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tendered, or payment or tender has been waiv- law, the courts have gone in some cases so far ed, he is guilty of a contempt of court if he fails as to say that the subscribers to a common obto appear at the appointed time, and may be ·ject may be treated as contracting with each proceeded against by attachment. The process other, the consideration of each subscription of attachment rests not on the ground of any being the promises of the other contributors, actual damage resulting from the party's failure each subscriber being thus liable to a suit by all to appear, but is given for the vindication of the others. This doctrine however is against the the dignity of the court; and if it be clearly weight of authority; and it may be regarded as shown that the court's process was wilfully dis- pretty well settled that no action can be mainobeyed by the witness, he is condemned to tained on a subscription unless it is made in fine or imprisonment, or whatever other pun- favor of some particular person or corporation ishment is ordered by statute for the offence. in existence at the time, and capable of bringIn Massachusetts, and probably in other states, ing a suit upon it. Thus it has been held that the party actually injured by the non-appear- a subscription to the stock of a corporation to be ance of the party summoned has a statutory afterward formed did not render the subscriber action for all damages caused by his default. liable to a suit by the corporation after it had The office of the subpæna at common law is been chartered and organized. But where the simply to bring into court a witness whose evi- subscription paper named a party who was to dence is sought. Chancery, borrowing the collect the sum subscribed, it was held that he name of the writ, but giving it a far larger might bring a suit against a subscriber. So scope, issued it in order to compel a defendant when the paper provided that the money should in a cause to appear and answer upon oath the be paid to a person to be appointed by the subplaintiff's allegations. This sort of subpæna scribers in a prescribed manner, it was held was invented or first used in chancery by John that such person, when so appointed, might de Waltham, bishop of Salisbury, master of the sue on the subscriptions. And it has been held rolls under Richard II.; the commons com- that a subscription for a good consideration, but plained“ of his subtlety' “as contrary to the which could not be sued for want of a party to course of the common law.” It was in fact whom the promise was made, may be the conthe cause and subject of some of the loudest sideration for a promissory note payable to a complaints against the chancery jurisdiction; party capable of bringing an action. There but it was finally acquiesced in and became the are many cases which hold that no action most effective process of the chancery courts, can be maintained upon a mere voluntary suband thereby the means of much of its benefi- scription for a charitable or other purpose, cent action. The prayer for the subpoena is upon the ground that there was no legal conusually included in the closing clause of the sideration for the promise; and these cases bill, and asks that the defendant “may be re- would seem to be in accordance with the rule quired to appear, to answer the bill and to of law requiring an actual consideration for a abide by the decree of the court."
promise in order to make it legally binding. SUBSCRIPTION, in law, a contract by which There are other decisions, however, which unone agrees to contribute with others for a com- dertake to raise a consideration from the prommon purpose. The word is sometimes applied ises of the other contributors; from the acts to the sum of money subscribed. The contract done and expenses incurred on the faith of the of subscription depends for its validity upon the subscription; and from the express or implied same principles and facts as other contracts. The promise or legal liability of the parties, in subscribers may be sued for their subscriptions whose favor the subscription is made, to carry whenever the conditions upon which they have out its purposes. Where, by the express terms promised to pay are fulfilled, if the purpose of of the subscription, the promisee agrees to apthe contract is a legal one, and founded upon a propriate the funds to a particular object and good consideration, and if there is a party capa- in a particular way, upon the well settled prinble of maintaining the action. Subscription ciple of mutuality of contracts, his promise is a papers, however, are often hastily drawn up good consideration for that of the subscribers. and carelessly expressed; no party is named to Whether, however, the merely legal and imwhom the amounts subscribed are to be paya- plied liability of a charitable corporation or ble; it is merely agreed to contribute certain board of trustees to appropriate the funds subsums to a specified object, leaving the mode of scribed in accordance with the provisions of collecting these sums to be afterward provided their charter or trust is a sufficient considerafor; and the inducement to subscribe is com- tion, without an express promise in the submonly either a benevolent object or the hope scription paper, to support an action on a subof future profit, without any immediate legal scription in their favor, is a question on which consideration. In short, the difficulty in the there is some conflict of opinion. Subscriptions way of enforcing contracts of subscription has which rest on an express contract by the promarisen frequently, we may say indeed chiefly, isee to do some act beneficial to the subscriber, from the want of proper parties and of a valid are in fact but ordinary contracts. consideration for the promise. In their dispo- SUCCORY. See CHICORY. sition to uphold this class of contracts, if they SUCHET, Louis GABRIEL, a French general, can be upheld consistently with the rules of born in Lyons, March 2, 1772, died in Mar
seilles, Jan. 3, 1826. He entered the national sides of head sometimes spiny or tuberculated; guard of Lyons in 1791 as 2d lieutenant of cav- it is common in the ponds of the New England alry, became a chief of battalion, was pres- and middle states. The gray sucker (C. Hudent at the siege of Toulon in 1793, and was sonius, Les.) is grayish above, and 18 to 21 then transferred to the army of Italy. He inches long; it is found in rivers opening into received the rank of chief of brigade on the Hudson's hay, in Columbia river and its tribubattle field at Neumark in April, 1797. He taries, and in the fur countries. Other large was selected as one of the commanders in the species from the northern regions have been army of Egypt, but was detained by Brune as described by Richardson and Agassiz. Among major-general in the army of Italy, in which he the larger species of the western rivers are the reëstablished order and discipline; afterward Missouri sucker (C. elongatus, Les.), 2 to 3 feet served as chief of staff under Masséna on the long, in the Ohio river, black on the back, and Danube, and again in Italy, where after Mas- hence called black horse and black buffalo; séna took the command he was made general and the buffalo sucker (C. bubalus, Raf.), of of division, and during the siege of Genoa, about the same size, in the Ohio, Mississippi,
, with a far inferior force, secured the capture Missouri, and their tributaries, brownish above, of 15,000 Austrians with 6 standards and 33 bronzy on the sides, and whitish on abdomen.
He took part in the battle of Maren- These and other species are frequently used as go and in the passage of the Mincio, and com- food in the West. manded the centre of the army of Italy at Boz- SUCKING FISH, the popular name of the zolo, Borghetto, Verona, and Montebello. In remora, a spiny-rayed fish of the genus echeneis 1805 he commanded the left wing under Mar- (Linn.), so named from the Greek exw, to hold, shal Lannes at Austerlitz, and in 1806 took an and vavs, a ship. This genus was placed by important part in the battle of Jena. In 1808 Cuvier among the malacopterygians, near the he was made commander of a division in cod family ; Müller ranked it among the discothe army of Spain, and by his siege of Sara- boli (lump fishes), with the goby family; Agasgossa (1809), the taking of Lerida (1810), Tor- siz considers it as belonging with the scombetosa and Tarragona (1811), and the occupation roid or mackerel family. The body is elongated, of Montserrat, won the baton of a marshal of tapering behind, covered with very small scales; the empire in 1811. He afterward took Oro- there are 4 perfect branchiæ; very small teeth pesa, Murviedro, and Valencia, which place he on jaws, vomer, and palate, crowded and hardly entered Jan. 14, 1812, capturing 18,000 Span- distinguishable posteriorly; mouth small and ish troops and immense stores, and was re- horizontal, the lower jaw the longer; eyes warded with the title of duke of Albufera and above the angles of the mouth; ventrals thoa large revenue. His justice and moderation racic, narrow, united only at the base, and gained him the affection of the Spaniards, and apparently not used for attaching the animal on the withdrawal of the French from Spain to submarine bodies; head flattened. Above he left the country with honor. Louis XVIII. the head and anterior dorsal vertebra is an made him a peer of France in 1814. He wrote oval disk, presenting from the middle to both Mémoires sur la guerre d'Espagne, 1808–1814 sides oblique transverse cartilaginous plates, (2 vols. 8vo., Paris, 1829).
arranged like the slats of a Venetian blind; on SUCKER, the popular name of the soft-rayed the middle of the under surface are spine-like fishes of the carp family (cyprinida) included projections connected by short bands with the in the genus catostomus (Lesueur). They are skull and vertebræ, and their upper margin is characterized by a single dorsal, 3 rays in the beset with fine teeth. According to De Blaingill membrane, smooth head and gill covers, ville, this organ is an anterior dorsal fin, whose jaws without teeth and retractile, mouth be- rays are split and expanded horizontally on neath the snout, and lips plaited or lobed suit- each side instead of standing erect in the usual able for sucking; there are comb-like teeth in way. By means of this apparatus, partly the throat; the intestine is very long, and the suctorial and partly prehensile by the hooks, air bladder divided into 2 or more parts. There these fishes attach themselves to rocks, ships, are about 30 species in the fresh water rivers and the bodies of other fishes, especiaily to and lakes of North America; they feed on sharks. The dorsal is opposite the anal, but aquatic plants, worms, larvæ, and mollusks, the fins are weak, and these fishes accordingly and rarely take bait; they are very tenacious adhere to sharks and other moving bodies, of life; the young are devoured by kingfishers, which transport them to places where food is fish hawks, and carnivorous fishes. The com- abundant, and often from the tropics to temmon sucker (C. Bostoniensis, Les.) is 8 to 15 perate regions. There are 6 or 8 pyloric apinches long, of a brownish color, olive on the pendages, but no air bladder. The common head, reddish with metallic lustre on the sides, sucking fish of the Mediterranean, so well and white below; it is common in New Eng- known to the ancients (E. remora, Linn.), is land and the middle states. The chub sucker from 12 to 18 inches long, shaped somewhat (C. gibbosus, Les.) is 7 to 12 inches long, dark like a herring, dusky brown above and lighter brown above, golden greenish yellow on the below; it has 17 or 18 plates on the head ; it sides, anterior part of abdomen whitish, and occurs in the Atlantic Ocean, on the British fins dark; body convex in front of dorsal, and coasts, and has even wandered to the American shores. The Indian remora (E. naucrates, 1819 he attained the rank of brigadier-general, Linn.) attains a length of 24 feet; it is olive and was appointed to negotiate a suspension of brown above and whitish on the sides, and has hostilities with the Spanish general Morillo. 22 to 24 plates in the sucking disk; it is found He was not long after promoted to the comin the Atlantic, on the American and African mand of a division sent from Bogota to assist coasts, in the Red sea, Indian ocean, and even the province of Guayaquil. Though repulsed around Japan. On the Mozambique coast it is at Huachi, he succeeded in the autumn of 1821 put to a practical use in catching marine tur- in effecting a favorable armistice with the royaltles; a number are taken to sea in a vessel of ist general Aymerich, and thus enabling the water, and are put overboard when a turtle is Peruvian division to form a junction with the seen, å rope fastened to a ring having been Colombians. In May, 1822, he achieved the attached to the tail; in the instinct to escape decisive victory of Pichincha, which was imthey attach themselves to the nearest turtle, mediately followed by the capitulation of Quito. and both fish and reptile are hauled in together. Having returned to Bogota, he was despatched The E. lineata (Bloch), of the tropical Pacific, early in 1823 as Colombian envoy to Lima, with has a very elongated body and only 10 sucking an auxiliary Colombian army of 3,000 men. He plates. Peculiar to the American coast is the found Lima in the hands of the royalists, and white-tailed remora (E. albicauda, Mitch.); it retired to Callao, where he was besieged till is from 1 to 2 feet long, grayish slate above, the successes of Gen. Santa Cruz in the south with dark band on sides; the disk has 21 plates; of Peru compelled the royalist general to it is not uncommon on the southern shore of evacuate Lima in July, 1823. Sucre attemptMassachusetts and in Long Island sound, where ed to coöperate with Santa Cruz, but the it is generally called shark sucker. None of the defeat of the latter rendered his return to species feed upon the fish to which they are Callao necessary. Bolivar soon after took the attached, but upon small floating animals. For command of the liberating army in person, but other sucking fish, adhering by means of the after the battle of Junin relinquished it to Suventral fins, see LUMP FISH.
cre, who, on Dec. 9, 1824, fought and won the SUCKLING, SIR JOHN, an English poet and battle of Ayacucho, the most brilliant battle dramatist, born in Whitton, Middlesex, in 1608 ever fought in South America, capturing the or 1609, died in Paris probably in 1642. He Spanish viceroy La Serna, killing and woundwas the son of the comptroller of the royal ing 2,600 royalists, and the next day receiving household under James I., and was educated at the surrender of Gen. Canterac, the Spanish Trinity college, Cambridge. Succeeding to an commander, with 15 general officers and the immense fortune at the death of his father in whole army prisoners of war. Three days later 1627, he travelled for a while on the continent, he entered Cuzco in triumph, and immediately and in 1631–2 served as a volunteer in the proceeded against Olañeta, who with a small forces under Gustavus Adolphus. Returning to body still held Upper Peru against the republiEngland, he became one of the most brilliant cans. The death of Olañeta in April, 1825, ornaments of the court of Charles I., and was placed both Upper and Lower Peru in Sucre's distinguished not less for his wit and gallantry hands, and he assembled as speedily as possible than for his passion for gambling. At the a congress at Chuquisaca, which, in Aug. 1825, breaking out of disturbances in Scotland in decided to form the new republic of Bolivia, to 1639 he equipped a body of 100 horse for the request Bolivar to draw up a constitution for royal service, at a cost, it is said, of £12,000, them, to call their capital Sucre, and to invest but.was disgraced by the pusillanimous conduct the government for the time being in Gen. of himself and his men in an encounter with the Sucre with the title of "captain-general and Scots near Dunse, for which he was merciless- grand marshal of Ayacucho.” In 1826 a new ly ridiculed by the rival wits of the time. In congress assembled to receive the constitution the succeeding year he was elected to the long prepared by Bolivar, and Sucre resigned his parliament; but, having joined in a plot to res- captain-generalship, but was at once elected cue Stratford from the tower, he was compelled president under the new constitution. The to take refuge in France. His literary remains revolution in Peru in 1827, which overthrew comprise 4 plays, a number of short poems the government of Bolivar, exerted an undedicated to love and gallantry, a treatise on favorable influence in Bolivia, and an insur
Religion by Reason," and a collection of let- rection took place in which Sucre was atters. His reputation at the present day rests tacked and dangerously wounded. On his almost entirely upon his poems. His works recovery in Aug. 1828, he resigned and rewere published by Tonson in 1709, and in 1836 turned to Colombia, but was at once made appeared “Selections from his Works," with a commander of the Colombian army of the memoir dy the Rev. Alfred Suckling.
south, and political chief of the southern deSUCRE, ANTONIO JOSÉ DE, a South Amer- partments of the Colombian republic. In this ican general, born in Cumana, Venezuela, in capacity he led his troops in a series of military 1793, assassinated in the neighborhood of Pas- operations which terminated in the defeat to, in Ecuador, in June, 1830. He entered the and capitulation of the Peruvians under Gen. insurrectionary army in 1811, serving under La Mar at Tarqui, Feb. 26, 1829. He became Miranda, and afterward under Gen. Piar. In a member of the constituent congress of 1830, and it was on his return to Quito from the rality and sedition, was suppressed in 1857. He session of that body that he was assassinated. wrote numerous other novels, and alone or in SUDORIFICS. See DIAPHORETICS.
conjunction with others dramatized several of SUE, EUGÈNE, a French novelist, born in his works, but with indifferent success. In 1848 Paris, Dec. 10, 1804, died in Annecy, Savoy, he was defeated as a candidate for the constitJuly 3, 1857. The son of a surgeon in the im- uent assembly; but in 1850 was elected, after a perial guard, his sponsors at baptism were the lively contest, one of the deputies for the deempress Josephine and Prince Eugène Beau- partment of the Seine. He sat among the memharnais. He studied medicine, and was early bers of the mountain, but never spoke. On the appointed assistant surgeon in the royal body coup d'état of Dec. 2, 1851, he was expelled guard. In 1823 he followed the French army from France, and retired to Annecy. to Spain, and saw the siege of Cadiz and the SUETONIUS TRANQUILLUS, Caius, a Rotaking of the Trocadero; was afterward trans- man historian, born about A. D. 70, died probferred to the medical service in the navy, and ably in the latter part of the reign of the emin 1827 was present at the battle of Navarino. peror Hadrian. He was the son of a military Inheriting a competence on his father's death, tribune, and appears, through the influence of he gave up his profession to devote himself to his friend the younger Pliny, to have obtained a painting and literature. His first works were similar office, which his love of letters induced the sea novels Kernock le pirate (1830), Plick him to transfer to a relative. Pliny subseet Plock (1831), and Atar-Gull (1831), beside quently helped him to become magister episa number of shorter tales collected under the tolarum, an office of considerable importance title of La Coucaratcha (4 vols. 8vo., 1832–4). in the imperial household, and which gave the These were printed at his own expense, and incumbent many opportunities of examining notwithstanding, their immoral tendency and the state archives. From this position he was coarse style, their vivacity rendered them pop- removed by Hadrian in 119 in consequence of ular. An affectation of Byronic scepticism an indiscreet familiarity with the empress Sashone conspicuously in his Salamandre (1832), bina. The remainder of his life was probably which met with decided success, and in his devoted to literary pursuits, and from the list Vigie de Koatven (1833). In all these per- of his works given by Suidas he must have formances the author seems to delight in pre- been one of the most voluminous of Roman senting vice triumphant and virtue persecuted authors. His chief extant work is the Vito and derided. Although ill prepared for such a XII Cæsarum, in 8 books; beside which the task, he now appeared as a historian, and under treatises De Illustribus Grammaticis and De the patronage of the government published the Claris Rhetoribus, and some brief biographies Histoire de la marine Française au 17e siècle of Terence, Horace, Lucan, Juvenal, Persius, (5 vols. 8vo., 1835–7), which was a failure. and Pliny the Elder, pass under his name. Cécile (1835), one of his best novels, was follow- His lives of the Cæsars are anecdotical rather ed by Le marquis de Létorières (1839) and Jean than historical, and their accuracy has been Cavalier (1840). He now assumed the advocacy impeached by Heisen, Linguet, and others, alof socialistic ideas and of the improvement of though, as would appear from the researches the condition of the lower classes. This change of Krause (De Suetonii Tranquilli Fontibus et did not appear clearly in Mathilde, ou mémoires Auctoritate), without affecting their value in d'une jeune femme (6 vols
. 8vo., 1841), an affect- illustrating the period of which they treat. A ing narrative in which vice meets with retribu- marked feature of the lives of the Cæsars is tion, but shone conspicuously in Les mystères the minuteness with which Suetonius
relates de Paris (10 vols. 8vo., 1842), a work which, the gross excesses of the emperors. His perthough presenting terrible pictures of vice and sonal character, if Pliny may be believed, was corruption, was for a while the most popular above reproach. The works of Suetonius long novel ever published, numberless editions be- enjoyed à considerable popularity, 15 editions ing issued in France, and translations appearing having been published previous to 1500, of in nearly all the European languages. Le Juif which the oldest with a date is that of Rome errant (10 vols.' 8vo., 1844–5) was still more (fol., 1470). Among the best subsequent ediobjectionable, but was scarcely less successful tions are those of Burmann (2 vols. 4to., Amon account of its being a merciless attack upon sterdam, 1736) and of Baumgarten-Crusius, by the Jesuits. These three novels respectively Hase (2 vols. 8vo., Paris, 1828). The first Engappeared at first in the Presse, the Journal des lish translation was by Philemon Holland (fol., débats, and the Constitutionnel; they were fol- London, 1606), and the latest by Thomson and lowed by Martin, l'enfant trouvé (12 vols. 8vo., Forester (Bohn's "Classical Library,” 1855). 1847) and Les sept péchés capitaux (16 vols. 8vo., SUEUR, LE. See LE SUEUR. 1847–19). After the revolution of Feb. 1848, he SUEVI, the collective name of a powerful undertook a serial work in which he held up group of migratory German tribes, who about aristocracy, monarchy, and the clergy to exe- the beginning of the Christian era are said by cration by narrating the sufferings of a prole- ancient writers to have occupied the larger tarian family through ages, entitled Les mys- half of all Germany. Cæsar describes the tères du peuple, which was continued from dwelling between the Ubii and Sygambri on the 1850 to 1856, and, being prosecuted for immo- W. and the Cherusci on the E.; that is, between
as the Rhine and the Weser. According to Str&- ally poorly built of sun-dried brick. It contains bo, they extended across the central parts of several mosques and khans, a Greek church, a modern Germany, between the Rhine and the custom house, a large hotel for the accommodaOder, and as far S. as the head waters of the tion of European travellers, recently erected Danube. Tacitus seems to designate by the by the pasha, a bazaar, and some tolerable name Suevi the tribes of eastern Germany from shops. Good water and vegetable productions the Danube to the shores of the Baltic. In are not procurable near the town, and supplies the 2d century the collective appellation disap- of both have to be brought from considerable pears, the single tribes of the group being des- distances. Vessels of a large size find safe anignated by their distinctive names; later, how- chorage in the roadstead about 2 m. off, but ever, other Suevi, an adventurous German peo- there is only sufficient depth of water for boats ple of mixed origin, appear upon the banks of and lighters to come alongside the quay. Suez the Neckar, where they gave rise to the mod- is connected with Alexandria by a railway 222 ern name Swabia, and also in northern Spain, m, long, which passes Cairo, and crosses the where they conquered Galicia in the early part Nile by a magnificent bridge 65 m. from Alexof the 5th century.
andria. The place derives its importance from SUEZ. I. An isthmus about 75 m. broad, being a port of the overland route between lying between the Mediterranean and Red seas, England and India, China, and Australia. and connecting the continents of Asia and Af- SUFFOCATION. See ASPHYXIA. rica. With the exception of two small ridges SUFFOLK. I. An E. co. of Massachusetts, of the respective medium heights of 30 and 45 bounded E. and S. by Massachusetts bay; area, feet, the surface is only elevated from 5 to 8 15 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 192,701. It is comfeet above the level of the adjoining seas, and posed of Boston and Chelsea, and is the most has a general depression toward the Mediter- important county in wealth and population in ranean. In places it is so low as to be covered New England. Its inhabitants are principally with salt marshes or swamps, and it is suppos- engaged in manufacturing and trading. The ed that at one time the two seas were united. agricultural productions in 1855 were 3,160 There are some considerable lakes, generally bushels of rye, 3,256 of Indian corn, 9,010 of dry for most of the year, and the rest of the potatoes, and 1,039 tons of hay. (See BOSTON, isthmus is a barren sandy desert, uninhabited. and CHELSEA.) The county is intersected by Fresh water is exceedingly scarce, being only numerous railroads. Capital, Boston. II. An found in a few places. A canal, begun by E. co. of New York, comprising the E. part of Necho and finished by Darius, connected the Long island, bounded N. by Long Island sound, Nile with the gulf of Suez, and some traces of and E. and S. by the Atlantic, and drained by it are still visible. Napoléon projected a canal the Peconic river and several smaller streams; between the Red and Mediterranean seas, and area, 950 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 43,276. The for many years this subject has attracted con- surface is hilly and uneven on the N., but siderable attention in Europe. In 1852 M. de nearly level on the S.; the soil is generally Lesseps, a French engineer, undertook to form sandy, but fertile along the sound. The proa joint stock company to cut a ship canal, and ductions in 1855 were 504,767 bushels of Intwo years afterward he obtained a firman dian corn, 151,649 of wheat, 262,067 of oats, from the pasha of Egypt conferring upon him 304,063 of potatoes, 104,183 of turnips, 634,405 the exclusive privilege of carrying out the pro- lbs. of butter, and 41,505 tons of hay. There ject. In 1855 a commission of engineers from were 3 straw paper mills, 25 ship yards, 3 spar various countries examined the proposed route, factories, 1 cotton and 2 cotton warp factories, and stated in their report that there were no 2 clock factories, 1 piano factory, 5 newspaper extraordinary difficulties in the way. The com- offices, 112 churches, and 146 schools. The pany was formed in Jan. 1859, with a capital coast is indented by numerous harbors and inof $40,000,000, and the work was shortly af- lets, and the county includes several small islterward commenced. According to this pro- lands. It is intersected by the Long Island ject the canal is to extend between the town railroad. Capital, Riverhead. of Suez and the gulf of Pelusium, to be 90 SUFFOLK, a county of England, bounded miles long, 20 feet deep at low water level by Norfolk, Cambridge, Essex, and the North of the Mediterranean, and 330 feet wide on sea; area, 1,481 sq. m.; pop. in 1861, 336,271. the surface. II. A gulf forming the N. W. arm It contains two county towns, Ipswich and of the Red sea, extending from its head in a Bury St. Edmunds; other chief towns, Eye, N. W. direction for about 200 m. between Egypt Aldborough, Orford, and Sudbury. The coast and the peninsula of Sinai, with a breadth line extends about 50 m., and a great part of it varying from 30 to 40 m. The Israelites are is low and marshy. The county is watered by supposed to have crossed about 2 m. from the numerous streams, the chief of which are the head of this gulf on their exodus from Egypt. Stour, Orwell, Lark, and Waveney; and there III. A town of Egypt, situated near the head are several small lakes. The surface is unof the gulf, 77 m. E. from Cairo; pop. about dulating, with some flat and marshy tracts, 2,000. It stands in a desert, and is protected and the soil is generally a rich alluvial loam. on the 3 sides by a wall mounting a few guns. The manufactures, with the exception of agriThe streets are unpaved, and the houses gener- cultural implements, are trifling. Fishing is