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actively carried on upon the coast. There are the method of making sugar, and the manufacmany remains of antiquity, including the Ro- ture was soon permanently established in the man castle of Burgh, the walls of which are countries of the Levant.

From these sugar still standing. Suffolk returns 9 members to was carried to Venice as early as 996; and in parliament, 4 for the county and 5 for the the 12th century it was imported there more boroughs.

cheaply from Egypt than from Sicily. William, SUFISM. See SOOFEEISM.

king of Sicily, in 1166 gave a mill for grinding SUGAR (Arab. and Per. sukkar; Lat. sac- sugar canes to the monastery of St. Benedict. charum), a sweet substance obtained from the The first sugar cane cultivated in Spain was in juices of many plants, and in some of its vari- Valencia, introduced there by the Moors after eties from animal fluids also. It constitutes an their conquest of the country; the culture important article of food in very general use thence spread to Granada and Murcia. In the throughout the world, and is the chief source early part of the 15th century the plant was inof nutriment in fruits, appearing in them as troduced into Madeira and the Canary islands, they ripen. Important as sugar is now re- and from the latter it is supposed that the first garded by the great proportion of the human plants were taken to Brazil; but it is not at all race, it does not appear to have been generally improbable that the sugar cane was a natural known to the nations of antiquity, except to product of America; and it may be that it the inhabitants of China and India. The sweet only for the process of making sugar from it that calamus and sweet cane, of which mention is the new world is indebted to the Portuguese occasionally made in the Old Testament, were and Spaniards. The first cultivation of the sugar most probably the sugar cane, which may have cane in the West Indies was at the island of St. been introduced from eastern Asia. But it Domingo or Hayti, where it was successfully must have slowly come into use; for the an- prosecuted at the time of the second expedition cient classical authors, Strabo, Theophrastus, of Columbus, 1493 to 1495; and in 1518 there Arrian, and others, who allude to it, speak of were 28 works for making sugar in operation. it as a kind of honey obtained from a reed The soil and climate proved admirably well growing in India and Arabia; while Dioscori- suited for the crop; and for a long time this des and Pliny describe it as resembling salt, island furnished the chief portions of the Euroand only used in medicine. This substance, pean supplies of sugar. Previous to the revotermed cakkapov, is, however, in Smith's “Dic- Iution, near the close of the last century,

the tionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities" (art. export of sugar had amounted to 69,000 tons a “Saccharum”), described as “a natural con- year. The English began to export sugar from cretion, forming on certain reeds, but more Barbados in 1646, and the trade soon gave emespecially on the bamboo cane;" and it is add- ployment to a large number of ships. The ed: “It would appear that Moses Chorenen- Portuguese also at the same period were sendsis, in the 5th century, is the first author who ing large quantities of sugar to European coundistinctly mentions our sugar, that is to say, tries from Brazil ; and toward the close of the the sugar procured by boiling from the sugar 17th century the culture had been generally

This does not conflict with the older established throughout the West India islands, allusions to sugar cane and its sweet juice, in Mexico, all of Central America, the northern which it is evident was long previously eaten countries of South America, Peru, Chili, &c. with avidity, as the Zooloo Caffres at the pres- Mention is made of the sugar cane among the ent time eat the Chinese sugar cane. (See. indigenous productions of Virginia and North SORGHUM.) Yet Eratosthenes speaks of roots in Carolina by the earliest settlers of the banks of India sweet to the taste even when boiled, in the James and Neuse rivers; but it seems probsuch manner that many have supposed he re- able they must have mistaken for it the comferred to sugar extracted from the cane. Others mon reed. The plant appears to have been again agree with Dr. Moseley, who thinks the cultivated on the banks of the Mississippi for remarks of Pliny and Dioscorides applicable to the first time about the year 1751, when some the sugar candy which the Chinese are known Jesuits brought it from St. Domingo, and setto have made from ancient times, and which tled just above the site of New Orleans. In may very likely have found its way in small 1758 the first sugar mill was built a little further quantities even to Rome. Sugar canes were down the river by M. Dubreuil on his sugar found in abundance near Tripoli in Syria by plantation. The culture according to some acthe crusaders; and Albert Aquensis, a monkish counts prospered, so that in 1770 sugar was one author of that period, speaks of the plant being of the staple products of the colony, and after cultivated with great care, and when ripe of the the revolutionary war it was prosecuted so sucjuice being beaten out in mortars, strained, and cessfully by emigrants from the United States, set aside till it concreted in a snowy or salt-like that there were in 1803 as many as 81 sugar product. This was eaten with bread or with estates on the delta alone. But according to water, and was found more agreeable than the statement of E. J. Forstall in De Bow's honey. The Saracens introduced sugar canes “Industrial Resources," vol. iii. p. 275, “the into Rhodes, Cyprus, Crete, and Sicily, when manufacture of cane into sugar does not appear they obtained possession of those islands in the to have commenced before 1764, when samples 9th century. They also were acquainted with were sent to the mother country from the es

cane."

tate of Chevalier de Mazan, near the city (New damaged by the Mississippi river bursting Orleans) on the opposite bank. The cession through crevices in the banks and flooding the of Louisiana to Spain at that epoch appears to low country.--The sugar cane is said to be a have put a stop to that industry, for no further natural product of some of the islands of the traces of sugar making are to be found until Pacific; and it certainly flourishes with great 1791, when the first sugar house under the luxuriance in many of the tropical countries Spanish government was erected by a Mr. Solis and islands of Asia. But though the chief, it at Terre aux Bæufs in the parish of St. Bernard. is not the only source of the cane or crystallized The next was established in 1796 on a planta- variety of sugar either in the old or new world. tion where now stands Carrollton.” The suc- This is also obtained from the beet root and the cessful result of this operation laid the founda- juice of the sugar maple tree, and of several tion of the sugar industry of Louisiana; which trees of the palm tribe. Sugar was discovered still, however, advanced very slowly, and at in the parsnip, the white and red beet, carrot, the time of the cession of Louisiana to the and juice of the birch in 1747, by M. Margraaf, United States (1803) the number of sugar estates of the royal academy of sciences in Berlin; and was very small. In 1818 the crop amounted in 1796 M. Achard analyzed the beet root in to 25,000 hogsheads, and the cane was ground Berlin, and obtained from it 5 per cent. of altogether by cattle. Steam power was intro- white sugar and 3 of molasses. The high price duced in 1822. The further progress of the of cane sugar rendered the discovery of some culture is presented in the tabular statements new source of it a matter of great importance, at the close of this article. The sugar-growing and a factory was established at Cumoom in district in this state is on both sides the Miss Silesia for extracting it from the beet root. sissippi river, from 57 m. below New Orleans When in the time of Napoleon I. colonial prodto nearly 190 m. above; on Red river, includ- ucts were excluded from France, this manuing Rapides and Avoyelles; on many of the facture assumed still greater importance; and bayous and their tributaries; the prairies of a great impulse was given to it by the offer of St. Martin, Vermilion, &c. In Texas the crop a premium of 1,000,000 francs for the best has lately become an important one; and it is method of producing sugar from native prodincreasing in all the gulf states. It is even cul- uets. The highest chemical talent of France tivated to some extent, as will be seen in the was directed to this object, and the resulting tables referred to, in South Carolina, Tennessee, discoveries and improvements were afterward and Kentucky. Yet the climate of Louisiana applied with great advantage to the treatment itself is rather north of that best suited to the of the sugar cane.

The readmission of West plant, the cane being frequently killed by the India sugars on the return of peace nearly frost after starting in the spring, and at matu- broke up the beet root manufacture, and this rity in the latter part of October and in Novem- was only kept alive by the imposition of high ber, the.effect of which is to materially dimin- duties on foreign sugars in 1820 and 1822. ish its production of sugar. In 1857 injurious From that time the product rapidly increased, frosts tħus occurred in April as late as the 22d, amounting in 1838 to over 86,000,000 lbs., or and on the 19th and 20th of November. In No- about 42,000 tons, in 1857-'8 to 150,000 tons, vember, 1859, the cold was very severe on the and in 1858–’9 to 130,000 tons. In Germany, Bel12th, 13th, 14th, and 15th in all parts of Loui- gium, and Russia, beet sugar is also produced to siana, the thermometer on the 14th standing at à considerable amount. In 1858–9, 36,668,557 25° F. at New Orleans, and thick ice being cwt. of roots were consumed in 250 sugar reformed in the most southern parishes. The fineries in the Zollverein. As 12 cwt. of roots effect of this was that the cane was everywhere are considered equal to 1 cwt. of sugar, this frozen, and land which had previously given should represent 146,674 tons of sugar. In the above 2 hogsheads to the acre yielded barely Austrian empire there were consumed 16,042,half a hogshead, and this of inferior quality. 248 cwt. of beet roots. In Belgium the same The climate is also subject to long continued year the product of beet sugar was 18,000 tons. droughts which seriously injure the growing The manufacture in these countries is encourcrops. From some other cause not well under- aged by a protective duty. Russia is said to stood the product of sugar to the acre is not produce from 30,000 to 40,000 tons of beet so great as it has been in past years. This sugar annually. The annual product of maple may be owing to continued repetition of the sugar in the United States has been estimated same crop without adding manures to the land, at about 27,000 tons. The manufacture is caror to the practice of reserving inferior canes ried on in Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, for seed, while some have supposed it is Michigan, the New England states, and also in caused by deterioration of the stock through the British provinces. A much larger quantity continued use of cuttings from the same source. of sugar is obtained from the wild date and the To remedy the trouble, in case of this being the gomuti palms than from the maple, the product cause of the deterioration, the United States being rated as at of all the cane sugar manugovernment recently collected a new supply of factured. In India the process of extracting canes from the northern parts of South Ameri- the sugar is very rude, causing much of it to asca and distributed them among the planters. sume the uncrystallizable condition. The crude, The sugar plantations are also often seriously dark brown, deliquescent sugar, called in India

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jaggery, is the product of the evaporation of in the milk of animals, and is inferior to the the toddy or palm juice. Beside these sources, last described in sweetness. These substances cane sugar may also be obtained from the all consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, pumpkin, the chestnut, the young shoots of the the two latter elements always existing in the Indian corn, and a large number of tropical exact proportions required to produce water; fruits. The character of the Chinese sugar for which reason, although these elements are cane as a sugar-producing plant has been con- not regarded as so combined, the compounds sidered in the article SORGHUM; and the evi- are sometimes spoken of as hydrates of carbon. dence at hand to the end of the year 1861 was While the highest grade of sugar, the cane unfavorable to the prospect of its yielding in variety, is readily converted into the inferior this country crystallizable sugar to profit. But grape sugar, all attempts to reverse the process, reports from Ohio published in Jan. 1862, which would be a discovery of immense value, give more favorable accounts of the success of have entirely failed. The comparative compothe trials of the preceding year, and make sition of the sugars as respects the proportion mention of the exhibition of a number of fine of water they contain is presented in the folsamples of the sugar at a convention in Colum- lowing table, which is based upon quantities of bus, Ohio, on Jan. 7; and we learn that in the each containing 12 equivalents of carbon : north-western states it is already a common article of commerce.—The sugars may be included in 4 principal varieties, of which that termed Cane sugar, C12 Hu Qu.. cane sugar, also called sucrose, is the most im

Fruit sugar, Cin H12 012..

Grape sugar, C12 H,2 012, 2HO portant, and is the common commercial variety. Milk sugar, C24 H24 0 The second, called fruit sugar or fructose, exists Ditto, dried, C94 H18 in honey, treacle, and most acidulous fruits. It -Cane sugar, as first obtained on evaporating is a sirupy liquid, not crystallizable, though by the saccharine juices, is a yellowish brown boiling with dilute acids it may be partially substance in coarse crystalline powder and converted into the next variety, which is crys- lumps, more or less moist and sticky, and contallizable. The third sort is called grape sugar, taining variable quantities of glucose, treacle, starch sugar, or glucose. It exists in the juice and several organic and mineral substances. of many plants, and constitutes the crystals Lime is one of the latter, and it is thought that which form in honey, and also the hard, gran- its presence induces the change in crude sugars, ular, sweet masses common in old dried fruits, which after a time become gummy and soft as raisins, figs, &c. It is also produced by and lose a portion of their sweetness. The boiling, with dilute acids, starch, cane sugar, foreign organic matters present impart to the ligneous fibre (as linen rags), sugar of milk, crude sugars their peculiar taste and smell, &c.; and is occasionally met with as a morbid and betray their particular source. These disconstituent of the urine in cases of diabetes. appear when the sugar is refined. The best It crystallizes in cubes or square tables, and brown sugar has little odor and is in large from hot alcohol in anhydrous prisms. Its sparkling grains. When refined, the sugar is sweetening effect compared with that of cane converted into a hard and brittle crystalline sugar is about as 1 to 21. Glucose is manu- mass, and is often moulded into conical loaves. factured to a considerable extent at the starch Its specific gravity is then 1.606, giving 1,606 factories in Europe from potato starch, or ounces avoirdupois to the cubic foot. In the rather dextrine, and is made use of in the man- large crystals, known as sugar candy, obtained ufacture of beer and an inferior sort of alcohol, by evaporating a saturated aqueous solution, designed for conversion into French brandy by prepared at a temperature of 212°, the sugar is the addition of certain essential oils or flavor- colorless; but in the crystalline grains it is of ings. It is produced by the action of diastase snowy whiteness owing to the numerous reflecupon the dextrine in the preliminary stages of tions and refractions from the crystalline faces. malting and mashing, but is more expeditiously The form of the large crystals is that of rhommade by treating the starch with sulphuric boidal prisms terminated by dihedral summits. acid. It differs from starch (C12H10010) only If the solution be prepared at 230°, or be long by containing in addition the elements of 2 boiled, the sugar forms an amorphous mass on more equivalents of water, and also 2 equiva- cooling. Pieces of loaf sugar rubbed together lents of water of crystallization, with which it emit a pale violet phosphorescent light. Sugar parts when carefully dried, becoming then is soluble in about } of its weight of cold water, C12H,2012. Melting in its water of crystalliza- and in all proportions in boiling water. It is tion at 212° F., this sometimes serves to detect sparingly dissolved in boiling absolute alcohol, its presence in cane sugar. It differs from this but deposited again when cold. At the temperaalso in being much less soluble in water, and ture of 320° it fuses, and on cooling forms the in forming definite compounds with alkaline amber-colored solid known as barley sugar. and earthy bases, which decompose and become When the temperature is gradually raised brown at temperatures from 160° to 212°. 400° or 420°, sugar loses two equivalents of Other points of difference will be noticed be- water, and is converted into th dark brown low. The fourth variety, called milk sugar, substance called caramel, used for coloring sugar of milk, lactine, or lactose, occurs only wines. At a still higher temperature decom

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position ensues, and a residue is left of very action, and sugar has the same also in less deporous shining charcoal, about 1 the weight of gree; but their more important medicinal propthe original substance. Under the influence erty is that of a demulcent, for which they are of yeast vinous fermentation takes place in solu- much used in catarrhal affections. In pharmacy tions of sugar, by which this is first converted sugar is employed for a variety of purposes, esinto fruit sugar, and then into carbonic acid pecially as a medium for administering many acand alcohol. Cane sugar is rapidly decom- tive medicines and disguising their disagreeable posed and charred by concentrated sulphuric taste, or preserving them from change. It forms acid. These properties serve to distinguish the bulk of most of the sirups and confections, cane sugar from the other varieties. The solu- and of all the troches or lozenges. Molasses tions of the different sugars also present char- is useful in the preparation of many pills, keepacteristic effects on polarized light, thus fur- ing them soft and moist, while at the same nishing a very certain means of distinguishing time preventing mouldiness or other change. the varieties. The method of thus testing Sugars are rarely adulterated to any injurious them by the aid of an instrument invented by extent, and there are few substances that could M. Soleil is described in the Annales de chimie, be added to the white sugars and not be readi[iii.] xxvi. 175. The plane of polarization is ly detected by their insolubility in water, their rotated from left to right by cane sugar, rather leaving an ash when consumed, or their immore powerfully than by grape sugar, while parting a peculiar taste to the mixture. Starch fruit or uncrystallizable sugar produces a rota- and starch sugar have been used for this purtion from right to left. A fresh solution of pose. The brown sugars met with in the Longrape sugar possesses a rotary power double don market are so impure, in consequence that which it retains after some hours, or after chiefly of the defective methods employed in it has been heated to 180° or more and allowed their manufacturė, that they have been proto cool. Its rotary power is not then affected nounced by Dr. Hassall in general unfit for huif the solution is heated with an acid; but that man consumption. The exceptions are some of cane sugar is reversed when its solution is large-grained, clear, dry, crystalline sugars, heated with is its bulk of pure hydrochloric evidently made from juice purified by filtraacid, and the temperature is raised for 10 min- tion before boiling. The brown sugars almost utes to 154° F.-In the preparation of sugar, universally contain minute fragments of cane, a thick, dark brown or black, ropy liquid is sporules and filaments of fungus, grape sugar, drained off from the crystalline portion, which molasses, and great numbers of the sugar consists of the uncrystallizable sirup together mite (acarus sacchari), a disgusting insect with some cane sugar, and the impurities that large enough to be seen by the naked eye. may be present. It is called molasses, and is When a quantity of sugar containing them is very extensively consumed as an article of diet, dissolved in a wine glass of tepid water, and and also in connection with the skimmings of left at rest an hour or so, the animalcules are the sugar kettles for the production of rum. seen on the sides of the glass, upon the surface (See Molasses, and Rum.) A better article, of the mixture, and in the sediment at the botcalled sugar house molasses, and sometimes trea- tom. In England it is the custom with the cle, of specific gravity about 1.4, is obtained in grocers to “handle” the sugars, which means the process of refining brown sugars. The ar- mixing sugars of different qualities, and thus ticle called melado lately introduced in com- disguising the worst sorts. The purest largemerce is a low grade of sugar heavy with mo- grained brown sugars are scarcely sold at relasses, obtained from the settlings of the cisterns tail, and their introduction is discouraged by in which the molasses is collected, and from the grocers, because, as stated by Dr. Scoffern, partial boiling down in vacuum pans without they are incorporated with difficulty among the refining.–Sugar is employed in a great variety inferior sugars, and betray to the eye the mixof ways as a nutriment and condiment; but ing practice.--- Manufacture. This may be rethough nutritious and promoting the formation garded as commencing with the cultivation of of fat and lactic acid, providing material for the the cane. This plant (arundo saccharifera) maintenance of respiration, and promoting by its belongs to the natural order of graminece or oxidation heat in the system, it cannot through grasses. It grows in a succession of joints, or its deficiency of nitrogen alone support life. It is rather nodes, from 4 to 20 feet high, and the the basis of the various preparations known as stem is 1 to 2 inches in diameter. Long slen, confectionery; and it is a valuable material for der leaves shoot forth from the opposite sides preserving fruits, meat, and fish, and is largely of alternate joints, and fall off when the plant used especially for the saccharine confections comes to maturity. From the top there apknown as preserves and sweetmeats, and in pears, when the plant is 11 or 12 months old, curing hams.' (See PRESERVATION OF Food.) a sprout called the arrow, which grows to the It is a prevailing opinion that sugar is injurious length of 7 or 8 feet without joints, terminating to the teeth; but it is found to have no action in an ample panicle about 2 feet long with nu: upon them out of the body, and if it affects merous white flowers. Seeds are rarely pro: them in the system it is probably by its first duced by the cultivated canes, and it is stated disordering the digestive organs, when taken in that the plant is nowhere raised from these, excessive quantities. Molasses has an aperient but always from the cuttings of the stalks. The stem is smooth and straight, the joints 3 to 6 siana for seed. The yield of sugar in the southinches apart, and the outer coating hard and ern states is from 500 to 2,000 Ibs. to the acro; silicious, and when ripe of various shades of in the West Indies 3,000 to 5,000 lbs.; and in yellowish, violet, greenish, and red. Between the East Indies the highest product is about the joints the cane is filled with a whitish 7,000 lbs. In Mauritius the product is said to spongy tissue, which under the magnifying have been increased from 2,000 or 2,500 lbs. glass is seen to consist of numberless cells con- to the acre to 6,000 and 7,000 lbs., and in some taining the saccharine juice. The principal va- cases even more than this. At maturity the rieties of the cane are the creole, also known canes are cut off close to the ground, and are as the crystalline, and Malabar ; the Otaheite, stripped of the tops and leaves, which, under and the ribbon or Batavian. The first, which the name of trash, are left upon the ground, to was formerly cultivated in Louisiana as the protect, in this country, the roots from frost most valuable variety, has there run out, and during the winter. The practice is to consumo has given place to hardy varieties of the ribbon this sooner or later by fire, though some of the cane from Java, which have also greatly de- southern planters strongly recommend its beteriorated, as affirmed, through an injudicious ing ploughed under in the spaces between the system of culture. The creole and Otaheite rows. The canes contain most sugar in the are cultivated in the West Indies and in South lower third of their length; the juice in the America. The latter variety is highly esteem- tops is watery and not worth saving. Cattle, ed, and in Jamaica it is said to grow the first horses, and mules are fond of all parts of the year 12 to 14 feet high, with stems.6 inches in plant, and the tops and leaves when fresh make circumference, and joints 6 inches apart. In for them good fodder. As soon as the canes the East Indies a number of other varieties of are cut they should be taken to the mill and cane are cultivated, among the most productive ground, as they are liable to soon ferment in of which is the Salangore cane, grown in the the warm climate, and thus lose a portion of straits of Singapore, which have produced at their sugar. They are found to contain when the rate of 7,200 lbs. of undrained sugar to analyzed from 66 to 78 per cent. of water, 12 the acre, equal to 5,800 lbs. of dry sugar for to 21 per cent. of sugar with a very small shipping. The method of planting varies in quantity of other soluble substances, and 9 to different countries; but in general the practice 17 per cent. of ligneous fibre. But owing to is, after breaking up the land, to run straight the imperfections of the manufacture, it is supparallel furrows through the plantation at dis- posed that not of the sugar in the cane is tances 4 to 6 feet apart in the West Indies, or saved, the product not really exceeding that 8 feet in Louisiana, in which furrows slips of obtained by the French manufacturers from the cane, each having several joints, are placed, the beet root, which contains an average of 2 to 5 feet apart, and lightly covered. In Lou- only about 11 per cent. of sugar. The mills isiana' some planters lay 2 to 4 canes in each employed for crushing the canes are of a great furrow, lapping the same the whole length. variety, and those in use from ancient times in The spaces between the rows are kept well the East Indies are exceedingly rude, and slow ploughed or hoed. In the West Indies the best and inefficient in their action, worked by oxen. season for planting is from August to Novem- Mills not much better are still employed by ber; the cutting may be in March and April, but small planters in the West Indies; but poweris often performed at any convenient time dur- ful machines driven by steam are in operation ing the year. In the southern states, where upon the more important sugar estates, the the ground is liable to be frozen, the plants are crushing apparatus consisting of 3 heavy cast usually put in between January and March, and iron rollers, between which the canes are the crop is gathered in October. The slips for passed. They revolve horizontally, one called seed are then selected, and, though it would be the top roller over the two others, one of which true economy to reserve the best canes for this is the fluted feed roller and the other the depurpose, the planters are generally unwilling to livering roller. The canes are spread upon a do it, and hence one cause of the deterioration cast iron feed plate sloping down to the upper alluded to above. Were the planting done every edge of the feed roller, and are drawn into the year, this would be a much more serious con- space, usually of about 1 an inch, between this sideration than it is at present, the canes grown and the top roller, and are discharged through ing upon an acre being not more than enough the space of about į of an inch between the to plant 4 or 5 acres; but after the removal of top roller and the delivering roller. Very effithe canes new shoots spring up from the stub- cient machines are also in use with 2 rollers ble, and these, known as ratoons, though not above and 2 below. After passing once through, as large and vigorous as the "plant canes,” the crushed canes, now called bagasse, or in afford better juice, which is more readily con- English works megass, are returned to the feed verted into sugar. In Louisiana a succession plate either by hand or by the mechanical conof only 3 crops can be depended on from one trivance called the dumb returner, and are planting; while in the West Indies the ratoons again compressed. About of the whole juice continue to renew themselves sometimes for is thus extracted, and runs down into the more than 20 crops. About it, of the product troughs or receptacles placed beneath to coltherefore, it is seen, must be reserved in Loui- lect it. The remainder is obstinately held by

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