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Treves was invaded by the French army, compel one of his soldiers or officers to under. Spurzheim with the other students fled to take it. He may urge him to it by pecuniary Vienna, where be became acquainted with Dr. or other motives, but if he still refuses he may Gall, and soon after was employed as his assist- not compel him. The spy, in his assumed ant, making dissections for him. From 1805 to character, is justified in obtaining what infor1808 Spurzheim and Gall visited the principal mation he can concerning the condition and cities of Europe, lecturing and demonstrating purposes of the enemy, but it is wrong for him their views by dissections of the brain. In to resort to assassination or poisoning. “He 1808 they presented a joint memoir to the may weaken the enemy," says Vattel, “by all French institute on the anatomy of the brain, possible means which do not affect the common explaining their discoveries; and the commit- safety of human society.” Writers on internatee to whom it was referred reported on the tional law also hold that a commander is justiwhole favorably. The two phrenologists then fiable in tempting or soliciting, by bribes or commenced the preparation of their great work otherwise, an enemy's subjects to betray him, on the “ Anatomy and Physiology of the Ner- or act as spies, though they admit that such a vous System in general, and of the Brain in course is hardly compatible with strict rectiparticular," of which Spurzheim contributed tude. They insist, however, that it is perfectly to the first two volumes. In 1813 they sepa- right to accept the offers of a traitor. The rated, and thenceforward prosecuted their labors commander does not seduce him, and it is right independently of each other. Spurzheim, after that he should take advantage of his crime, taking his medical degree at Vienna, went to though he may detest him for committing it.England, and delivered his first course of lec- In the history of the border wars in the westtures in London, and about the same time ern states and territories of North America, published “Physiognomy in connection with this word is frequently used to denote a species Phrenology," and “Observations on Insanity." of scouts or rangers, usually backwoodsmen or These works were violently attacked by Dr. hunters, who marched in the advance or on the John Gordon in the “ Edinburgh Review," and flanks of an army, to act as guides, and to watch, Dr. Spurzheim at once visited Edinburgh, and as the name implies, the motions of the enemy in the presence of more than 500 medical stu- -especially to seek and detect the ambuscades dents, the pupils of Dr. Gordon, demonstrated of the Indians. They were not spies in the the fibrous character of the brain, which the odious military sense of that term. The serlatter had denied. He went to Paris in 1817, vice was honorable, and was equivalent to that and lectured for several years, publishing also of light troops in regular armies. This use of works on phrenology, insanity, and education. the word is peculiar to American history. His lectures being prohibited in 1825, he went SQUADRON, in military science, a body of again to England, in 1831 returned to Paris, cavalry comprising 2 companies or troops, and and in the summer of 1832 visited the United averaging from 150 to 200 men. A detachStates. Having delivered several lectures in ment of ships of war employed on a particular Boston, he was seized with a fatal fever from expedition is also called a squadron. over exertion about 2 months after his arrival. SQUARE (Lat. quadratum), in geometry, a Dr. Spurzheim's principal works, beside those figure formed of 4 equal sides meeting each already mentioned, are : Anatomy of the other at right angles. The term appears to Brain" (8vo., London and Boston, 1831–2); have been originally applied to the corners of

Phrenology, or Doctrine of the Mind” (8vo., figures alone, and in the oldest English work London and New York); “Sketch of the Nat- on geometry (Recorde's "Ground of Arts”), ural Laws of Man" (London and Boston). the word quadrate (four-sided) is added to it

SPY, as defined by Bouvier, “one who goes when it is used to designate à square figure. into a place for the purpose of ascertaining the It is common, even at the present time, to find best way of doing an injury there. The term it used in a similar sense, as when applied to is mostly applied to an enemy who comes into the tool called the carpenter's T square, a rule the camp for the purpose of ascertaining its of two limbs united at a right angle, and used situation in order to make an attack upon it." for drawing right angles. The word is applied The punishment inflicted on a detected spy is also to angles, though not to right angles, in death. In all time it has been an acknowl- calling a triangular file 3-square.--Square measedged right of nations at war with each other ure presents the superficial areas of surfaces in to avail themselves of the service of spies or square units, as inches, feet, miles, &c.—In secret emissaries in carrying on their hostile arithmetic, the square is a number consisting operations. Before entering Canaan the He- of another number multiplied by itself; and brew lawgiver twice sent spies to examine the this use of the word evidently has reference to land and the condition of the people. Grotius the geometrical figure, the area of which is and Vattel lay down numerous principles in equal to the number of units forming one of its regard to their employment. It is admitted by sides multiplied by itself. The number thus all writers on international law that there is multiplied is called the square root, and the something revolting to the mind of an honor. method of discovering it in algebraic and arithable man in performing the service of a spy, metical formulas is known as the extraction of and therefore a commander has not a right to the square root.




fin; they devour numbers of small fish and SQUASH BUG, a well known hemipterous crustaceans, and in turn are eaten by larger insect, the coreus tristis (De Geer). It is about fishes, and used as bait by cod fishers. De

of an inch long, with a triangular head; the scriptions and figures of this and other Amerigeneral color is ochre yellow, rendered dusky can species may be found in the “Journal of above by numerous black dots; the sharp edges the Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia" (vol. of the abdomen project beyond the closed wing ii. p. 86, 1821). In the old world, squids are covers; on the back of the head, behind the found from Norway to New Zealand; the L. eyes, are 2 glassy raised eyelets. They appear vulgaris (Lam.), common about the shores of by the last of June or beginning of July, when Great Britain, and used in Cornwall as a bait the squash vines have put out a few leaves, for cod, attains a length of 1 to 11 feet. The pair, and soon begin to lay their eggs; they flying squids (ommastrephes, D'Orb.), and the conceal themselves by day, and in the evening hook squid (onychoteuthis and enoploteuthis, fasten their eggs in little patches on the under D’Orb.), have been alluded to under MOLLUSCA. side of the leaves by a gummy substance; SQUIER, EPHRAIM GEORGE, an American the eggs are soon hatched, and the young, pale author and archæologist, born in Bethlehem, ashy and with large antennæ, at first live to- Albany co., N. Y., June 17, 1821. Having for gether in swarms; they resemble the adults some time taught school and studied engineerexcept in the absence or rudimentary condition ing, he went to Albany in 1840 and became of the wings and their covers. They are hatch- connected with the press, and in 1841–2 was ed in successive broods during summer, pass assistant editor of the “New York State Methrough their last change, and attain their full chanic," a politico-scientific journal, and identisize in September and October, when they fied with the movements of the mechanics for leave the plants and conceal themselves in crev- a reform in the system of state prison labor. ices, passing the winter and spring in a torpid In 1843_he became editor of the “Hartford state. The loss of sap from the punctures of (Conn.) Daily Journal,” supporting the election these insects causes the leaves to become of Henry Clay to the presidency, and in 1844 rebrown, dry, and wrinkled, when they are de- moved to Chillicothe, Ohio, to assume the ediserted for fresh ones. When irritated, and torship of the “Scioto Gazette." While filling particularly when crushed, they give out a this position and serving one term as clerk of strong, nauseous odor. It is best to destroy the lower branch of the Ohio legislature, he them when few in number and before they have made an extensive survey, in conjunction with laid their eggs, or to crush the latter before the E. H. Davis, M.D., of the ancient monuments vines have begun to spread. Whatever pro- of the Mississippi valley, and prepared a work motes the vigorous growth of the plants ren- on the subject which was published in 1848 as ders them less liable to suffer from these bugs. the first volume (4to.) of the “Smithsonian The C. marginatus (Fabr.) of Europe is of an Contributions to Knowledge." In the autumn obscure brown, of similar babits, and emits a of 1848 he made an exploration of the aborigistrong odor of apples.

nal monuments of the state of New York, SQUID, a cephalopodous mollusk, of the which was published by the Smithsonian instidibranchiate order, tribe decapoda, family teu- tution in 1849, and also at Buffalo, N. Y., in thidæ, and genus loligo (Lam.). The body is 1852 (8vo.). In March, 1849, he was appointed elongated, tapering behind, with a pair of ter- by President Taylor chargé d'affaires to Guateminal fins; branchiæ 2; arms 8, with 2 rows mala, with extraordinary powers to the other of pedunculated suckers, and 2 tentacles; the Central American states. His despatches, subinternal shell, or gladius, is reduced to a horny sequently published by order of congress in quill-shaped plate, with 2 lateral expansions; 2 volumes, related not only to political matters, the ink bag is well developed, and its secretion but to the geography, topography, climate, and jet black. They are good swimmers, all ma- resources of the country, and particularly to rine, and never leave the water; they can creep the projected interoceanic canal. On the death head down on the cephalic disk; the ova are of Gen. Taylor he returned to New York, and enclosed in long, gelatinous, cylindrical sheaths, in 1851 visited Europe, residing there a year, called sea grapes, and may be nearly 40,000 in receiving the medal of the geographical society number; the sight is good, and the movements of France, and being made a member of the rapid; they are used as food by man, as on the royal society of literature, fellow of the sociecoasts of Greece. They are sometimes called ties of antiquaries of England, France, and calamaries, from the internal pen-like bone and Denmark, &c. Returning to the United States ink bag, and the general cylindrical form like in 1853, he conceived the plan of an interan ancient escritoire. The common squid of oceanic railway through the republic of Honthe New England coast, the L. illecebrosa (Le- duras, made with a corps of engineers a presueur), is from 6 to 12 inches long; the colors liminary survey of the route, negotiated the vary rapidly, with the will of the animal, from requisite concessions from the government of yellowish white to bluish, violet, brown, red, Honduras, and organized at New York a comand orange, in spots or general tint. They swim pany for carrying forward the work. He subserapidly backward by dilating and contracting quently visited Europe, where he secured the the sac-like body, and forward by the terminal coöperation of many English and French capi

VOL. XV.-2


talists, and special guaranties for the road from effects are expectorant, diuretic, and, in large the English and French governments. As an doses, emetic and purgative. It is used in incident in these negotiations, he drew up the combination with tartar emetic or ipecacuanha treaty between Great Britain and Honduras to stimulate the vessels of the lungs; and in for the retrocession of the Bay islands, the dropsical diseases it is much employed, to inprinciples of which, adopted by the former, crease the secretory action of the kidneys. opened the way for the adjustment of all her SQUILL (squilla, Fabr.), a genus of crustadisputes with the Central American states. ceans of the division stomapoda, so called from The final survey of the proposed railway was having the feet placed around the mouth. The also conducted under his direction. Beside body is elongated and generally slender, the those above mentioned, Mr. Squier has pub- head distinct from the thorax, the carapace lished the following works, most of which leaving uncovered 4 of the thoracic rings, and have been translated into German, French, or the abdomen terminating in a wide caudal fin Spanish: "Nicaragua, its People, Scenery, An- of several plates adapted for swimming. The cient Monuments, and proposed Interoceanic antennæ of the 1st segment of the body are Canal” (2 vols. 8vo., New York and London, long, ending in 3 many-jointed filaments, can1852); “The Serpent Symbol, or Worship of not be bent under the head, and are inserted the Reciprocal Principles of Nature in Amer- below the eyes near the median line; the anica” (8vo., New York, 1852); “Notes on Cen- tennæ of the 2d segment are shorter, more extral America,” &c. (1854); “Waikna, or Adven- ternal, having at the base a large ciliated plate, tures on the Mosquito Shore,” under the nom and terminate in a single many-jointed filade plume of Samuel A. Bard (12mo., 1855); ment; the eyes are at the end of movable apQuestion Anglo-Américaine, &c. (8vo., Paris, pendages. The mouth is toward the posterior 1856); “The States of Central America,” &c. 3d of the carapace, and has an upper and un(8vo., New York, 1857); "Report of the Sur- der lip, a pair of mandibles, and 2 pairs of jaw vey of the Honduras Interoceanic Railway” feet arranged around it; the 3d pair of feet are (4to., London, 1859); “Translation, with Notes, prehensile, strong, bent back on themselves, of the Letter of Don Diego de Palacio (1571) to serrated and spined, and used very much like the Crown of Spain on the Provinces of Guate

Guate- the 1st pair of feet in the soothsayer (mantis) ; mala, San Salvador, &c.” (New York, 1860); the next 3 pairs are directed forward, applied

Monograph of Authors who have written on against the buccal apparatus, and inserted close the Aboriginal Languages of Central America” together, with a wide, rounded, ciliated plate (1861); and “Tropical Fibres and their Eco- the end, the last 3 thoracic limbs are slender, nomic Extraction” (1861). He has also con- with styliform process and ciliated, the segtributed numerous articles to this cyclopædia ments to which they are attached resembling and the “Encyclopædia Britannica,” to the those of the abdomen. Most of the rings of “Transactions” of the American ethnological the body are complete, very nearly equal, and society and of numerous scientific societies of movable on each other; the carapace is nearly Europe, and to many American and European quadrilateral, longitudinally divided by 2 more periodicals and public journals.

or less distinct grooves; the 1st 5 abdominal SQUILL, the bulb of plants of the genus rings have large false feet, to the posterior part scilla or squilla, of which the S. maritima, or of the base of which are attached the respirasea onion, furnishes the medicine called squill. tory organs in the shape of floating, ramified, The plant is perennial, and grows on the coast and fringed gills, which are kept constantly in of the Mediterranean. The bulb is pear-shaped, motion. The heart has the form of a long vesfrom 3 to 6 inches in diameter, and consists of sel, a little dilated anteriorly, extending almost fleshy scales, closely laid over each other, and the length of the abdomen and thorax, sending covered by thin, dry, external scales, which off lateral branches to each ring; the venous are sometimes red and sometimes white. The sinuses in which the blood is collected before juice is viscid and very acrid, but its acrimony going to the gills are very large; the stomach partially disappears, without loss of medicinal advances far into the head. There are many pcwer, when the bulb is dried. For this pur- species, all marine, most abundant in the troppose it is cut into thin slices, and exposed to ics, but some coming as far N. as the English artificial or solar heat. It is exported in ob- channel; they are usually met with far from long pieces of a white or dull yellowish white shore and in deep water; they swim rapidly, color, possessing a feeble odor, and bitter, nau- striking the water with their powerful tail ; seous, and acrid taste. Analyzed by Tilloy of they are voracious and carnivorous. The best Dijon, it was found to contain a very acrid and known species is the S. mantis (Fabr.), 6 or 7 poisonous resinoid substance; a very bitter inches long, of a pale yellowish gray color, principle, previously recognized by Vogel and found in the Mediterranean; the carapace is called scillitin; a fatty matter; citrate of lime; widened and elongated posteriorly, with the and mucilage and sugar. About of a grain anterior angles spiny; the prehensile feet have of the first named substance was found suffi- 6 teeth ; the abdomen has 8 longitudinal rows cient to kill a dog.-Squill yields its medicinal of crests above; the caudal plates are spiny. properties to water, alcohol, and vinegar, and SQUINTING (Lat. strabismus), a deformity is also used in substance in the form of pill. Its resulting from a want of parallelism between the visual axes of the eyes. Except in cases in species, and widely spread over the world, where it is caused by paralysis, spasmodic or except in Australia. These well known, achydropical affections, or irritation of the brain, tive, and familiar animals are characterized by it is not a disease, and is accompanied with no a broad head, the frontal bone being dilated pain or lack of visual power. Ophthalmic sur- into a post-orbital process; the muzzle wide, geons notice 3 degrees of squinting: 1, where from the development of the frontal and nathere is but a slight convergence or divergence sal bones ; eyes large and prominent, ears from the normal axis, such as is ordinarily moderate, and whiskers long; the hind feet called a “cast of the eye;" 2, where the inclina- 5-toed, the fore feet 4-toed, with a warttion is strongly marked, but less than half the like thumb, all the fingers and toes with comcornea is thrown under the eyelid or within pressed and curved claws; the fur is generthe orbit, which is the most frequent variety; ally soft, especially in the northern species, 3, where the cornea is nearly or quite thrown and the tail is long, hairy, expanded laterunder the eyelid or within the ordit, common ally in the arboreal genera, and shorter and among those who are born blind, but rare in bushy in the terrestrial, and in both carried the case of those who can see. The surgeons gracefully over the back; the upper lip is cleft, also distinguish it according to the departure the cæcum large, clavicles perfect, enabling from the normal axis; as convergent, where the them to use the fore limbs to convey food to pupil is drawn toward the nose; divergent, the mouth, and the tibia and fibula distinct; where it is drawn toward the outer corner of some have a membrane extended between the the eye; ascendent, where it is drawn upward; fore and hind limbs, as has been noticed under and descendent, where it is drawn downward. FLYING SQUIRREL. The incisors are Ź, smooth in Of these, the convergent form is by far the most front, brown or orange, the lower compressed frequent, and next in order the divergent and and sharp; molars , rooted, tuberculate, ascendent. The descendent is the rarest of all. with projecting transverse striæ enamelled Squinting may also be double or single as one continuously, the anterior upper one the smallor both eyes are affected; it may be congenital, est and sometimes deciduous. The food is i. e., existing from birth, or accidental, occur- chiefly vegetable, though some American spering from accident or improper treatment of cies are known to suck eggs and destroy young the eye; the former is rare. It may be also birds. The family is very abundant in North continuous, or rarely intermittent. The cause America, nearly 5 of all the species being found of ordinary strabismus or squinting is the lack here; the prairie dogs and prairie squirrels are of equal power in the muscles which move the peculiar to this continent, as well as most of eye." (See EYE.)—The treatment prior to 1839 the flying squirrels. (See FLYING SQUIRREL, consisted in attempting by various methods to PRAIRIE DOG, and PRAIRIE SQUIRREL.)—The gestrengthen the weaker muscles, bandaging the nus sciurus (Linn.) is the type of those of the normal eye, and compelling the constant use of family which live in trees; the species of the the other; or by the use of goggles, spectacles, United States are hard to determine from the &c., in which all except the centre was opaque. tendency to variation in color (red, gray, and In 1838 Stromeyer described the operation of black being the predominating tints), and the dividing one of the recti muscles, but without diminution in size in the southern states. having tried it on the living subject. In 1839 Mr. Baird states it as a general rule that, Dieffenbach, an eminent surgeon of Berlin, per- when a squirrel has the fur of the throat or formed it successfully, and was followed by belly annulated, it is a variety of some species many English and French surgeons. The oper- which normally has the under parts uniformly ation has now become very common, though white or reddish to the roots, or the latter the best surgeons admit that there are 3 classes plumbeous. The bones of the red-bellied squirof cases in which it should not be performed, rels are generally red, and of the white-belviz. : those in which the position of the eye is lied white. The largest of the North Amerifixed, those which result from the paralysis of can species is the fox squirrel of the southern the antagonist muscle, and those occurring in states (S. vulpinus, Gmel.), about 27 feet long, infants before dentition. The operation is not of which the tail is 15 inches; the head is difficult nor particularly dangerous, and in rather slender and pointed, and the tail rather about of the cases proves partially or entirely cylindrical; the upper molars are permanently successful. There are two methods of per- 4. The color varies from a gray above and forming it, the ordinary or that of Dieffenbach, white below, through various shades of rusty, where the conjunctiva is divided and the mus- to uniform shining black; the fur is coarse cle to be severed is laid bare, and the subcon- and harsh, and the ears short; the ears and junctival method, where the conjunctiva is only nose are white in all its varieties. It is punctured by the instrument which divides the found from North Carolina through the S. Atmuscle beneath it. The former is generally lantic and gulf states to Brazos river in Texas. preferred. The operation was introduced in The gray variety is the S. capistratus (Bosc), the United States in 1840 by Dr. Detmold. and the black the S. niger (Linn.) and the SQUIRE. See ESQUIRE.

black squirrel of Catesby. It prefers elevated SQUIRREL, the popular name of the rodents and open pine ridges where there are occaof the family sciuridæ, which is very numerous sional oak, hickory, and nut trees; the nest for the winter and breeding seasons is made in a being partially torpid at this season and requirhollow tree, and in summer in the forks be- ing but little food; they are very fond of nuts, tween the branches. The young are born in and of green corn and young wheat, on which March and April, being fed by the parents for last account wars of extermination are often 4 or 5 weeks. The food consists of acorns, waged against them, whole villages turning out nuts, fruit of the pine cones, green corn in the on an appointed day to hunt them, killing great summer, buds and roots in spring, and what numbers. At irregular periods they sometimes ever it can get in the winter, as it does not ap- collect in large troops in the north-west, migratpear to lay up any winter stores, or to resort ing eastward, crossing rivers and mountains, to any hoards previously buried in the ground. and committing great destruction in the fields When alarmed, it makes for a hollow tree; it in their course. Of late years many of this is a swift runner, defends itself boldly, and is species have been domesticated in the public very tenacious of life; it is generally seen to- parks of northern cities; though pets of chilward the middle of the day; it is easily do- dren and loungers, they drive away the birds mesticated, but is less active in the cage than by destroying their eggs and young. The Calithe smaller species; its flesh is frequently eat- fornia gray squirrel (8. fossor, Peale) is as large


The cat squirrel (S. cinereus, Linn.), the as the fox squirrel, but more slender; it is grizfox squirrel of the middle states, is 25 or 26 zled bluish gray and black above and white beinches long, of which the tail is about 14; the low; tail black, white on the exterior and finehead is very broad, the muzzle short and cat- ly grizzled below; back of ears chestnut. It like, the body thick and heavy, and the tail represents on the west coast the gray squirrel large and flattened; the color varies from light of the east. It runs very swiftly on the ground, gray tinged with rusty above and white below not readily taking to trees when pursued ; like to grizzly above and black below; it is never the other squirrels, it has a kind of bark; the pure black; the ears are low and broad, and food consists principally of nuts, which it sticks never white; the hair is less coarse and stiff in holes of pine trees bored by woodpeckers, than in the preceding species. It is found resembling pegs placed in the wood. The red chiefly in the middle states, rarely in southern or Hudson's bay squirrel (S. Hudsonius, Pall.) New England; it is rather a slow climber, and has a stout body 7 or 8 inches long, and the of inactive habits; it becomes very fat in au- tail rather less, narrow and flat; ears moderate, tumn, when its flesh is excellent, bringing in broad, tufted at the tip. The color above and the New York market 3 times the price of that on the sides is a mixed black and grayish rusty, of the common gray squirrel. The species with a broad wash of bright ferruginous down called fox squirrel in the western and south- the back and the upper surface of the tail; dull western states (S. Ludovicianus, Harlan) has a white below; tail rusty on the margin, within very full and broad tail ; it is rusty gray above which is a narrow black band; there is often a and ferruginous below. The common gray black line on the flanks, separating the colors squirrel (S. Carolinensis, Gmel., and S. migra- of the sides and belly; the soles are hairy or torius, Aud. and Bach.) is about 22 inches naked according to the season. It is found long, of which the tail is 12; the upper molars from high northern latitudes to the Mississippi, are permanently 5. The general color is gray and throughout the northern and middle Atlanabove and white below, with a yellowish tic states in elevated regions. It is active, brown wash on the back and sides; the region graceful, fearless of man, cleanly, and industribehind the ears has usually a white woolly ous in laying up a winter supply of food; it tuft; there is a black variety, the S. niger of sometimes makes its nest in outbuildings; it is Godman. The ears are very high, narrow, very lively all winter, eating its supply of nuts, and acute, the tail flattened, feet large, claws and the seeds of pines and firs; in cold climates strong, thumb a rudimentary callosity; the it burrows in the ground at the foot of some palms naked, and soles mostly so in summer; large coniferous tree. It is called chickaree whiskers longer than the head. It is found from its loud chattering note; its flesh is tender extensively over the United States, being much and well flavored; it is less gentle and easily the smallest at the south; this difference tamed than the gray squirrel. The common in size and some modifications of the habits, European squirrel (S. vulgaris, Linn.), much according to climate and locality, have led resembling the last, is about 14 inches long, of authors to make two species, with the names which the tail is about 1; the color is reddish, given above, which Mr. Baird unites in one. chestnut brown on the back, white below, beIt is a very active animal and an excellent coming gray in winter in the north, and yieldclimber, in the south preferring the low cypress ing then the much prized fur called minever; swamps; it is often met with late in the even- the ears are tufted, and the hair on the tail is ing and on moonlight nights, when it falls a directed to the two sides. It is found throughvictim to owls, foxes, wild cats, &c., as well as out Europe and N. Asia; it feeds in summer to hawks and snakes by day; the young are 4 on buds and shoots, especially the young cones to 6, born in May or June. They are easily of the pine, and in winter on a supply of nuts domesticated, and gentle in confinement, and which it gathers in autumn and hides in some are often kept as pets in wheel cages; they do hollow tree. It is an excellent climber, and not lay up any great amount of winter stores, makes a nest of moss, leaves, and fibres very

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