in the handsome barracks built by Charles She was compelled to capitulate. A still more XIV.; and there is also a burgher guard al- heroic defence was that originated and conways on duty. A naval squadron, chiefly of ducted by Christina Gyllenstierna, the widow of the fallen regent Sten Sture. The besiegers these are still known as the “Derby ribs.”' were Danes, under Christian II. After a ter- The old frame, however, still continued a clumrible siege of 4 months, the place was surren- sy and complicated machine, workable only by dered with the most solemn guaranty of the hand; and all attempts to adapt it to power, king to respect the rights of the inhabitants. though many were made at great cost, were A most fearful massacre ensued, known as the abandoned in England as hopeless, until this “ blood bath of Stockholm."
had been successfully accomplished in the STOCKING, a covering of some textile fab- United States, as will be noticed below. The ric closely fitted to the foot and leg. The word stocking manufacture is now carried on to a vast is said to be derived from the Saxon stican (past extent in the counties of Nottingham, Leicester, participle, stocken), to stick, because the mate- and Derby, England, and to a less degree in rial was stuck, or made with sticking pins, now some towns in Scotland. Hawick, in Roxburghcalled knitting needles. In the 15th century. shire, produces annually between 1,500,000 the whole dress below the waist was made in and 2,000,000 pairs. The business has been one in England, and was called hose. In the greatly improved since 1844, and an immense next century, possibly somewhat earlier, it ap- change has of late taken place in the cheapness pears to have been first divided into breeches of the goods, so that they are introduced where and stockings, which last also retained the stockings were before unknown. With the old original name. Stockings are said to have been hand frames a workman made in a week about made first of cloth in England; and such, How- a dozen cotton hose, weighing 2 lbs. The ell states, in his “History of the World," Henry same labor now applied to a set of the power VIII. ordinarily wore, “except there caine rotary round frames easily produces in the from Spain, by great chance, a pair of silk same time 200 dozen, consuming 300 lbs. of cotstockins. K. Edward, his son, was presented ton, which sell at 28. 6d. per dozen. The total with a pair of long Spanish silk stockins by number of stocking frames in Great Britain is Thomas Gresham, his merchant, and the pres- estimated at about 50,000, of which at least 17,ent was taken much notice of Queen Eliza- 250, worth £310,000, are in Nottinghamshire, beth was presented by Mrs. Montague, her silk giving employment to about 40,000 persons in woman, with a pair of black knit silk stockins, the various operations of making, stitching, and thenceforth she never wore cloth any more.” sewing, finishing, &c. Those in Leicestershire On the continent stockings were made much give employment to about 35,000 persons. The earlier than in England; and in 1527 there ex- materials used are woollen yarns, lamb's wool, isted in France, as stated by Beckmann, à cotton, silk, and mixed cotton and wool or an. stocking knitters' guild. Nothing is known of gola.--Stocking frames were introduced into the origin of knitting, or with certainty when the United States in the 18th century at sevit was introduced into England. It was prac- eral places where the cotton manufacture was tised there in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and prosecuted. German emigrants established the stockings were knit of worsted as well as of knitting business at Philadelphia and Germansilk. A machine called the stocking frame for town, Penn., and English emigrants from Notweaving them was invented in 1589 by William tinghamshire introduced it into New York Lee, a student expelled from St. John's college, city and several places in the middle and eastCambridge, for marrying against the rules of ern states. The adaptation of the old Lee the college, and who was thus rendered depen- machine to power was first accomplished by dent upon the labor of his wife in knitting the ingenuity of Timothy Bailey in Albany in stockings. Failing of encouragement at home, 1831 ; and the first machine thus run was at he took the machine to France. After his Cohoes, N. Y., in Oct. 1832. At this place the death there his workmen brought back the in- manufacture of hosiery has since become a very vention to England, and introduced the manu- important branch of industry, but with mafacture in London and its vicinity. It was af- chines of much more perfect construction. terward established in Nottinghamshire, which The old Lee invention was a square frame, has ever since been famous for its production which produced a straight strip or flat web, of stockings. When Sir Richard Arkwright which was cut off in proper lengths, and introduced cotton spinning at Nottingham, the seamed together to form the stocking. But a first product, made of two roves instead of one, great improvement upon this, the origin of and called double spun twist, was found from which is unknown, was the circular loom in its evenness so well adapted for the stocking which a continuous circular web is knit of any manufacture, that it was all devoted to this length, and which is cut up and formed by difpurpose; hand-spun cotton was entirely laid ferent methods into the shape of a stocking. aside, and stockings made of twist soon sup- It is believed that the first of these introduced planted those of thread. It was on Lee's stock- into America was brought from Belgium into ing frame that the first machine-made lace was Connecticut by a German, about the year produced in the last century, and it formed the 1835. Several others of different construction basis of those now used in this manufacture. have since been devised in the United States In 1756 an improvement was added in Derby for manufacturing purposes, and a few intendto the machine, fitting it for making ribbed ed also for family use. --The various knitting stockings like those produced by knitting, and machines, which are too numerous to be men