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by Brischar (vols. xlvii. et seq., Mentz, 1849 et canal by an external constriction and an interseq.). An index to vols. i. to xv. was prepared nal valve at the pyloric opening on the right. by Moritz (1825), and to vols. xvi. to xxiii. by Its walls consist of 3 coats, an external or seSausen (1834). He also published lives of Al- rous, middle or muscular, and internal or mufred the Great (1815) and St. Vincent de Paul cous; the 1st keeps the organ in place, limit(1818). His writings form the larger part ing its movements, the 2d enables it to execute of the Werke der Brüder Stolberg (22 vols., the peristaltic movements so necessary to diHamburg, 1821–6).-CARISTIAN, count, a Ger- gestion, and the 3d secretes by its glands the man author, brother of the preceding, born gastric and other juices concerned in the prepin Hamburg, Oct. 15, 1748, died near Eckern- aration of chyme; some anatomists count a förde, Jan. 18, 1821. He studied at Göttingen 4th or fibrous layer between the muscular and (1769-'74), where he was a member of the the mucous. Between the coats are layers of Dichterbund, and wrote poems, translations, areolar tissue, containing the vessels, nerves, and plays.
and lymphatics; the muscles are of unstriped STOMACH, the hollow organ in which the or organic fibre, arranged in longitudinal, cirfunction of digestion is performed, as uniformly cular, and oblique layers. The mucous mempresent, in variously modified forms, in every brane is delicate, smooth and velvety in some perfectly developed animal, as it is absent in parts, more or less rugose in others, reddish the vegetable kingdom. From the simplest white, covered with a mucous secretion, and form in the polyp to the complex structure in rapidly undergoes disorganization; beside the the ruminant, this organ is described under usual glands noticed under INTESTINE, it also the appropriate titles, and particularly under contains special gastric cells, whose secretion COMPARATIVE ANATOMY. As a general rule, has been described under DIGESTION. The throughout the vertebrate animals we find a blood vessels are very large and numerous, the complex stomach associated with a vegetable arteries coming from the cæliac axis of the abdiet; but this has striking exceptions, as for dominal aorta, and the veins emptying into the instance in the dolphin, which has a multiple vena portæ ; they freely inosculate in their stomach with an animal diet, and the horse, branches, and are tortuous in their course and which has a simple stomach with the same loose in their connections to accommodate vegetable food as the ox. In man the stomach the distentions of the organ. The nerves are is the widest and most dilatable part of the derived from the pneumogastric, and from the alimentary canal; it is situated in the upper solar plexus of the sympathetic system. On part of the abdomen, in the epigastric and part the introduction of food into the stomach the of the left hypochondriac region, below the organ is excited to movements, the mucous diaphragm, above the arch of the colon and membrane becomes darker and begins to pour transverse mesocolon, and to a certain extent out the gastric fluid ; the food enters from the between the liver and spleen; it comes in cosophagus in successive waves, and is at once contact in front with the anterior wall of the subjected to the peristaltic movements which abdomen, and behind with the organs and thoroughly mix the gastric juice with its mass; vessels lying upon the spine. Its shape varies the act of respiration assists in the stomachal greatly, but when moderately distended, in or movements. The usual course of the food is out of the body, resembles a bent cone, curved first to the left of the cardiac orifice, thence from before backward and from above down- along the larger curvature from left to right ward, following its length; it lies almost trans- toward the pylorus, thence returning along the verse, a little obliquely downward, forward, upper or lesser curvature from right to left, to and to the right; the anterior border is the go again through the same course; the revogreater curvature, and is lodged between the lution takes place in from 1 to 3 minutes, acfolds of the great omentum; the esophagus cording to the stage of digestion; it is due enters at about of the length from the left probably in great measure to the action of the extremity; the great cul-de-sac on the left is circular muscular fibres. The pylorus is closed united to the spleen by short vessels. It is during early digestion, gradually relaxing as about 14 inches long, and 5 wide at the central the process goes on, allowing an almost conpart, tapering gradually to the pylorus on the stant passage of chyme into the duodenum; right; its normal capacity is about 175 cubic sometimes the contents pass in the reversed inches or 5 pints, and its weight 6 to 7 ounces. direction, as in vomiting, in which the cardiac Though naturally kept in place by the omental orifice is relaxed, the pylorus comparatively folds of the peritoneum, any unusual distention closed, and the organ compressed by the abmay displace it, chiefly in a downward direc- dominal muscles, assisted perhaps by its own tion; the habit of tight lacing sometimes gives contractions. The mucous membrane may be to the stomach a permanent hour-glass shape, the seat of softening, congestion, hæmorrhage, variously thrusting its openings from their nat- acute and chronic inflammation, ulceration, and ural positions, and greatly embarrassing diges- cancerous growths. tion. The cesophagus or gullet, after passing STOMACH PUMP. See SYRINGE. through the diaphragm, opens into the stom- STONE, a general term including all solid ach at the cardiac orifice on the left, and the mineral substances. The subject is treated digestive cavity is separated from the intestinal mineralogically in the article MINERALOGY, and economically under the various names of use- sledges, and drawn upon wooden ways, which ful minerals and rocks, as DOLOMITE, GRANITE, were lubricated with some liquid substance, MARBLE, PORPHYRY, SANDSTONE, and SLATE. In and some were moved by rolling them over. the present article the adaptation and uses of It has been estimated that a force equal to a stone for different structures of importance little over $ of the weight of a stone is newill be considered. In the remotest periods cessary to draw it, when rough, upon a firm durable stones were esteemed the most valua- and smooth horizontal bottom; of its weight ble materials for architectural purposes, and upon a surface of wood, or „ if upon a wooden more judgment was shown in their selection, support moved upon wood, and if the two surand more labor expended in their elaboration, faces are soaped only . The use of rollers than are exercised at the present day. It may upon ground not compressible reduces the reeven be said that greater skill was possessed by quired force to about of the weight, to ab if the architects of the most ancient monuments they roll upon wood, and to about if they in carving and polishing the hardest stones thạn roll between two smooth wooden surfaces. has ever since been exhibited. The ancient Allowing that a man can haul 11 times his Egyptians, using no harder tools, that we are own weight, there would be required to move aware of, than those of bronze, quarried and the stone cover of the temple at Buto, upon dressed huge blocks of granite, and covered smooth ground, 10,000 men ; upon a surface of them with the most delicate and sharp-cut wood, 9,000; with the stone upon a wooden hieroglyphics, leaving the whole surface highly platform and drawn upon wood, 8,333 men; polished. Their wonderful structures are re- and if the surfaces were soaped, 2,500 men. In ferred to more particularly in the article Pyra- raising it upon an inclined plane to place it MID; and the use of different stones by other upon the walls, the increase of force required is nations of antiquity is incidentally treated in in the ratio of its inclination. The comparathe article ARCHITECTURE. It is remarkable tive durability of building stones is a matter of that the ancients, with their imperfect machin- the first importance, and received especial atery, possessed the power of quarrying and tention in England on the occasion of selecting moving masses of stone as large as any moved the best variety attainable for the houses of in modern times. Structures were even hol- parliament. The effects of the weather upon lowed out of single blocks, and transported some of the buildings in that country are nolong distances. Such was that described by ticed in the article SANDSTONE. In the United Herodotus, which Amasis transported from the States the disintegration of building stones is isle of Elephantiné to Sais, a distance of 20 exemplified in a remarkable degree
in the old days' ordinary sailing. It measured outside capitol at Washington. In a report of the sec27.72 by 18.48 feet, and was 10.56 feet high; retary of the interior to congress in 1849, it is within, 24.86 by 15.84, and 6.6 feet high; thus stated that some of the stones near the base of containing 2,822 cubic feet, which probably the building were so deeply affected, that it weighed 458,744 lbs. Another structure of
was necessary to remove them. The stone similar character, also described by Herodotus readily absorbs the moisture that condenses as forming part of the temple of Latona at Buto, upon it, and the natural cement that holds the is estimated to have weighed 9,944,750 lbs. particles together appears to be dissolved, causThis enormous mass, it is supposed, was quar- ing the material to crumble. In the words of ried upon the spot where it was placed, as no the report: “If left wholly unprotected from mention is made of its transportation, and as atmospheric action for one fifth of the time its movement would seem to be utterly imprac- that marble structures are known to have ticable; but it was covered with a block, which stood, this noble edifice would become a mound must have been moved and raised above its of sand. The treasury building and the preswalls, described as 52.8 feet square and 5.28 ent patent office building are of the same mafeet thick, making 14,720 cubic feet, and a prob- terial, and, having been in no manner protectable weight of 1,984,550 lbs. The largest mass ed, already show signs of decay." . The only of stone that has been transported in mod- remedy proposed is by some method to render, ern times is the pedestal of the statue of Pe- if possible, the stone permanently and absoter the Great at St. Petersburg, which weighs lutely impermeable to moisture. To test the 3,234,000 lbs. It was found impossible in comparative durability of stones, M. Brard moving it to make use of rollers of wood or proposed a method, which was afterward iron, and even balls of wrought and cast iron adopted by the engineers of bridges and highwere crushed down under the immense weight; ways in France, and was supposed in its effects and the last resort was to balls made of an alloy to represent the action of frost. According to of copper, tin, and zinc. From the drawings the directions published by a commission appreserved of the operations of the ancient pointed by the royal academy of sciences for inEgyptians and Assyrians, it appears that the quiring into the value of this process, the speciheavy stones which they employed were drawn mens to be tested are cut into 2-inch cubes by main strength of men, arranged in order with sharp edges, and boiled for half an hour along several strong ropes,, upon causeways in a saturated solution of sulphate of soda in and inclined planes of cut stones specially con- an earthen pipkin. The cubes are then taken structed. Some were placed upon massive out and suspended separately by threads over cups containing a little of the solution in that he considers it not at all improbable that which the stones were boiled. The salt grad- the monument will fall to pieces from its own ually forms small needles on the surface of the weight before it is completed. A specimen of stone; and these should be washed off several the stone in it 4 cubic inches in dimensions times a day, for 4 or 5 days, in the cup beneath. sustained a weight of only 9,000 lbs., while If the stone be capable of resisting the action a single cubic inch of good material sustained of frost, the crystals are supposed to abstract 18,000 lbs. The following are results of trials nothing from it; but if otherwise, small parti- made in Washington, under direction of the cles will drop off into the cup below, and these ordnance board, upon the resistance per square being collected and weighed will give the rela- inch of some of the most important building tive character as to durability of each speci- stones of the country. Quincy granite or syemen. Although experiments of this kind made nite, sp. gr. 2.648, 29,220 lbs.; Pottsdam sandin Paris agreed in their results with the effects stone from Malone, New York, sp. gr. 2.591, noticed by long continued exposure of the same 24,105 lbs.; blue micaceous rock employed for stones in buildings, the report on stone for the the foundation of the new capitol broke (avernew houses of parliament (March, 1839) pre- age of 7 samples) under 15,503 lbs. The comsents many instances of an opposite character pact red sandstone of the Smithsonian instituSome specimens well known to decay rapidly tion broke under 9,518 lbs. The strength of in a building disintegrated least of all; and several marbles tested varied from 7,000 to others of the most durable quality disintegrated 10,000 lbs. The sandstone of the capitol broke more than all the rest. This method of test- under a pressure of 5,245 lbs. The sandstones ing is consequently not to be depended upon. were tested as they are usually laid in building In fact, it appears from experience that the with the lines of stratification perpendicular same stone weathers very differently in differ- to the horizon; but the marbles and granites ent localities; and that the atmosphere of large were tested in an exactly opposite position. cities is much more destructive than that of the Mr. R. G. Hatfield of New York found that country. The magnesian limestone selected the New Jersey and Connecticut sandstones for the houses of parliament appears to have broke under pressures varying from 3,000 to been satisfactorily proved at Southwell minster, 3,500 lbs. per square inch. In Europe the in which, though exposed for 800 years, it still strength of stones has been the subject of nuretains every mark of the tool; but in London merous experiments, and is treated by Ronit is soon found to suffer serious injury, from delet, L'art de_bâtir; Gothey, Construction the effect, it is supposed, of the sulphurous des ponts, in Rozier's Journal de physique, acid in the smoke of the city. The softer lime- vol. iv. (1774); and by Emerson in his “Mestones are also affected in the same way, so chanics." The following are given as the that it has even been necessary to resort to weights which it is judged may be safely borne paint to protect Buckingham Palace and other apon a square foot of the stones named, which important buildings from decay. The Caen is of the actual crushing force : . stone, it is said, endures well in lower Nor
Weight of a Safe weight mandy, while it decays rapidly in Havre, and still more so in London. Some stones also are injuriously affected by the salt water atmo
Porphyry. sphere, which stand very well in the interior;
196,000 some again, which are very durable if always Granite, Aberdeen blue.
114,000 either wet or dry, gradually give way when Marble, white statuary
109,000 exposed to continual tidal changes ; and others
57,000 that stand well in fresh water disintegrate in
174,000 salt water. Sandstones in general are least
variegated red, Devonshire..
129,000 affected by heat, and limestones are readily Portland stone
82,000 cracked by it, and even partially calcined. Thus Fourneaux pillars of All Saints church it appears that in selecting stones for structures
110,000 Bagneaux pillars of Pantheon at Paris
62,000 of importance, special attention should be di- stone of temples at Pæstum. rected to the peculiar conditions to which they Derbyshire grit, a friable red sandstone
56,000 are to be exposed. A method of testing the
9,000 durability of marbles for the U. S. capitol, Brick, hard, well burned .. adopted by the commission appointed for this
pale red ... purpose, was submitting them many times to the action of freezing mixtures. An account The following are weights actually borne upon of this is given in MARBLE, Vol. xi. p. 175. The the square foot of stone in some buildings : mode of testing the resistance of stone to the the pillars of the church of All Saints at Ăncrushing effects of heavy weights. is also there gers, named in the table, support on each sudescribed. The value of this proof in impor- perficial foot a pressure of 86,000 lbs.; the tant structures can hardly be over-estimated. Bagneaux stone in the pillars of the dome of Prof. Walter R. Johnson states, from his ex- the Pantheon at Paris, 60,000 lbs.; a red sandperiments upon some of the marble introduced stone pillar in the centre of the chapter house in the Washington monument at Washington, at Elgin, 40,000 lbs.; the piers under the dome
of St. Paul's in London, 39,000 lbs.; those un- building stones in certain localities, and the der the dome of St. Peter's at Rome, 33,000 lbs. extreme labor of dressing them, have led to (See STRENGTH OF MATERIALS).—The methods many attempts to produce artificial substitutes, of extracting stones from their beds are de- that might be moulded from liquid or plastic scribed under each variety (see also BLAST- compounds, and which should afterward beING); the mode of shaping blocks of stone by come solid and durable; and also to produce sawing in the article MARBLE, and of polish- certain applications which should harden and ing in LAPIDARY. The dressing of blocks of render more permanent soft stones that are stone is usually performed with wedge-shaped easily dressed. Bricks are successful substihammers by hand, the surface being gradually tutes for stone, and pottery and terra cotta reduced by light blows, each one being struck have been produced in various forms applicain regular order close to the points abraded ble to architectural purposes. The cinders of by the preceding blow. The work upon hard iron smelting furnaces have also been run into stones is necessarily laborious, and machines moulds, and strengthened by slow cooling, have been devised in England and in the Unit- with the same object; but this application does ed States for accomplishing it by steam power not seem to have succeeded. It has been also upon several plans. By one method large proposed to mould the alkaline solutions of masses of hard stone are cut by a series of silica (see SILICATES, SOLUBLE); but their emchisels, which follow each other in the same ployment seems likely to prove more beneficial track, each striking a heavy blow, and which in coating the softer stones. Ransome's
process, are fixed to a frame that travels on a kind of recently introduced into England, by which he railway. Pavement slabs are cut in Dean For- produces artificial stones for a great variety of est by revolving disks, 10 or 12 feet in diame- purposes, as grindstones, whetstones for scythes, ter, which carry on the periphery 20 or 30 cut- mouldings, &c., for decorations, tombstones, ters. A machine devised by the earl of Caith- tablets, and chimney pieces, consists in mouldness, for dressing the surface of hard slabs for ing a mixture of 10 parts of sand, 1 of powstreet pavements, consists of about 30 iron bars dered flint, 1 of clay, and 1 of the alkaline sostanding vertically by the side of each other lution of flint, after they have been thoroughly and each toothed at the bottom; these are kneaded into a putty-like consistence. The raised successively and fall heavily upon the proportions of the ingredients vary with differstone, which is carried along slowly beneath ent articles. The moulds are generally of them. The following is an account of a very plaster of Paris, oiled over and dusted with efficient machine invented by Mr. Charles Wil- finely powdered glass, and the compound is son of Springfield, Mass., for dressing sand- rammed into them with a stick. When the stone. Broad wheels or cylinders are made casts are taken out, they are first washed over by placing 8 to 12 disks of steel, 7 inches in or floated with a diluted solution of the silidiameter, and as thick as a common circular cate. To cause the casts to dry equally and saw of that size, alternating with iron washers to prevent the formation of an external crust 1 of an inch thick and 1 inch less in diameter impervious to the moisture from the interior, than the disks. Two such cylinders are ad- the ingenious expedient was adopted of placing justed upon their axes so that the cutters stand the articles in a close chamber heated by steam, at an angle of about 25° with a horizontal line, into which a jet of steam is admitted, until and are then caused to revolve in an “iron the stones attain throughout a temperature of head,” which passes quickly back and forth 212° or more. The vapor then being allowed across the stone as this is moved slowly along to escape slowly from the chamber, the stones upon its carriage, like that used in saw mills. are left uniformly dried. A variety of stony A rough block of 6 superficial feet has been mixtures have been compounded so as to resmoothly dressed in this way in 8 minutes. semble many of the natural stones, and the Marble and other soft stones are sometimes materials have been held together by cements cut into parallel slabs by circular cutters of of different sorts; but none of them have ever this kind set upon a horizontal axis, at dis- been brought into extensive use. The extertances apart equal to the intended width of the nal applications proposed (beside the soluble strips. Circular pieces are sometimes cut by silica) for protecting the surface of stones are means of chisels fixed to the ends of revolving numerous. The most promising of these seem horizontal arms. Small circles have been cut to be of oily, fatty resinous matters, which the with hollow cylindrical chisels made to revolve stone is made to imbibe, sometimes by being upon their axes; in this way pillars have been boiled in them. Gutta percha, quicklime, copmade, and hollow cylinders or tubes of stone. peras, and various other substances have also (See PIPE, vol. xiii. p. 346.) Stones are some- been introduced into the preparations. Pattimes turned in lathes shaped with cutting ents were taken out in England in 1856 for tools; and mouldings upon flat stones are pro- applications, first of a solution of sulphate of duced by running the stones through lathes zinc or of alum, followed by one of sulphur in upon which are fixed the tools, sometimes of oil; and another for a solution of wax in coal iron, having the counterpart shape of the tar, naphtha, &c. moulding to be made. Such tools may be fed STONE, the common name of calculus in with sand and water. The want of durable the urinary bladder, for the composition of which see CALCULI and GRAVEL. The promi- as follows: a grooved steel staff or sound of nent symptoms are irritability of the bladder, full size is introduced, the bladder being modwith frequent irresistible desire to pass water, erately distended, the patient on his back, with and occasional stoppage of the stream, with pain shoulders elevated, thighs separated widely in in various parts of the urinary system; none order to expose the perineum, the hand graspof these, however, can be depended on, the ing the foot and bound together; the patient only sure diagnosis resting on making the stone being etherized, an incision is made on the left perceptible to the ear and fingers by means of side of the perineum from about an inch before a metallic sound introduced through the ure- the anus downward and outward to a point thra, and brought into direct contact with the midway between the anal opening and the foreign body; even with this instrument, sev- tuberosity of the ischium, the muscular fibres eral introductions in various positions of the being divided down to the staff; the groove body are sometimes necessary for its detection. is carefully entered by the knife or gorget, the The symptoms vary in intensity according to lascia divided forward, and the urethra perthe size and roughness of the stone, the state forated a little in front of the prostate, the of the urine, and the condition of the bladder. rectum being thrust back by a finger in the Stone may be formed from the urine and from incision; the knife is gently pushed into the the mucus of the bladder, the latter being al- bladder, slitting up the urethra and dividing ways phosphatic; all stones become coated the prostate for about half an inch; the finger with phosphates if they remain long enough to is then introduced, dilating the opening; the produce inflammation of the mucous mem- finger being withdrawn, the forceps are introbrane; the phosphatic, are the largest stones. duced, opened, and the stone seized, if possible, Supposing all methods for correcting the dis- with the first gush of fluid from the wound, eased condition of the urine and for removing and then extracted by slow, steady, and undupain and irritation to have been used in vain lating movements, dilating and not tearing the (see GRAVEL), the only other remedy is to ex- soft parts. If properly performed, and the tract the foreign body; this may be attempted after treatment not interfered with by hæmorin 4 ways, extraction through the urethra, so- rhage, inflammation, sloughing, or other comlution by injections into the bladder, lithotomy plications, the urine begins to flow by the (Gr. dedos, stone, and touos, incision), and li- urethra in about a week, and the wound heals thotrity or more properly lithotripsy (Gr. Nedos, completely in 4 or 5 weeks. In the bilateral and tpißw, to grind). Extraction by the ure- operation, a curved incision, with the convexity thra was employed by the Egyptians centuries upward, is made from one side of the perineum ago; it is practicable only for small stones, and to the other, between the anus and the ureespecially applicable in females, where the ca- thral bulb, dividing both sides of the prostate by nal is short and nearly straight; in favorable a double bistoury; the recto-vesical operation cases, when the irritability of the bladder has consists in cutting into the bladder from the been diminished and the organ filled with fluid, rectum on the median line behind the prostate; the urethra may be dilated by bougies, and and in the high operation the bladder is opened small stones be extracted by forceps made for above the pubes through the linea alba, where the purpose. Sir Benjamin Brodie has shown there is no covering of peritoneum; the last is that phosphatic calculi may be sometimes en- resorted to when the stone is of great size, the tirely dissolved, or so disintegrated as to escape prostate enlarged, or the tuberosities of the by the urethra, by the injection of very dilute ischia too near together. Lithotomy was pracnitric acid; uric acid calculi are more rebel- tised 25 centuries ago; Hippocrates bound his lious to this treatment, and the oxalic entirely pupils by oath not to practise it, but it came 8o. Both these processes are less employed, into use again in the time of Celsus, in whose as the other two methods are more certain, and writings are found the first indications of the generally unattended with danger. If the bilateral operation; the lateral operation was stone be large, sacculated, or very hard, the first practised toward the end of the 17th cenurethra strictured, the prostate gland enlarged, tury; the recto-vesical method was first emthe coats of the bladder diseased, or the patient ployed by Sanson.---Lithotrity has for its obvery weak and irritable, most surgeons would ject to reduce a stone in the bladder by crushemploy lithotomy in preference to lithotrity; ing it into fragments so small that they may be both these operations are comparatively rare expelled by the urethra. The early instruon the Atlantic seaboard of the northern states, ments used for this purpose were very rude but very common in the western and middle and dangerous, the stone being grasped by states, where limestone strata take the place branches made to protrude from a straight of the granitic rocks. Supposing the operation catheter, and then bored by a drill extending not to be contra-indicated by organic disease, through the instrument and worked by a watchand the general and local condition of the or- maker's bow; after it was bored it was crushed gans to be as good as possible, lithotomy may by another complicated instrument. The next be performed in 4 ways, called respectively improvement was introduced by Heurteloup in the lateral, bilateral, recto-vesical, and high or 1830, which consisted in seizing the stone in hypogastric operations. The lateral operation curved forceps, the anterior sliding in the posis in general the best, and it may be performed terior blade, and then breaking it to pieces by