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tioned in detail in this article, produce what the previous loop is slipped off, this serves as is called the stocking stitch or chain work, a new one to support the work. This consethe same as in common hand-knitting with quently hangs upon the needles by a single two or more needles, or in crocheting, which loop upon each one. The thread as the operaconsists of loops formed in succession upon a tion goes on is rapidly carried to each needle single thread, each one locked by that which in turn, and the movement is instantly profollows it. The fastening of the end finally se- duced that adds a new loop and slips off the cures the whole and prevents its ravelling. old one. In the straight frames the work is These machines may be distinguished by the done first across the needles in turn in one didifferent kinds of needles they employ, and also rection and then back in the other, and so on; by the manner in which these are arranged but in the rotary round machines the revoluwhether on a straight horizontal line, all point- tion carries the needles constantly round in the ing the same way, as in the common stocking same direction, each one taking up the thread loom, or around an open horizontal circle, ali in turn, and so rapidly that the movements pointing toward the centre. The latter are cannot be clearly perceived. The one class of known as the rotary round machines. All the machines produces a flat web, and the other a needles are hooked at the end, so as to hold the cylindrical or tubular one, each of which hangs thread laid across it that is to form the next from the needles and is drawn down as it inloop, while the loop previously formed on the creases in length, by means when necessary same needle slips back on the shank as the of a weight attached to it. The number of needle is pushed forward, and with its return stitches or loops which each machine can form runs over the hook and off the end. The con- in a minute varies with the gauge of the neetrivance by which this is effected distinguishes dles or the distance apart at which they are the several needles. In the spring or bearded set. The machine of Mr. Aiken for ordinary needle used in the original stocking frames, stockings, containing 92 horizontal needles and and still in common use, the hook is drawn run by power in the factories, may make from out to considerable length and is made elastic, 100 to 200 revolutions per minute, producing so that when its point is pressed down into the the same number of stitches to each needle, groove upon its shank it may spring up when thus amounting to 9,200 to 18,400 stitches per the pressure is removed. In the machines this minute. The machines constructed for family pressure is applied by means of a wheel bear- use, and worked by a treadle or crank like a ing down upon the beard of the hook for an sewing machine, make about half as many instant with the production of every loop. A stitches as the factory machines. In the facvery efficient rotary round machine using this tory 3 or 4 machines are easily tended by one needle, and introduced in many of the factories boy. Ribbed work is performed in the same of the United States, is that invented by Mr. machines by bringing in play a set of vertical Goff of Seneca Falls, N. Y. A second needle needles, so arranged as to work in connection is that used in the McNary patent seamless with the horizontal and produce the additional hosiery machine. It is a short slender needle stitches required. As the needles are set to a with a groove upon the top of the shank, in particular gauge, they necessarily produce the which works a tongue distinct from the nee- same number of stitches to the inch ; and the dle. This is a rotary round machine, and is only variations practicable in the work are in distinguished for producing the whole stock- using yarns or threads of different degrees of ing without seam. The stocking was patented fineness, and in altering the tension so as to in 1856, the machine in 1860, and improve- make the work closer or more open. In the ments in 1861. The capacity of each machine stocking frames this is of no great importance; is to produce from 2 to 3 dozen pairs of half but in the various kinds of fancy work, subject hose per day, and one female operator of or- to the fluctuations of fashion, the machines dinary skill will tend 3 or 4 machines. An- adapted for special patterns may be suddenly other needle is known as the latch needle, rendered almost worthless by the demand for and this is used in the machines of Mr. J. those patterns ceasing.–The shaping of the B. Aiken, of Franklin, N. H. It has a very web to fit the foot is a matter of no little inshort hook, and is provided with a little tongue genuity. The flat web is either knit in long or latch working upon a pivot in the shank, so strips of sufficient width to make when turned as to close down upon the point of the hook over several stockings which are cut out from and thus allow the loop to run over it. The these; or the web is at once knit upon the latch works back and forth as it is pushed by machine in the shape required for making a the loop when the needle moves first forward stocking when the parts are properly folded and then back. The first movement, sending over. The former is known as cut work, and the loop on to the shank from the hook, the latter as regular work. In the latter the first throws back the latch for the loop to slide wider part, when turned over and fastened, eiover it, and the next closes the latch upon the ther by lapping and sewing with the sewing point of the hook, allowing the loop to run off machine, or by seaming with a needle and the end of the needle. In the working of the thread, forins the leg of the stocking. Two machine, the thread while the latch is open is narrow strips at the base of this part, turned laid across the needle in the hook; and when under and joined together upon the machine or by other means, form the heel; while a cen- terly it has been supplanted by that of cotton, tral strip twice the length of the foot, being for the spinning and weaving of which there turned over at the toe, forms the top and bot- are in the town and suburbs about 100 factories, tom of the foot, and is neatly united to the heel employing nearly 4,000 horse power. One of and around its edges by knitting or seaming. these buildings is 300 feet long, 200 feet broad, The cutting and fitting of the broad webs can- and 6 stories high, and has 100 windows in each not be intelligibly described without the aid of story. There are also several establishments drawings. In forming the foot to the circular for bleaching, dyeing, and printing cotton, brass webs after these are cut off in suitable lengths, and iron founderies, &c. "Rich coal mines are a slit is made above the heel half across the worked in the vicinity, and great facilities are web, which admits of the part designed for given to trade by the Manchester and Ashton the foot being curved out at the instep. The canal, and by several lines of railway which loops along the edges of the cut are then taken have their junction at Stockport.—The town up on hand needles, and the space for the heel is believed to occupy the site of an old Roman is filled out by hand knitting, the edges being station. Stockport castle, which has now discarefully united. In the same manner the toe appeared, was held against Henry II. in 1173 is completed; and thus the stocking is finished by Geoffrey de Constantin. During the civil without a seam. An important machine was wars the town was garrisoned by parliamenvery recently invented by Mr. Leslie of Brook- tary troops, was taken by Rupert in 1644, and lyn, N. Y., which accomplishes what has never retaken by Lesley the next year. It was occubeen done before upon rotary round machines pied by Prince Charles Edward in 1745. --the narrowing of the work in any man- STOCKS, a wooden machine once univerner desired.—Notwithstanding the large num- sally employed in England for confining unruly ber of machines employed in knitting, stock- persons by the feet or hands, and sometimes ings are still largely produced by the old by both. It has long gone out of use, but is method of hand knitting, which admits of the still to be seen in secluded rural districts. use of a harder and firmer yarn than that STOCKS. See STOCK EXCHANGE. adapted to the machines; and even where the STOCKTON, a town, port of entry, and machine work is produced in large mills emo capital of San Joaquin co., Cal., situated on a ploying steam power, the hand looms are also channel of its own name, near the San Joaquin in extensive use, many of them in the houses of river, and 130 m. E. S. E. from San Francisco; the operatives, who work at their own hours pop. in 1860, 3,679. It is an important comand at their own convenience. In the factories mercial point, vessels of 400 tons being able to the knitting machines are also made to produce navigate the channel. It is on the main road many other articles of apparel, as undershirts, from Los Angeles to Sacramento, and is the drawers, comforters, scarfs, opera hoods, tal- chief point of trade with the southern gold mas, nubias, gloves, mits, &c. One factory in mines. It has 3 newspapers, several churches, Philadelphia, that of Martin Landenberger, and a hospital. employs about 500 hands, and consumes annu- STOCKTON, RICHARD, an American statesally more than 250,000 lbs. of American wool. man, and a signer of the declaration of indeThe total operations in Philadelphia for the pendence, born near Princeton, N. J., Oct. 1, year 1857 have been estimated as follows: 1730, died there, Feb. 28, 1781. He was grad

uated at the college of New Jersey, at Newark, 500 knitting frames averaging $1,657.50 ..

$828,750 7 factories in Germantown and Kensington. 800,000 in 1748, studied law, was admitted to the bar

in 1754, and rose rapidly to the first rank as a Total value of woollen bosiery...

$1,628,750 200 knitting frames on cotton hosiery, $897 each.. 179.400 lawyer. In 1766 he visited England. He was

made a member of the executive council of New $1,808,150

Jersey in 1768, and in 1774 appointed a judge The other principal establishments in the of the supreme court. In 1776 he was elected United States are the factories in Cohoes, Troy, to congress, and, though at first doubtful of its and Seneca Falls, N. Y., Paterson, N. J., and policy, cordially supported the declaration of the Brooklyn knitting works, Brooklyn, N. Y. independence. In the same year he served on

STOCKPORT, a manufacturing and market the committee appointed to inspect the northtown and parliamentary borough of Cheshire, ern army and report its state to congress, and England, at the junction of the Mersey and the after his return to New Jersey was captured by Thame, 5 m. S. E. from Manchester; pop. in the British and confined in the common prison 1861, 54,681. It stands upon a hill, and the at New York. The unusual severity with houses rise above each other in irregular tiers. which he was here treated broke down his The river is crossed by 4 bridges, and there are strength, and eventually caused his death.several suburbs, the most extensive of which are ROBERT FIELD, an officer of the U. S. navy, Heaton-Norris, Edgeley, and Portwood. The grandson of the preceding, born in Princeton, principal public buildings are the barracks, court N. J., in 1796. In his 15th year, while a student house, union workhouse, and the building for the in Princeton college, he entered the navy as midSunday school, which is attended by nearly 4,000 shipman, became an aid to Commodore Rodgers children. In former times the manufacture of on board the frigate President, receiving honsilk was extensively carried on here; but lat- orable notice for his gallantry in several bat


tles, and in Dec. 1814, was promoted to a ju- unaccountable explosion of one of these large nior lieutenancy. In 1815 he was sent to the guns, at Washington, Feb. 28, 1844, led to the Mediterranean in the Guerrière in the war death of 5 distinguished men, among them the against Algiers, but was soon transferred to secretaries of war and the navy, and seriously the Spitfire as first lieutenant, in which he dis- injured Capt. Stockton himself. The naval tinguished himself by boarding with a boat's court of inquiry which investigated the case, crew an Algerine war vessel. In Feb. 1816, completely exonerated him from all blame or he was ordered to the Washington, 74, the flag want of precaution either in the construction ship of Com. Chauncey, cruising in the Medi- or firing of the gun. In Oct. 1845, he was terranean, and subsequently transferred to the sent with a reënforcement to the squadron on Erie. In 1821 he was sent to the United States the Pacific coast, in the command of which he in command of the Erie, and was then ordered succeeded Com. Sloat soon after his arrival to the coast of Africa, with permission to aid at Monterey, California. Here he was placed the colonization society in procuring a new site in circumstances which in his opinion required for its settlement. Accompanied by Dr. Ayres, prompt and decisive action, while communithe agent of the society, he succeeded with cation with his government was impossible. some difficulty in obtaining from the native With a force of not over 1,500 men in all, of chiefs a treaty ceding a tract of land around whom about 600 were sailors from the ships Cape Mesurado, which was the original terri- of the squadron, and the remainder mostly tory of the present republic of Liberia. Dur- Californian settlers, in about 6 months he conring his cruise on the African coast, Lieut. quered the whole of California, and established Stockton captured a considerable number of the United States authority there. The collislavers, and a Portuguese privateer, the Mari- sion between him and Brig. Gen. Kearny in anna Flora, of 22 guns, which had attacked relation to the right to the supreme comhim. This vessel he sent to the United States, mand there, was subsequently made the subject and a series of trials followed in the United of a court martial. Having established a proStates courts as to the propriety of her capture. visional government, he returned to the east, Lieut. Stockton was finally justified in the su- overland, in June, 1847. In 1849 he resigned preme court, but the vessel was given up to his commission in the navy, and in 1851 was Portugal as an act of comity. He also cap- elected to the U. S. senate, where he strenutured a French slaver, which led to litigation, ously opposed the project of intervening in fabut was again justified by the court. On his vor of Hungary and against Austria, as desired return from the African coast he was ordered by Kossuth, and procured the passage of a law to the West Indies to break up the nests of pic for the abolition of flogging in the navy. In rates preying upon our commerce, in which 1853 he resigned his seat in the senate, and has enterprise he was successful. In 1826–38 he since held no public position. was for a considerable time absent on leave STOCKTON, Thomas HEWLINGS, D.D., an from the navy, at his home in Princeton, tak- American clergyman, born at Mount Holly, N. ing an active part in politics in favor of Gen. J., June 4, 1808. He began to write for the Jackson, and also in the promotion of internal press at the age of 16, and studied medicine in improvements in the state. In 1838 he was Philadelphia, but in May, 1829, commenced sent to the Mediterranean as flag officer of the preaching, in connection with the Methodist Ohio, Com. Hull's flag ship, and in 1839 pro- Protestant church. In 1830 he was stationed moted to a post-captaincy and recalled. He at Baltimore, and in 1833 was elected chaplain had for some years given much attention to to congress, and reëlected in 1835. From 1836 gunnery, the construction of steam engines, and to 1838 he resided in Baltimore, and in addinaval architecture, and obtained permission tion to pastoral duties compiled the hymn book froin the navy department to construct a war of the Methodist Protestant church, and was steamer after much solicitation, the previous for a short time editor of the church newsattempts of the department having proved fail- paper, “The Methodist Protestant;" but, unures. Capt. Stockton's plans were new, and willing to submit to restrictions sought to be embraced designs which the naval constructors imposed upon him in its discussion of slavery confidently pronounced impracticable; but the by the Baltimore conference, he soon resigned steam sloop of war Princeton, commenced at and removed to Philadelphia, where he remainPhiladelphia in 1842, and completed in 1844, ed till 1847 as pastor and public lecturer. He proved to be superior to any war vessel at that then removed to Cincinnati

, and while residtime afloat, and has furnished substantially the ing there was elected president of Mami unimodel for numerous others, not only in the versity, but declined, and in 1850 returned to United States, but in England and France. Baltimore, where he was for 5 years associate Her speed and sailing qualities, her admirable pastor of St. John's Methodist church, and for model, the security of her motive power, which 31 years temporary pastor of an Associate Refor the first time was placed below the water formed Presbyterian church. Since 1856 he line, and her powerful armament, all attracted has resided in Philadelphia. He was again attention. She carried 2 225-1b. wrought iron chaplain of the U. S. house of representatives guns, made under the supervision of Capt. from 1859 to 1861, and is now (1862) chaplain Stockton, beside 12 42-lb. carronades. The of the senate. Dr. Stockton has edited several different periodicals, and published an edition Gospel,” which occasioned an exciting controof the New Testament in paragraph form, and, versy. He maintained that the sacrament of beside numerous pamphlets, sermons, and occa- the Lord's supper is to be regarded as a consional addresses, the following works: “Float- verting ordinance, and that all baptized persons, ing Flowers from a Hidden Brook” (Philadel- not scandalous in life, may lawfully approach phia, 1844); “ The Bible Alliance” (Cincinnati, the table, though they know themselves to be 1850); "Sermons for the People" (Pittsburg, destitute of true religion. In 1708 and 1709 1854); “The Blessing” (Philadelphia, 1857); the same controversy was renewed, and one or “Stand up for Jesus” (1858); “Poems, with two able pamphlets on each side were written, Autobiographic and other Notes” (1861); and He also published several miscellaneous and “The Peerless Magnificence of the Word of occasional sermons; "A Guide to Christ, or the God” (1862).

Way of directing Souls in the Way of ConverSTODDARD, a S. E. co. of Missouri, bor- sion, compiled for Young Ministers" (1714); dering on Arkansas, and bounded W. by the and '“The Safety of appearing in the Day of St. Francis and E. by the Castor and White- Judgment in the Righteousness of Christ,” water rivers; area, 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, which was reprinted at Edinburgh in 1792. 7,877, of whom 215 were slaves. The greater STOICS (Gr. otoa, porch), or philosophers portion of the county is level, and there are a of the porch, one of the speculative schools of number of swamps and shallow lakes, the prin- antiquity, so called from the place in which cipal of the latter being Lake Nicormy, 25 m. their founder Zeno gave his instructions. Of long and 4 m. wide. It is a part of the “sunk their earlier representatives, the most promicountry” produced by the earthquake of 1811. nent were Zeno (about 300 B. C.), Ariston, (See EARTHQUAKE, vol. vi. p. 722.) Large for- Cleanthes, Chrysippus, Zeno of Tarsus, Diogeests of cypress abound. The productions in nes of Babylon, Antipater, Panætius of Rhodes, 1850 were 151,094 bushels of Indian corn, 17,- and Posidonius (probably 135–51 B. C.); of 260 of oats, 5,972 of wheat, and 33,174 lbs. of their later, Seneca (died A. D. 65), Epictetus, butter. Capital, Bloomfield.

Marcus Antoninus, Arrian, and many of the STODDARD, RICHARD HENRY, an American most distinguished Roman citizens. Originally poet and author, born in Hingham, Mass., in treating the three departments of logic, physics, July, 1825. His father, a sea captain, was lost and ethics, they are chiefly known as moralists, on a voyage to Sweden in the early youth of since they connected philosophy intimately the son, who for several years worked in an iron with the duties of practical life, and taught the foundery in New York. His health failing in most complete of pagan ethical systems. In consequence, he became in 1848 a contributor logic, they found the criterion of knowledge in to the magazines and newspapers. In 1849 he sensuous impressions, which furnish the matepublished a volume of poems under the title of rials fashioned by reason, and combated scepti

Footprints,” followed in 1852 by a maturer cism, like the modern Scottish school, by afcollection. About the same time he was mar- firming that every representation of an object ried and received an appointment in the New implies the existence of the object itself. In. York custom house, which he still holds (1862). physics, they inclined to pantheism, regarding His remaining publications comprise “Adven- God and the world as power and its manifestatures in Fairy Land" (Boston, 1853), a series of tion, matter being a passive ground in which prose tales; " Songs of Summer" and " Town dwells the divine energy. But though they and Country, a Book for Children” (1857); and conceived of the Deity as the controlling rea“The Loves and Heroines of the Poets" (New son of the universe, the earlier of them sought York, 1860). He is still a frequent contributor a material expression for this conception, and to the periodic press.

spoke of him either as a rational breath or an STODDARD, SOLOMON, an American cler- artistic fire. Their ethics was a protest against gyman, born in Boston in 1643, died in North- growing moral indifference, and had in it someampton, Mass., Feb. 11, 1729. He was gradu- thing of the excess of a reaction. Their aim ated at Harvard college in 1662, was afterward was to transfer the theory of nature, ruled by appointed “fellow of the house," and was the reason, to human life. To live in harmony first librarian of the college, which office he with nature, conformably to reason, was their held from 1667 to 1674. During this time, on fundamental maxim. Reason is impersonal,

his health, he accompanied Gov. universal ; hence pleasure, whose ends are inSerle to Barbados in the capacity of chaplain, dividual, must be disregarded; the passions, and remained there nearly two years, preach- which are not rational impulses, are to be exing to the dissenters. In 1669 he was called tirpated; and a state of apathy is to be cherto succeed the Rev. Eleazar Mather as minister ished, which secures liberty, the prize and of the church at Northampton, and was or- quality of virtue. To be free is to act by unidained as such Sept. 11, 1672. In Feb. 1727, versal reason, looking only to universal good, Mr. Jonathan Edwards, a grandson of Mr. Stod- disengaged from anger, jealousy, envy, and dard, was elected as his colleague. In 1700 hatred, and with entire self-abnegation. Thus Mr. Stoddard published "The Doctrine of In- life is rendered always uniform and equal to stituted Churches," as an answer to the work itself. The sage is like a good actor, who, of Increase Mather entitled “The Order of the whether he take the part of Agamemnon or of Thersites, does it equally well. And as the with talking, while parading backward and divine reason is the law of virtue, every virtu- forward in colonnades, called porches.”—See ous act is an act of piety; and as all things are Ravaisson, Essai sur la métaphysique d'Ariswell done in the city of God, the wise man tote, vol. ii. (1837); Tiedemann, System der will resign himself complacently to events. stoischen Moral (1776); and Meyer and KlipThus there is no good but virtue, or obedience pel, Vergleichung der stoischen und christto reason, and no evil but vice. Pleasure, lichen Moral (1823). pain, health, wealth, life, and death are mat- STOKE-UPON-TRENT, a town and parliaters of indifference. Virtue depends exclusive- mentary borough in Staffordshire, England, ly on ourselves, and no one can take it from the latter including about # of what is comus; but all things else depend on others or on monly called the Potteries, and embracing sevfortune, and the sage should be independent of eral parishes and townships, among which are them. But even the stoical apathy admitted Burslem, Lane-End, Longton, Hanley, &c.; the promptings of the heart as the impulse of pop. of the borough in 1861, 101,303; of the nature; it did not, as Plutarch says, wish to town, 57,942. Stoke is situated on the river transform men into Lapithæ of bronze and dia- Trent, 16 m. N. by W. from Stafford, and 148 mond; it allowed a choice in indifferent things, m. N. W. from London. It has very extensive so far as they might enter into the account of manufactures of china and earthenware. The a moral life; but it laid its stress on the inner borough returns two members to parliament. light of duty, on resignation, piety, and toler- STOKES, a N. co. of North Carolina, bor




While it introduced a clear conception dering on Virginia, and drained by a branch of absolute right, founded on universal order of the Dan river; area, 550 sq. m.; pop. in and harmony, it failed to furnish a system of 1860, 10,402, of whom 2,469 were slaves. The concrete duties. Its ideal of man was a divini- surface is hilly and the soil fertile. The proty without earthly relations. The asylum of ductions in 1850 were 16,004 bushels of wheat, heroic moralists, it exerted a private and spec- 223,000 of Indian corn, and 42,636 of oats, ulative but no political influence, and regener. There were 6 iron forges, 19 tobacco manufacated nothing in Greek society. More conge- tories, and 1,035 pupils attending public schools. nial to the genius of the Romans, it became Iron ore is abundant. Capital, Germantown. among them an ardent faith, the religion of STOLBERG, FRIEDRICH LEOPOLD, count, a great souls, having its devotees and martyrs, German author, born at Bramstedt, Holstein, and furnished to the empire its best rulers. Nov. 7, 1750, died near Osnabrück, Dec. 5, During the period of decline, it disputed with 1819. At Göttingen, where he completed his Epicureanism for the supremacy. The one studies (1772–5), he was a leader in the Dichtaught love of self, voluptuous repose, intellec- terbund, including Boje, Bürger, Miller, Voss, tual relaxation, moral suicide; the other, dwell- Hölty, and Leisewitz, which acknowledged ing in the sanctuary of conscience, taught love Klopstock for master. In 1775 he travelled of virtue, tended to concentration and force, with Klopstock, Goethe, and others through killed the passions. The apathy of the one southern Germany and Switzerland; in 1777 proceeded from a soft abandonment to circum- was appointed ambassador of the prince-bishop stances; that of the other, from an earnest ef- of Lübeck at Copenhagen; fulfilled a diplofort to save the dignity of man when all the matic mission in Russia in 1785; became Daninterests of society seemed to be making ship- ish ambassador at Berlin in 1789; and, on rewreck. The one had no higher view than turning from travels in Italy (of which he pleasure; the other, in a falling empire, con- wrote a narrative, 4 vols., 1794), was placed at ceived of a universal republic, and of law as the head of the administration of Lübeck in the queen of mortals and immortals, general- 1791. He had already published a translation ized the conditions of sympathy, and proclaim- of the Iliad (1778); a volume of lyrics (1784); ed beneficence a virtue equal to justice. The the Schauspiele mit Chören (1786), in which stoical and Christian ethical systems have often Theseus and Timoleon are celebrated as foundbeen compared. Stoici nostro dogmati in ple- ers of civil liberty; and the prose romance Die risque concordant, said St. Jerome. Others of Insel (1788), a Utopian description of a perthe church fathers spoke of Seneca as Seneca fect republic. In 1800 he united himself with pene noster. Montesquieu said that, if he the Roman Catholic church; and his position could for a moment forget that he was a Chris- as a statesman and scholar lent importance to tian, he would not hesitate to account the ex- this event, which appears prominently in the tinction of the sect of Zeno among the misfor- contemporary writings of Voss, Gleim, Jacotunes of mankind. Yet the two systems be- bi, Herder, Haller, Lavater, and Schiller, and long to entirely different schemes and tempers which served as an example to the younger of thought, and cannot be compared in detail. Schlegel and others of the romantic school. There is a more direct antagonism between His principal subsequent work was the Gestoicism and utilitarianism. Bentham, after schichte der Religion Jesu Christi (15 vols., stating the doctrine that pain is no evil, and Hamburg, 1811-'18), embracing the period that virtue of itself is sufficient to confer hap- from the creation to A. D. 430. It was conpiness, adds: “This was the sort of trash tinued by Kerz (vols. xvi. to xlvi., Mentz, which a set of men used to amuse themselves 1825_'46), to the end of the 12th century, and

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