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the readiest outlet is in the bed of the ocean, and great beds of travertine, such as are observed the fresh water is violently forced by its greater in Tuscany and other parts of Italy-á spongy head up through the salt water, so that it may deposit of calcareous matter, which incrusts be collected at the surface almost or entirely all substances it comes in contact with, and unmixed. A spring of this kind in Boston har- rapidly forms one class of petrifactions. The bor, now covered by Long wharf, supplies the thermal springs of Hierapolis in Asia Minor shipping with water; another in the gulf of were particularly celebrated in ancient times; Spezia, a branch of the gulf of Genoa, rises in and it was stated of the transforming power a powerful jet; and on the S. coast of Cuba, of the waters, that if these were led about the some distance from the shore, the fresh water vineyards and gardens the ch&nnels became springs burst upward with such violence that long fences, each a single stone. At the presboats cannot safely approach the spot. In- ent time there is to be seen a powerful hot termitting springs are those which flow for a spring at the place, and a cliff of calcareous certain period and then cease for a time, and rock formed from its deposits. The Geysers so on alternately flowing and disappearing furnish examples of silicious deposits similarly without regard to the supplies of rain. This produced. Cold springs as well as hot are ofis probably owing to the water collecting in a ten charged with ferruginous matters, derived natural reservoir at an upper level, the outlet from the decomposition of pyritous iron conof which is a close channel through the rock tained in the rocks over which the waters have curved upward so as to act like a siphon. flowed. The great ochreous deposits result When the water fills the reservoir and rises from such springs, and the accumulations someabove the arch of the siphon, the flow com- times amount to important beds of iron ore, as mences, and continues until the discharge has described under Bog ORE. Springs charged carried' the water down to the level of the with different mineral substances which give shorter limb of the siphon; it then stops until to them special importance are further noticed the water has regained its former height. The in the account of these minerals under their younger Pliny in a letter to Licinius describes own names, as Boracio Acid, GAS, PETROLEUM, a spring of this character near the Larian lake, and SALT. the modern lake of Como, which ebbs and SPRING, in astronomy, one of the 4 seasons flows regularly 3 times a day. A more cele- of the year, commencing for the northern hemibrated one is the ancient pool of Siloam, which sphere at the time of the vernal equinox, or on was observed by Dr. Robinson as still rising March 21, and ending at the time of the sumand falling at intervals in the manner described mer solstice, or June 21. In the United States by Jerome and subsequent writers. From the the spring is regarded as including the 3 months inhabitants of the vicinity he learned that the March, April, and May. (See SEASONS.) flowing occurs at irregular intervals ; some- SPRING, in mechanics, an elastic body, vatimes 2 or 3 times a day, and sometimes, in riously constructed and of different materials summer, once in 2 or 3 days. The Geysers are according to the purpose for which it is deintermitting hot springs; but the changes in signed. The applications of springs are very their flow are due to other causes, as probably numerous and for many totally different obthe sudden conversion of the waters into steam jects. Many are used, as in carriages, to reby coming in contact with beds of highly heat- lieve the jar caused by hard bodies coming ed rock or lava, or the accumulation of large suddenly in contact with each other; others quantities of steam in the upper part of cavi- as a moving power, acting through the tenties until it can drive out the water beneath dency of a coiled metallic spring to unwind through the channels leading from the bottom itself (see CLOCKS AND WATCHES), or by sudto the surface. Hot springs are common in den release from a state of tension to comvolcanic countries, in regions of extinct vol municate motion, as the bow to the arrow, the canoes, as that of Auvergne in central France, gun spring to the cock, the spring pole to the and in districts where the rock formations are drill, and in many more such instances; others traversed and displaced by long and deep lines are employed as regulators to control the of faults, as in central Virginia. In these lo- movements of wheel work, as seen in the hair calities the waters must penetrate far down to springs of watches. All of the above act on highly heated beds of rock, possibly ancient the principle of resisting compression; others, lava beds not yet cooled; or the depth may be by the amount of extension produced in a so great that their high temperature may be spring coiled around a central axis, are used owing to the general increase of heat observed as measurers of weight. (See BALANCE.)—In in descending into the interior. (See CENTRAL organic bodies springs are also a common feaHEAT.) Heated, and at the same time under ture, and serve some of the purposes for which great pressure, the waters possess powerful they are introduced in mechanical structures. solvent properties, and thus they become The cartilages in the joints are springs that charged with salts and gases by which the prevent the ends of the bones from jarring mineral springs are characterized. As the wa- upon each other. It is by the sudden release ters cool or evaporate, some portion of the solid of a springy membrane in the structure of the matters held in solution is set free and depos- flea, that this little animal is enabled to project ited around the springs. Thus are produced itself instantaneously 200 times the height of its own body; and in the vegetable king- and efficiency, and to act as near as possible dom springs are provided, sometimes round with equal effect under heavy and light loads. the outside and sometimes round the inside of These also have been devised of different the seed vessels, which finally burst these sud- forms and materials. Air, being the most elasdenly open, and scatter the seeds for the next tic of all bodies, makes an excellent spring, the crop.-Carriage springs contribute not merely weight resting upon inverted hollow cylinders, to the comfort of the rider, but they lessen the set upon pistons fitting air-tight. In practice force of draught by easing the load over the it has been found exceedingly difficult to preobstacles, and very materially increase the du- vent the escape of the air around the piston; rability of the carriage itself. One of the early and the following improvement has been deforms of these springs, introduced in the 17th vised for this purpose. The inverted cylinder, century, consisted of two broad leather straps or rough cup, is provided with a very strong extending from an elevated framework on one but flexible diaphragm or cover of several axle to a similar frame on the other; upon these thicknesses of India rubber, stout canvas, and the body of the carriage was securely fastened. leather, covered on the inside with sugar house The antique 4-wheeled state carriages of Eu- molasses. This rests upon a rounded head of rope are mostly constructed on this plan; and wood, and is filled out with compressed air. a good evidence of its efficiency is the fact that forced in by a small air pump, the pressure many of the best stage coaches of the present amounting it may be to 150 lbs. to the square time are thus supported. The principle was inch. To prevent the air from passing through also in common use not long since in 2-wheeled the pores of the cast iron pump, this is lined gigs or chaises, and is still in the West Indian with tin. India rubber car springs are very volante, points of support behind being pro- extensively used. They are made of disks of vided by two long slender arms, connected any thickness, piled upon each other to any by a cross bar at their extremities, to which desired height, and contained in a cylindrical bar the straps are secured. Swung upon the case, in the top of which fits à piston resting straps, which admit a limited lateral motion, on the pile. It is obvious that between the with the advantage of the elasticity of the frame to which the pistons are attached and arms behind and of the shafts in front, the the weight other springs may be introduced. spring of these carriages is most perfect. An Instead of India rubber disks others of steel improvement was early introduced by making are also used, saucer-shaped, and arranged in the frames that supported the straps elastic, pairs upon each other, the pair consisting of by means of bands of steel curved over in the two disks set face to face. The disks are made shape of the letter C, over the top of which more durable and efficient by corrugating the the straps, secured at the bottom, were passed. metal. Another form is of flat disks of steel, The strength of these springs may be increased less than is of an inch thick, set between disks to any desired extent, by introducing several of cast iron of the same diameter, and made thicknesses of steel plates in the lower portion alternately with convex and concave surfaces. of the spring. Sometimes the framework which The tendency of the pressure applied to such supports the C springs rests itself upon the a pile is to change the flat steel face into a form of elliptic springs known as under springs. slightly dishing form, which is resisted by the Steel springs of various forms are now gener- elasticity of the steel. Single disks operate ally in use for carriages, being light and occu- when the load is light; the occasional intropying little room. Those known as elliptic are duction of two together in the pile provides steel plates or thin bars, so shaped that when for the same action with an increased load, two are put together they present an elliptical and of three or more for still greater weights. figure, and being secured together at the ends Thus the same pile is very ingeniously made a spring is produced as pressure is brought to to furnish springs of different degrees of stiffbear upon them to flatten the ellipse. They ness, which are brought into action only are bolted below upon the axle and above to as the load upon them requires. A pile 6 the frame of the carriage by their central part, inches high and of 5 inches diameter of outand are strengthened by additional thicknesses side case admits a motion of 1} inches before of steel in this portion. Very strong springs, it is fully compressed. Springs thus designed for the heaviest wagons and railroad cars, are for sustaining heavy bodies may be also apmade of straight pieces of steel plates of grad- plied to prevent their horizontal concussion, ually increasing lengths piled one upon another as of cars upon railroads, and also to relieve and fastened directly to the axle, or else over them from the sudden jerk which without and across each end of it to the frame which springs they would receive in starting. How rests upon the axles at these points. The it is that steel when tempered receives the frame of the carriage is secured to the ends of high degree of elasticity that renders this the longest and uppermost plate by eye bolts metal so useful for springs is not understood. passing through these ends, which are turned By grinding and polishing the property may over for their reception. The varieties of steel be lost, and by hardening and tempering it is springs for carriages are too numerous to be restored. It thus seems probable that the elasparticularly named. Locomotives and railroad ticity resides in the thin blue oxidized surface. carriages demanded springs of unusual strength The removal of the blue tint from a pendulum spring by its immersion in weak acid was found left the army, and in 1777 was ordained pastor by Mr. Dent to impair its elasticity, causing of a church in Newburyport, in which relation the chronometer to lose nearly a minute each he continued till his death. He was a man of hour; and a second and equal immersion great influence and weight of character, and, as scarcely caused any further loss. In stating the leading minister of the Hopkinsian party, this to the British association, he added that was active in promoting the union of the two such springs get stronger in a minute degree parties in the Congregational church, effected during the first 2 or 3 years they are in use, by the establishment of the Andover theologifrom some atmospheric change; when they cal seminary, and also in the organization of are coated with gold by the electrotype pro- the American board of commissioners for forcess no such change is observable. Watch eign missions. He published about 25 miscelsprings, as described by Holtzapffel, are ham- laneous discourses, and one or two small conmered out of round steel wire, of suitable troversial works. —GARDINER, D.D., LL.D., an diameter, until they fill the gauge for width, American clergyman, son of the preceding, which also insures equality of thickness. When born at Newburyport, Mass., in Feb. 1785. the holes are punched in their ends and they He was graduated at Yale college in 1805, are filed smooth on the edge, they are bound and after studying law a short time went to with wire in a loose open coil, and heated over the island of Bermuda as a teacher, and rea charcoal fire upon a perforated revolving mained there nearly two years, at the same plate. They are then hardened by dipping time pursuing the study of law. After his rethem in oil, and the oil is blazed off. The turn he was admitted to the bar, and practised next process is grinding and polishing with more than a year, when he resolved to devote emery and oil between lead blocks, which himself to the ministry. He studied about 8 destroys the elasticity. A subsequent ham- months at the Andover seminary, and was ormering on a very bright anvil restores this, dained as pastor of the Brick church (Presby“putting the nature into the spring." The col- terian) in New York, Aug. 10, 1810, in which oring of orange or deep blue, which some con- office he still continues (1862). He has been sid merely ornamental, is imparted -by mov- elected successively president of Hamilton and ing the spring back and forth 2 or 3 inches at Dartmouth colleges, but in both cases declined. a time over a flat plate of iron or wood under Beside a large number of sermons and addresswhich a little spirit lamp is kept burning. The es in pamphlet form, and numerous contribuspring is finally coiled by attaching it when tions to periodicals, he has published" Essays cold to a small axis and causing this to revolve on the Distinguishing Traits of Christian Charby means of its winch handle. Chronometer acter” (8V0., 1813); “Memoirs of the Rev. balance springs, of screw form, are shaped and Samuel J. Mills" (8vo., 1820); “Fragments tempered by winding them into the square from the Study of a Pastor” (12mo., 1838); thread of a screw of the right diameter and “ Obligations of the World to the Bible” (12mo., pitch. The two ends being fastened to the 1844); “The Attraction of the Cross” (8V0., screw, the whole is carefully enveloped in plati- 1845); “The Bible not of Man" (12mo., 1847); num foil and tightly bound with wire. It is “ Discourses to Seamen" (12mo., 1847); “ The then heated in a piece of gun barrel closed at Power of the Pulpit” (12mo., 1848); one end and plunged into oil, which hardens moirs of Hannah L. Murray" (8v0., 1849); “The the spring almost without discoloring it. The Mercy Seat” (8vo., 1849); “ First Things" (2 outer covering is now taken off, and the spring vols. 8vo., 1851)

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“ The Glory of Christ” (2 is let down to the blue before it is released. vols. 8vo., 1852); “ Contrast between Good and The hair springs of common watches are fre- Bad Men” (2 vols. 8vo., 1855); “ Brick Church quently left soft; but the best are hardened in Memorial” (8vo., 1861). the coil upon the plain cylinder, and are then SPRINGFIELD, a city and the shire town curled into the spiral form between the edge of Hampden co., Mass., situated on the E, bank of a blunt knife and the thumb, as in curling of the Connecticut river, 98 m. W. by S. from up a narrow ribbon or paper. These springs Boston, and 138 m. N. N. E. from New York, are so delicate that it takes 3,200 of them to in lat. 42° 6' 10" N., long. 72° 35' 12'' W.; weigh an ounce; the soft ones are valued at pop. in 1860, 15,199. The town is drained by 28. 6d. each, and the hardened and tempered Mill river, which furnishes water power for ones at 108. 6d. Thus an ounce of metal, manufacturing establishments. The E. portion worth originally less than 2d., is made in the of the town, where the U.S. armory is situated, one case worth £400, in the other £1,600. is considerably elevated, while the W. part is

SPRING BALANCE. See BALANCE. level. The city is well built, and has wide streets

SPRING, SAMUEL, D.D., an American cler- which are lined with trees. The city hall is a gyman, born at Northbridge, Mass., Feb. 27, noble building in the Romanesque style, and, 1746, died in Newburyport, March 4, 1819. beside the city offices and library, has a large He was graduated at Princeton college in 1771, public hall which will accommodate comfortand in 1775, having been licensed to preach, ably an audience of over 2,500 persons. There became a chaplain in the continental army, are 12 churches in the city, viz.: 1 African, 1 and accompanied the expedition under Col. Baptist, 4 Congregational, 1 Episcopal, 1 RoArnold to Canada. At the close of 1776 he man Catholic, i Second Advent, 1 Swedenbor

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gian, 1 Unitarian, and 1 Universalist. The city each floor. The armory grounds, which are library, formed in 1859, has rooms in the city extensive, are enclosed with an iron fence and hall, and numbers 8,000 volumes; there is a beautifully laid out with trees, shrubbery, and valuable scientific and historical 'museum in flowers. New buildings, required by the exiconnection with it, and both are rapidly in- gencies of the time, and for which an approcreasing. The schools of the city include 1 high, priation of $500,000 has been made, are soon 17 grammar, 15 primary, and 6 mixed schools. to be erected. The manufacture of firearms is There is one newspaper, issuing daily, weekly, also carried on by several private firms. There and tri-weekly editions, and having a larger cir- is a large machine factory, making steam enculation than any other newspaper in New Eng- gines and boilers, steam saw mills, cotton land out of Boston. The city has 5 banks, with presses, and coining and gun-making maan aggregate capital of $1,200,000; 3 savings chinery; 2 extensive founderies for casting car banks, with $1,381,745.68 on deposit; 4 fire and locomotive wheels, and various light and insurance companies, with an aggregate capital heavy work; a car manufactory, building bagof $650,000; and a mutual life insurance com- gage, freight, and passenger railroad cars to pany, with $400,000 capital. Hampden park, order, and also artillery carriages for the govopened in 1857 for national horse shows, on ernment; a gas company, furnishing the city; the bank of the Connecticut, contains 60 acres, 2 sash, blind, and door manufactories; a steam with a costly dike to protect it from the spring saw and lumber dressing mill; an India rubber freshets. The Springfield cemetery contains manufacturing company, making suspender and about 40 acres, with a great variety of shade other elastic goods; a candy manufactory, a trees and fountains. Springfield is the focal paint and chemical company, a woollen mill, point of 3 lines of railroad, which meet in one several flouring mills, and two gold chain manimmense station house, each having extensive ufactories.-Springfield was made a city in 1852. connections; these are the western railroad, to It is divided into 8 wards, and is governed by a Albany, connecting at Worcester with the Bos- mayor elected annually, 8 aldermen, and 16 comton and Worcester; the New Haven, Hartford, mon councilmen. The fire department embraces and Springfield ; and the Connecticut river rail- 6 engine companies, 2 of which belong to the road. The manufactures are important. The U. S. armory, but do duty wherever required. great national armory is now the only manu- -Springfield was first settled in 1635 by emifactory of small arms owned and worked by the grants from Roxbury, who on May 14 drew up United States government. The process of man- and signed an agreement for self-government. ufacturing the rifle musket, the principal arm The place was first named Agawam, the Indian now made, and which requires for its comple- name of a river of West Springfield, which with tion more than 500 distinct operations, is de- several adjacent towns was then included in scribed in the article Gun, vol. viii. p. 572. In its boundaries. In 1637 a church was formed, addition to the ample water power, a steam en- and in 1638 the settlers chose William Pynchon gine of 70 horse power has recently been intro- magistrate, and in April of the same year duced. Over 1,500 men are employed, the work named the settlement Springfield (from the is kept up night and day, and the production is name of his residence in England) in complinearly 12,000 complete guns per month, and is ment to him. Mr. Pynchon, who was an enterto be increased by additions of men and machin- prising merchant as well as a theologian and ery till 200,000 stand of arms are produced an- author, returned to England in 1652; but his nually. The workmen are all paid by the piece. son John remained, and in 1662 erected the faThe germ of the armory existed during the mous “Pynchon house,” the first brick house revolution, but it was not formally established in the Connecticut valley, and long a servicetill 1794. From that time till 1841 it was un- able fortress against the assaults of the Indians. der civil superintendence, and the work was not This venerable structure stood till 1831, and is satisfactory. In 1841 Major (now Brigadier- represented on the city seal. In 1675, during General) J. W. Ripley was appointed superin- King Philip's war, the Indians burned the tendent. In 1854 a change was again made to settlement, destroying about 30 houses and 25 a civil superintendency, but Major Ripley's sys- barns. In Jan. 1787, the armory, which then tem was maintained. During the year 1861 contained a considerable quantity of arms, was a military superintendent, Major Dyer, was attacked by Daniel Shays and his party, duragain appointed, and the vast increase of pro- ing Shays's rebellion ; but they were dispersed duction consequent upon the war has been at the firing of the first cannon by the state made without any deterioration in the quality troops. The growth of the town was slow till of the arm.

The weapon now made is of the the opening of the western railroad in 1838, model of 1855, and varies little from the En- since which it has increased rapidly. field musket. Maynard's primer has been dis- SPRINGFIELD, a city and the capital of carded, and the nipple for percussion caps re- Clarke co., Ohio, situated near the junction of stored. The weight of the rifle musket is 91 Lagonda creek with Mad river, 43 m. W. from lbs. When not required for immediate use, the Columbus, and 84 m. N. from Cincinnati; pop. guns are stored in the great arsenal, 200 feet in 1860, 7,202. It is in the heart of one of the long by 70 wide and 3 stories high, which is richest and most populous agricultural regions capable of containing 100,000 stand of arms on in the Union, and is well laid out and handsomely built. The public buildings are sub- Price; and after 6 hours' severe fighting, the stantial structures, and there are many elegant federal troops remained in possession of the private residences. It has great water power camp, but with the loss of Gen. Lyon and 223 for manufacturing purposes, and there are nu- killed, 721 wounded, and 291 taken prisoners merous large flouring mills in and around the on the federal side, and a still heavier loss on city. There are iron founderies, machine shops, the side of the confederates. After the battle 2 linseed oil mills, a woollen factory, a paper Gen. Sigel, taking the chief command, was mill, and numerous other factories. Limestone obliged to fall back on Springfield and the next is largely quarried and burned, producing lime day to Rolla, to await reënforcements. Gen. of excellent quality. A number of important Rains, of the confederate army, occupied railroads centre here, viz.: the Springfield and Springfield with 4 regiments of cavalry on the Columbus; the Sandusky, Dayton, and Cincin- evening of the 11th. On Oct. 25 Major Charles nati; the Springfield and Delaware; the Little Zágonyi, commander of Gen. Fremont's body Miami; and the Columbus and Xenia. There guard, with 160 mounted troops of that guard, are 1 daily, 1 tri-weekly, and 2 weekly news

in advance of the main federal army, attacked papers, 3 banks, 16 churches, and 2 flourishing the confederate force at Springfield and capfemale seminaries. Wittenberg college (Lu- tured the town, while held by about 2,000 theran) is situated here. A large trade is car- troops; his loss was 50 killed, wounded, and ried on in wheat, flour, Indian corn, and other missing; the confederate loss was 60 killed. produce, and many cattle and swine are ex- On Nov. 3, Maj. Gen. Hunter, appointed to ported by railroad to eastern markets.

supersede Fremont in command of the federal SPRINGFIELD, a city and the capital of forces in the department of the West, arrived Illinois, and seat of justice of Sangamon co., with his staff at Springfield, and on the 9th 188 m. S. W. from Chicago, and 97 m. N. N. E. abandoned it with his army and returned northfrom St. Louis; pop. in 1860, 9,600. It is situ- eastward. On the 27th it was again occupied ated on a beautiful prairie, 4 m. S. of Sangamon by the confederate forces, but again abandoned river. Its streets are broad, intersect each by them on the advance of the U. S. army unother at right angles, and are tastefully adorn- der Gen. Curtis in Feb. 1862, by which they were ed with shade trees. From the beauty of the driven into Arkansas and defeated at Sugar creek place and its surroundings, it is termed the and Pea Ridge, Benton co., March 6, 7, and 8.

Flower City.” The state house is one of SPRUCE. See FIR. the finest buildings of the kind in the country, SPURGEON, CHARLES HADDON, an English and the other public buildings are handsome preacher, born at Kelvedon, Essex, June 19, and substantial structures. There are 5 news- 1834. His father and grandfather were preachpapers, 4 banking houses, several steam flour- ers in the Independent denomination. At the ing mills, founderies and machine shops, 12 or age of 16 he commenced teaching as an usher at 14 churches, and 4 public and several private Newmarket, and subsequently at Cambridge. schools. It is the seat of the Illinois state uni- Not long after going to Cambridge he conversity. It is on the line of the St. Louis, Al- nected himself with a "Lay Preachers' Associaton, and Chicago, and the Toledo, Wabash, and tion” there, and went out almost every evening Great Western railroads, and is the point of to some one of the villages adjacent, to conduct shipment for immense quantities of produce and religious meetings. Soon he commenced preachgreat numbers of cattle and swine. The value ing, and before he was 18 became pastor of a of real and personal property in 1857 was $4,- small Baptist congregation at Waterbeach, one 451,907. Springfield was made the state capital of these villages. In 1854 he was called to the in 1836, and was incorporated as a city in 1840. New Park street Baptist chapel in Southwark,

SPRINGFIELD, the capital of Greene co., London; and his preaching soon drew such Mo., on the line of the s. w. branch of the crowds that the congregation removed first to Pacific railroad, 250 m. S. W. from St. Louis, Exeter hall, and then to Surrey music hall, the and 130 S. S. W. from Jefferson City; pop. largest public room in London. In 1861 a new about 1,500. Its situation is high and healthy, chapel of great size was completed for his and prior to the commencement of the war of congregation. Mr. Spurgeon for several years secession it was the most important and flour- preached an average of nearly a sermon a day, ishing town in S. W. Missouri. It has a city and has beside visited the continent several charter. During the war Springfield and its times, corresponded regularly with an Amerivicinity have been the scene of several impor- can newspaper, written several books, and tant movements. Brig. Gen. Lyon, command- superintended the education of a number of ing a division of the federal forces, arrived at young men for the ministry. His sermons have Springfield, Aug. 5, 1861. On the 8th a skir- nearly from the first been printed weekly, and mish occurred at Dug creek; and on the 10th a 6 volumes have been published collectively. battle was fought at David's and Wilson's creeks, SPURZHEIM, JOHN GASPAR, M.D., a Prusthe first 9 and the second 15 miles from Spring- sian philosopher, and one of the founders of field, in which Gen. Lyon, with 3 divisions, com- phrenology, born at Longwich, Prussia, Dec. manded by Gen. Sigel, Major Sturgis, and him- 31, 1776, died in Boston, Mass., Nov. 10, 1832. self, attacked the confederate force in greatly He was educated at the university of Treves, superior numbers under Gens. McCulloch and and studied divinity and philosophy. When

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