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more subtle indication of the individual mind. a “Grammar of the Hebrew Language with It was this which enabled him to animate his Points" (1821); “Letters to Dr. Miller on the canvas not with the appearance of mere gen- Eternal Generation of the Son of God” (1822); eral life, but with that peculiar distinctive life “Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews" which separates the humblest individual from (2 vols. 8vo., 1827–8); “Hebrew Chrestomahis kind.” Stuart was a man of fine social thy" (1829); “Essay on the Question whether qualities, and a most accomplished talker. the use of Distilled Liquors or Traffic in them is
STUART, HENRY BENEDICT MARIA CLEMENT, compatible at the present time with making a Cardinal York, the last male representative Profession of Christianity” (1830); “Letters of the Stuart family, born in Rome in 1725, to Dr. Channing on Religious Liberty” (1830); died in Venice in 1807. He was the younger a “Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans” brother of the pretender Charles Edward, (1832); “The Mode of Christian Baptism prewhom he was preparing to aid with a body of scribed in the New Testament” (1833); “A French troops assembled at Dunkirk, when the Grammar of the New Testament Dialect” (2d overthrow of the Jacobites at Culloden ruined ed., improved, 1834); “ Hints on the Prophethe Stuart cause in Britain. He subsequently cies” (2d ed., 1842); “Commentary on the took orders in the Roman Catholic church, and Apocalypse" (1845); a "Letter to the Editor in 1747 was appointed by Benedict XIV. of the North American Review on Hebrew , cardinal. On the death of his brother in 1788 Grammar" (1847); “A Scriptural View of the he assumed the title of king of England as Wine Question” (1848); a Commentary on Henry IX., gratia Dei, non voluntate hominum, Daniel” (1850); “ Conscience and the Constias the medal which he caused to be struck on tution" (1851); a Commentary on Ecclesiasthe occasion declared. He was subsequently tes” (1851); and a “Commentary on Proverbs" obliged to take refuge from French invasion in (1852). Professor Stuart was distinguished for Venice, and during the last years of his life great quickness and versatility of mind, indomwas dependent upon the British court for the itable perseverance, noble and generous immeans of subsistence.
pulses, and an enthusiastic interest in every STUART, JAMES, sometimes called Athenian subject that engaged his attention. Stuart, an English antiquary and architect, STUCCO (Ital.), a name applied to the hard born in London in 1713, died Feb. 2, 1788. In external finish given to the coat of plaster upon early life he was a painter of fans, a branch of walls, sometimes consisting of fine lime and art then greatly in vogue, and to which he de- sand without hair, hand-floated twice and well voted himself until about 1742. For several trowelled (see PLASTERING); but the term is more years subsequent to this he resided in Rome, properly applied to a hard finish prepared of a and in 1750 he accompanied Nicholas Revett on mixture of ground marble or chalk, with pure an antiquarian tour to Greece, remaining in lime as a cement, in such proportions and so Athens from March, 1751, to the close of 1753. worked as to produce a durable and uniform Returning to London in 1755, he set about surface susceptible of polish. This sort is the preparation, in conjunction with his fel- adapted for covering walls and internal decoralow traveller, of a work on the “Antiquities tions; but for external work the mixture is of Athens," of•which the 1st volume appeared made of coarser materials and with cements in 1762, and the 2d and 3d posthumously in adapted to withstand the weather. Pulverized 1790–'94. Subsequent to his return to Eng- alabaster or gypsum is sometimes used instead land, Stuart was much employed in London as of marble, mixed with rich lime, carefully an architect.
slaked and sifted, and then trowelled on to a STUART, JOHN, Earl of Bute. See BUTE. rough coat until the surface is perfectly smooth.
STUART, Moses, an American divine and A solution of gelatine or strong glue or gum author, born at Wilton, Conn., March 26, 1780, arabic is sometimes used instead of water to died at Andover, Mass., Jan. 4, 1852. He was render the preparation more durable, and megraduated at Yale college in 1799, was employ- tallic oxides are added to produce desirable ed for some time as a teacher, studied law, was tints. The cements or stuccoes known in Engadmitted to the bar in 1802, and for the two land as Keene's, Martin's, and Parian are made succeeding years was a tutor in Yale college. of plaster of Paris, mixed with a saturated soHe afterward studied theology, and was or- lution either of alum, sulphate of potash, or dained pastor of the first Congregational church borax, then dried in the air, and baked at a of New Haven, March 5, 1806. In 1809 he dull red heat. The preparation is pulverized was appointed professor of sacred literature in and sifted, and is finally slaked with a solution the theological seminary at Andover, which of alum. Martin's is made with pearlash as office he held until 1848, when he resigned in well as alum, and is baked at a higher heat consequence of the advancing infirmities
of age. than the others. When the surface is perfectly Beside 11 or 12 occasional sermons, and some dry, it may be polished by rubbing with fine other minor works, he published a Grammar grit stones, followed by tripoli powder, chalk, of the Hebrew Language without Points" and oil. The application described in the ar(1813); “Letters to the Rev. William E. Chan- ticle SCAGLIOLA is a variety of stucco. ning containing Remarks on his Sermon recent- STUHL-WEISSENBURG (Hung. Székes Fely preached and published in Baltimore" (1819); jérvár), a town of Hungary, capital of the
county of the same name, situated on the left to 15 feet and a weight of 1,200 lbs., and occabank of the Csorgó, near the border of an ex- sionally of much larger size; it ascends the tensive morass, 38 m. S. S. W. from Buda; rivers opening into the Caspian and Black seas, pop. 22,600. The principal buildings are the with other and smaller species. The flesh is cathedral and the episcopal palace. There are tough and of inferior quality; the sound or air manufactures of woollen and linen goods, hard- bladder furnishes an abundant supply of isinware, and several other articles. The kings of glass, for which great numbers are caught in Hungary were formerly crowned here, and the Russia. (See GELATINE, vol. viii. p. 123.) cathedral contains many of their tombs. Caviare is also made from the roe of the fe
STURGEON, the name given to the cartila- male, which sometimes constitutes of the ginous fishes of the class of ganoids and family weight of the fish; the skin is used for harness sturionidæ. The body is elongated and fusi- leather, and the dorsal cord, cut in pieces and form, covered with a rough skin protected by dried, is used as food. The sterlet (A. Ru5 longitudinal rows of tubercular plates; the thenus, Linn.), found in the Caspian, and largest of these rows is along the back, and growing to a length of 2 or 3 feet, furnishes a there is also one on each side, and one from most delicate food and the best caviare. Some each pectoral to the ventral fins; the plates idea of the commercial importance of this fishare flattened, and marked with radiating striæ. ery may be gathered from the fact that in The head is depressed, and ends in a long 1829, in the Caspian sea alone, about 8,800 triangular snout covered with bony plates; persons were employed, obtaining 786,000 mouth funnel-shaped and protrusible, on the sturgeons, yielding 28,500 lbs. of caviare and under surface, without teeth, having in front a 1,100 lbs. of isinglass; the fish are taken in few depending barbels, evidently organs of nets as they go up to spawn. The color in touch; gill covers very large and gills free; these species is brown of various shades, the pseudo-branchiæ and spiracles are present, but plates whitish, and the abdomen silvery.-In no branchiostegal rays; fins well developed, North America sturgeons do not inhabit the the dorsal and anal opposite and behind the rivers flowing into the Arctic ocean, and are ventrals; tail heterocercal or unsymmetrical, not found north of the watersheds between the vertebral cord being prolonged into the lat. 53° and 54° N., where the mean annual upper lobe as in the sharks, and strengthened temperature is about 33° F.; they seldom enby fulcra along its upper margin; a soft cau- ter clear cold streams, but ascend muddy rivers dal on the under surface of the tail. The ver- in such numbers that many large Indian tribes. tebral column consists of an undivided soft subsist entirely on their flesh in summer; each chorda dorsalis ; the air bladder is very large, watershed has its own species, varying in communicating freely with the cosophagus; some minor characters. The sharp-nosed sturthere is a spiral valve in the intestine, and a geon (A. oxyrhynchus, Mitch.) attains a length conglomerate pancreas. They are generally of from 3 to 7 feet; it is found on the coasts of large size, inhabiting the northern temper- of New England, New Brunswick, and Nova ate seas of both coasts of America, eastern Eu- Scotia ; it is common in Long Island sound rope, and western Asia, from which they ascend from the middle of June to October, and is the rivers in spring for the purpose of spawn- taken by harpoon and in nets; the smaller ing, returning to the salt water in autumn; specimens are esteemed for the table; it is species are also found in the great American grayish brown above, silvery on the sides, and fresh water lakes, which never descend to the white below. The lake sturgeon (A. rubicunsea. They are oviparous; the food consists of dus, Lesueur) is olive brown above, white beany soft substances which they stir up from low, with the fins reddish; it attains a length the bottom with their snouts, and of small fish; of 4 feet, and is found in the great lakes and they have a habit of jumping out of water, in the Ohio river. The short-nosed sturgeon generally considered for mere sport, but most (A. brevirostris, Mitch.) is dusky above and likely to disengage from their gills and bodies white below; the snout is short and blunt; it the lampreys which eat into their flesh.—The attains a length of 2 to 5 feet, and is so comgenus acipenser (Linn.) has the characters of mon in the Hudson that its flesh in the marthe family. The common sturgeon of Europe ket has been known as Albany beef; it much (A. sturio, Linn.) attains a length of 6 to 10 resembles the A. sturio of Europe. Other spefeet, and sometimes more; it is found in the cies are described from the northern waters, Caspian and Black seas and the rivers opening the rivers of the N. W. coast, and from Lake into them, and sometimes on the coasts of Superior, by Richardson and Agassiz.—The Great Britain and the Baltic; the flesh is deli- genus polyodon (Lacép.) or spatularia (Shaw) cate, compared to veal, and was in old times has the general form of acipenser, but is withconsidered a royal dish ; it was served with out the bony plates on the body and head; great pomp in ancient Greece and Rome, but the snout is very much elongated, and comin modern days is held in far less esteem; still pressed into a thin leaf-like organ, partly bony it is largely consumed in Russia, fresh, salted, and partly cutaneous, sometimes nearly as long and pickled. A larger species, also found in as the body; gill covers very large, extending the seas and rivers of S. E. Europe, is the be- far back in a membranous point; the mouth is luga (A. huso, Linn.), attaining a length of 12 wide, with numerous minute teeth in the young animal, which are lost with age. The spoon- buildings and institutions of importance are bill sturgeon (P. folium, Lacép.) is steel-blue the museum of natural history; a library of above and white below ; it attains a length of 200,000 volumes and 3,220 MSS. ; a cabinet of 5 feet, and is found in the Mississippi, Ohio, medals containing about 17,000 specimens; a and their tributaries; it is also called shovel museum of the fine arts, with many valuable fish and paddle fish ; the flesh is occasionally statues and pictures; a bazaar, and a theatre. eaten, but is rather tough ; the singularly Stuttgart has a gymnasium, military academy, shaped snout is used to shovel up the mud in polytechnic school, school of art, numerous search of food. The genus platirostra (Les.) schools
, hospitals, asylums, and other charitais probably only the adult of polyodon, the ble institutions, and extensive barracks and principal difference being the absence of teeth. government offices. The manufactures include
STURLESON. See SNORRO STURLESON. woollen, silk, linen, and cotton goods, jewelry,
STURM, JOHANN, a German philologist, born musical and philosophical instruments, leather, at Schleiden, now in Rhenish Prussia, Oct. 1, and tin ware. The book trade is extensively 1507, died in Strasbourg, March 3, 1589. He carried on, and connected with it are numerstudied at Liége in the college of St. Jerome, ous paper mills, type founderies, lithographic and in 1524 went to Louvain, where he
spent 5 establishments, and printing offices. The town years, and, in partnership with Rudiger Rescius, has railway communication with all the princiestablished a press, and printed some Greek pal places of Europe, and the Neckar is naviworks. In 1529 he went to Paris, and there gable. A considerable trade is carried on in read public lectures on Greek and Latin wri- different manufactured articles, and bark. In ters and on logic; and thence in 1537 to Stras- the vicinity are numerous parks and gardens, bourg to become rector of its newly establish- where the public are admitted, including Roed gymnasium, which, under his administra- senstein, the summer palace of the king; and tion for 45 years, acquired great celebrity, Kannstadt, about 3 miles distant, is resorted to and in 1566 was converted into a university. by the citizens and visitors as a favorite waterThe system of education introduced by him, ing place.-Stuttgart is a very ancient town, aiming chiefly at thorough Latin scholarship, but the date of its foundation is not known. exerted great influence throughout Germany, It suffered severely during the wars of the 16th and was the model of that adopted by the and 17th centuries. Though repeatedly occuJesuits. He was several times employed by pied by both sides during the wars of Napogovernment in a diplomatic capacity. He was leon, it escaped with little loss. a Lutheran, but liberal to all who suffered for STUYVESANT, PETRUS, the last Dutch direligious opinions, and was by the persecution rector-general of New Netherlands (New York), of stricter sectarians finally driven from the born in Holland in 1602, died in New York in head of his school. His works are very nu- Aug. 1682. He served in the war in the West merous, and are principally devoted to the Indies, became director of the colony of Curaelucidation of classic authors. His work on a çoa, and, having lost a leg in an unsuccessful system of education, De Literarum Ludis recte attack on the Portuguese island of St. Martin, aperiendis Liber (4to., Strasbourg, 1538), has returned to Holland in 1644. In 1645 he was been several times reprinted.
appointed by the Dutch West India company STUTTGART, a town of Germany, capital director-general of New Netherlands, succeedof the kingdom of Würtemberg, situated on ing William Kieft, whose conduct had involved the river Nesen, a tributary of the Neckar, 38 the settlers in a bloody war with the Indians, m. E. S. E. from Carlsruhe and 97 m. S. E. and created general disorder in the colony. from Frankfort; pop. in 1858, 51,655. It He did not arrive till May, 1647, when he comstands in a very beautiful valley surrounded menced a vigorous and often arbitrary adminby vine-clad hills, with well wooded mountains istration, conciliating the savages and restoring in the distance. The town is encircled by a order in every department. In 1650 he arwall and ditch, is entered by 8 gates, and con- ranged at Hartford with the New England sists of two parts, the ancient and modern, commissioners a line of partition between the with two suburbs. In the chief square is a Dutch and English territories, which had prefine old Gothic church with a high tower, viously been undefined and a cause of frequent and many ancient sculptures and monuments disputes. He was also involved in trouble with of the princes of Würtemberg. The royal the Swedes on the south. In 1651 the Dutch palace, begun in 1746 and finished in 1806, built Fort Casimir on the Delaware, which was is a large building of freestone splendidly dec- captured by Rising, the governor of New Sweorated and furnished in the interior; and the den, in 1654. To revenge this wrong, Stuyveold palace, completed in 1570, resembles a sant in 1655, with 7 vessels and between 600 and feudal castle, and is now occupied by officials 700 men, sailed into the Delaware, and made a connected with the government. In the same conquest of the whole settlement. Ten years square is a monument to Schiller by Thorwald- of peace followed, disturbed only by the grow
The hospital church is a Gothic building, ing jealousy of the English, and by the civil finely decorated in the interior, and contains discontents which the arbitrary character of the grave of Reuchlin. The town hall was Stuyvesant's administration tended somewhat built in the 15th century. The other public to inspire. . In 1653 a convention of the people,
consisting of two deputies from each village in STYLE, OLD AND NEW. See CALENDAR. New Netherlands, had met and demanded that STYLITES (Gr. otulions, belonging to a pil“no new laws shall be enacted but with the con- lar), SIMEON, a Syrian who lived in the first half sent of the people; that none shall be appoint- of the 5th century, known in church history for ed to office but with the approbation of the having inaugurated a new kind of asceticism. people; that obscure and obsolete laws shall He left his convent, and for 9 years lived under never be revived." This assembly was dissolved the open sky on a pillar, the top of which was by the governor, who commanded the mem- only 2 cubits in circumference. Finally he bers to separate on pain of punishment, telling ascended a pillar 20 yards in height, on which them in his farewell message : “We derive he lived for 30 years, and preached with reour authority from God and the company, not markable effect to the crowds who gathered from a few ignorant subjects.” The spirit of around him. The people of Antioch received resistance nevertheless increased, and was fos- his body into their city, and revered him as tered by the large number of English settlers their patron saint. His example found several who had come to reside within the limits of imitators in the East until the 12th century. New Netherlands. The encroachments of the In the West asceticism of this kind was little New England colonies at last induced Stuy- encouraged by the ecclesiastical authorities. vesant himself to repair to Boston and lay his STYRIA (Ger. Steiermark), a duchy and remonstrances before the convention of the crown land of Austria, bounded by Upper and united colonies, which met with but little fa- Lower Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Carniola, vor; and a second embassy to Hartford had no Carinthia, and Saltzburg; area, 8,664 sq. m. better success. The Connecticut agents made pop. in 1857, 1,056,773. It is divided into the exorbitant claims to territory by virtue of the circles of Gratz, which contains the capital of royal patent. “In case there was another the same name, Marburg, and Bruck. A great royal patent," said the Dutch commissioners, part of the surface is mountainous, being trav“between where would New Netherlands then ersed by three chains belonging to the Noric lie ?" “We know of no New Netherlands, un- branch of the Alpine system, the highest sumless you can show a patent for it from his ma- mits of which are on the N. W. and S. W. fronjesty,” was the cool reply. In 1664 Charles II. tiers, their culminating points, Grossenberg and granted to his brother, the duke of York, the Eisenhut, being respectively 8,381 and 7,676 feet territory from the Connecticut river to the above the sea. In the S. and E. part the mounshores of the Delaware, and an English fleet tains are of moderate height, and some of them under Richard Nicolls appeared in the bay in separated by extensive valleys. The N. W.part August and demanded the surrender of the is known as Upper Styria, and the country in city. Stuyvesant was unwilling to capitulate, the opposite direction as Lower Styria. The but the municipality, seeing the futility of surface belongs to the basin of the Danube, toresistance, insisted on yielding. After hold- ward which the drainage flows by numerous ing out for a short time, the governor at last tributaries; the most important of these are consented, and the city was given up on Sept. the Mur, Enns, Raab, Save, and Drave, all of 3, 1664. After the capture Stuyvesant went which, except the Raab, are navigable for in 1665 to report to his superiors in Holland, boats. There are numerous small lakes, but and afterward returned, spending the remain- none of any considerable size, and several cold, der of his life on his farm or bouwerij (whence hot, and mineral springs. Limestone, sulphur, the name of the street called the Bowery), then alum, rock salt, gold, silver, lead, copper, cobalt, outside the limits of the city. He lies buried in zinc, and iron ore of superior quality, are all the vaults of St. Mark's church in 10th street. found. In the more elevatod districts the cli
STY (Lat. hordeolum, from hordeum, barley), mate is cold, but in the valleys it is mild and a small inflammatory tumor on the edge of the agreeable. The soil in the valleys is generally eyelid, about the size of a grain of barley. fertile, but the grain produced is barely suffiSty has its seat in the cellular tissue at the cient for the consumption of the population. margin of the lid, involving generally the roots The vine thrives well in the valleys and on of one or more of the eyelashes. The tumor is lower slopes. The mountains are generally furuncular in character, and almost invariably clothed to their summits with timber, and the goes on to suppuration; its progress is some- forests cover about half the surface. The intimes tedious and the suppuration imperfect. habitants are mostly of German origin, but Sty is most common in persons of a strumous the Slavic Vindes or Sloventzi are also numerhabit, and often has for an exciting cause de- ous; nearly all are Roman Catholics. Iron rangement of the digestive organs. By attend- is extensively manufactured, and some of the ing to the condition of these organs the recur- mines were known to the Romans. Some linrence of the disease may be most generally en, cotton, woollen, and silk goods are also manprevented. When the little tumor has made ufactured; but the most important branch of its appearance, it is best to promote its matu- industry is the felling and rafting of timber. ration by warm and emollient fomentations. Several millions of jews-harps are annually exIt is commonly advisable to leave it to burst of ported. An important transit trade between itself; but when' maturation has occurred, if it Italy and Germany is carried on, and is greatly occasion much uneasiness, it may be punctured. facilitated by good roads, and by the Vienna and Trieste railway, which crosses the Sommer- we can apply. Some vegetable substances also ing mountains.-Under the Romans the east- possess the same property, as camphor, benzoic ern part of Styria belonged to the province of acid, &c. Sublimation is much employed in Pannonia, and the western to Noricum. Chris- the arts and manufactures' as a means of sepatianity was introduced in the 4th century, but rating volatile from fixed bodies, usually for the northern barbarians afterward overran the obtaining the former in a purer state. The province. Styria was annexed to Austria in vapor is sometimes chemically changed by con1192, was subsequently attached to Bohemia, tact with the oxygen of the air, and the subliand wrested from King Ottocar II. by Rudolph mate is then of a different composition from I. of Hapsburg, a possession of which house it the original body, as when oxide of zinc is prohas since remained.
duced by subjecting the metal or its ores to heat STYX (connected with Gr. otvYew, to hate, exposed to the air. abhor), in Greek mythology, the chief river SUBLIME PORTE (Fr., lofty or magnifiof the lower world, around which it flows 7 cent gate), the title officially given to the Ottotimes. The name was said to be derived from man government, and also applied to the edifice the nymph Styx, the daughter of Oceanus, who, in which state affairs are transacted. Orkhan when Jupiter prepared to wrest the power from (1326-57), the first Turkish sultan who adoptthe hands of Saturn and the Titans, was the ed the title padishah, erected a magnificent first of the immortals to answer to his call, palace with an imposing entrance, on which he coming with her 4 sons to his assistance. For bestowed the name of Sublime Porte," which her readiness he made her children his constant from that time to the present has been applied attendants, and upon her he conferred the dis- to the monarch and government ruling there. tinction of being the oath-sanctioner of the This use of the term also had its origin partly gods. When a god was about to take the oath, perhaps in the oriental custom of transacting a cup of water from this stream was brought public business at the gate of the city or palace. him by Iris, and while pouring out this he took SUBMERGED FORESTS. See FORESTS, the oath. In the Hesiodic theogony Styx is SUBMERGED. called the daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. SUBPCENA, a judicial process directed to a She was the mother of Zelos (zeal), Nike (vic- witness commanding him to appear at the court, tory), Bia (strength), and Cratos (power). to testify what he knows in the case therein SUABIA. See SWABIA.
described, pending in the court, under a cerSUAREZ, FRANCISCO, a Spanish scholastic tain penalty (sub pæna) mentioned in the process. theologian, born in Granada in 1548, died in If the court wishes to examine any books or Lisbon in 1617. He early entered the order papers which are in possession of the witness, of the Jesuits, was in succession professor at a clause is inserted in the writ bidding him to the universities. of Alcala, Salamanca, Rome, bring them with him; and the subpoena is and Coimbra, and one of the most prolific theo- thence called a subpæna duces tecum. A sublogical writers of his age. Benedict XIV. and pæna ought always to be served at a reasonable Bossuet accounted him among the most learned time before the trial, in order that the witness theologians of their church, and Grotius called who is summoned thereby may have time to him a profound theologian and philosopher, arrange his affairs in contemplation of his abwith whom but few could be compared. His sence, and may have convenient time to reach work, Defensio Fidei adversus Anglicanæ Secto the court. The statutes generally regulate the Errores, was ordered by the parliament of Pa- matter, and usually require that for every cerris to be burned by the public executioner, be- tain number of miles distance, one day shall be cause it claimed for the pope a coercive power added in estimating the time of service. The over kings. The complete works of Suarez manner of service is also often prescribed by were published at Lyons, Mentz, and Venice, in American statutes. In New York, for example, 23 vols. fol., the last named edition in 1748, and the mode of service is to show the subpæna to a new edition is now (1862) in course of pub- the party; to deliver to him a copy of the prolication at Paris. The Jesuit Noël published cess, or a ticket containing the substance of it; extracts from them in 2 vols. fol. (Geneva, and to pay or tender to him the amount allowed 1732). A life of Suarez was written by Des- by law for travelling to and returning from the champs (Perpignan, 1671).
place at which he is required to attend, and his SUBJECTIVE. . See OBJECTIVE AND SUB- fees for one day's attendance. These fees for
travel and daily attendance are also matter of SUBLIMATION, a process of distillation in express statutory provisions, and they differ in which the vapors condense in a solid form. It the different states. The subpoena ought to be takes place naturally in volcanic fissures and served upon the witness personally, for othercraters, and the products, often of'a sulphur- wise he cannot be proceeded against as for a ous character, are deposited upon the walls. contempt if he neglects to appear.
Service Deposits thus formed are termed sublimates. may be made by any person, and is proved A great variety of mineral substances are sub- generally by affidavit, or, if it be made by a ject to vaporize by heat and become solid sheriff or his officer, by a simple return or ceragain on cooling; and the number of such in- tificate of service. When a witness has been creases with the increased degree of heat which duly summoned, and his fees have been paid or