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the colors vary from reddish to yellowish, and them with cold water on a cloth strainer. The the diameter from an inch to more than a foot; fluid passes through milky from the particles it is a very common inhabitant of public and of starch taken along with it, and being left to private aquaria, and very interesting to study. repose, these after a time subside. When pure

STAR OF BETHLEHEM (ornithogalum um- they appear as a white glistening powder; and bellatum, Linn.), a pretty liliaceous plant with when magnified 300 to 400 times, distinct white bulbs, numerous radical smooth green grains are seen of flattened ovate forms, varying leaves striped with a white longitudinal line, in size and exhibiting peculiar marks accordand corymbose racemes of starry white flowers ing to the particular vegetables that furnished consisting of 6 sepals, greenish without and them. Such are the concentric rings or ruge with white margins. The plant is a native of surrounding a minute circular hole or hilum Europe, but, escaping from gardens, has become at one or both ends of the granule. Thus it is naturalized in fields and orchards in the United that the adulteration of wheat flour by potato States by means of its tendency to multiply its starch or flour may be detected. Several phebulbs, which, remarkably tenacious of life, have nomena exhibited by starch have led chemists been conveyed from the compost heap and to the opinion that the microscopic granules barn yard. The foliage is however very tran- are made up of a thin integument, which is insient, perishing in early summer, so that its soluble in cold water and contains the same presence is not very detrimental to grass. substance within, but in a soluble condition. There are many species of the ornithogalum When starch is ground in a mortar it is renwhich bear the same trivial name.

dered partially soluble in cold water, and the STARBOARD, the right hand side of a ves- same effect is produced by roasting it slightly. sel to a person standing in the stern and look- (See DEXTRINE.) But without this preparation ing toward the bow; opposed to larboard. starch may remain in water unchanged until

STARCH (also called amylaceous matter, the temperature is raised to a little more than and fecula), à proximate vegetable principle 140° The granules then absorb water and existing in almost all plants. It has also been swell, and the mixture suddenly assumes a detected in animal tissues, in the brain, and in viscous pasty condition, in which state it is some other organs when these are in a diseased applied by laundresses to stiffening linen. A condition ; but being recently found always cold solution of soda or potash containing two present in dust wherever collected, it is not per cent. or more of alkali will also cause the improbable that the slight quantities observed granules to swell and form a tenacious paste; in these matters may have been derived from but if much water be then added, a small porthis source.

Its composition is represented by tion of the starch only remains in solution, the the formula C12H10 010, and differs from that of rest subsiding. The presence of starch is recgrape sugar only by the latter containing the ognized by the blue color it acquires on the adelements of 4 atoms of water in addition. By dition of free iodine to its solution, the intenartificially producing this combination with sity of the color increasing with the proportion water, starch is wholly converted into this of iodine employed, till with a large excess of sugar. In the animal system its elements read- this it is blackish blue. At a temperature of ily enter into new combinations, and by its de- 200° the solution becomes colorless, and on oxidation it is supposed that the fats and fixed cooling recovers its former shade. Boiling for oils are produced that are found in both the some time destroys the color altogether, the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Its specific starch first forming dextrine and then sugar. action is regarded as promoting animal heat and The presence of sulphuric acid hastens this respiration. That it must play an important change. Starch is insoluble in alcohol and part in the animal as well as in the vegetable ether. In its commercial form it is agglutieconomy, is evident from the fact that it is the nated in columnar masses, which are easily rechief ingredient in most vegetable substances duced to powder. It is without smell or taste, employed for food. In the farinaceous grains, and when pressed in the fingers emits a pecuas rice, barley, and maize, it exists in great pu- liar sound and feels as if elastic. Its specific rity. In wheat it is associated with gluten; in gravity is about 1.5. Its properties as an alibeans, peas, and other leguminous seeds, and ment differ somewhat with the sources that also in oats, with saccharine matter; in pota- furnish it; thus, wheat starch is considered the toes, rye, and Windsor beans, with viscous most nutritious, probably from the presence of mucilage; in the emulsive seeds, that afford some gluten; arrowroot starch is the most dioil by expression, as the nuts, linseed, and co- gestible and the most free from gluten; starch coa, with fixed oil and mucilage. In some from potatoes and rice is regarded as the roots, as those of different species of arum and poorest aliment, neither nutritious nor digestof the manihot utilissima (see CASSAVA), it is ible. There are but few historical notices of accompanied by a poisonous juice, which how- starch. Pliny speaks of it as being made in ever does not interfere with its easy separation the island of Chios, and the best from summer and conversion into simple articles of food, as wheat. Nothing more is known of its history arrowroot, cassava bread, &c. From wheat until the time of Queen Elizabeth, when it was flour, the raspings of potatoes, and similar sub- in use for stiffening the enormous ruffs of that stances, starch is readily obtained by kneading period. It must have been rather an inferior


article, as in the occasional allusions to it that feet, or nearly 6 acres. For grinding the corn have been preserved it is spoken of as of yellow there are 15 pairs of buhrstones, and 6. pairs or greenish color. In the last century the man- of large, heavy iron rollers. The river furufacture attained considerable importance in nishes the power to drive the machinery, and England; and starch was applied to numerous a steam engine of 150 horse power is provided uses in the arts, in medicine, and for purposes to make up any deficiency in very dry seasons. of the toilet. It was employed with smalt and The vats employed in purifying the starch have the stone blue or indigo color to stiffen and a capacity of 2,200,000 gallons, and the length clear linen, as still practised by laundresses; of gutters for conveying and distributing the in printing with colors it was used in strong starch waters is over 3 miles. A similar facgum water to make them work more freely tory, almost or quite equal to this in capacity, and prevent their cracking; and the perfum- commenced operations at Glen Cove, on Long ers employed it in making their hair powders. island, in 1858. This also uses Indian corn, In the reigns of Anne and George I., II., and which is more cheaply transported from the III., the use of any other material as a sub- western states than the starch from it would stitute for starch in any of its applications was be. The product for each bushel is about 23 most strictly prohibited under severe penalties, lbs., and the boxes of the starch, on account of and the manufacture was subject to extraor- their bulk and the extra care they require, make dinary restrictions and taxes, most of which more expensive freight than the raw material. continued in force until 1833.' About the close Potato starch factories are more numerous, but of the century its production was a subject of not so extensive. In the town of Stowe, Vt., no little interest. In 1796 the society of arts there are 5 of them, each one of which conawarded a prize medal to a Mrs. Gibbs of Port- sumes from 16,000 to 20,000 bushels of potaland for her discovery of the arum maculatum toes yearly, and produces about 8 lbs. of starch as a fruitful source of it, and the starch thus to the bushel.-The production in starch of obtained was afterward 'sold as the Portland the several materials employed in the manuarrowroot. The same year Lord William Mur facture is variously given by different authorray discovered a method of extracting it from ities, probably by reason of the influence on horse chestnuts. The great development of the the same plant of difference of soil and climate, cotton manufacture created a new demand for and its condition as regards maturity, and posstarch, and the calico print works consumed it sibly also of the more or less complete separain enormous quantities. In 1859 a single es- tion of the starch from other accompanying tablishment of this kind in Manchester used substances; and some perhaps give results of 6,000 cwt.--Starch is manufactured in different the factories, and others of the laboratories; countries from those vegetable products that and some of the grains, and others of their yield it most cheaply: in England from wheat, flour. Thus in wheat the proportion of starch barley, and rice; on the continent from potatoes is rated from 35 to 77 per cent., or as an averand leguminous seeds; and in France from the age at 60; rice contains from 75 to 87 per horse chestnut also, which has been collected cent.; Indian corn, 64.5 to 80; barley, 60 to of late years for the factory at Nanterre at 68; rye, 60 to 65.5; oats, 37 to 65 ; buckprices equal to those for which potatoes are wheat, 44 to 52; peas and beans, 37 to 66; sometimes sold there. In the United States horse chestnut, 25; potatoes and arrowroot, Indian corn and potatoes are most commonly 20. Wheat is treated by two processes. The used for starch. The application of the former old method is to expose the flour mixed with to this use was patented by James Colman in water and the spent waters of previous opera1841, and was successfully practised by Thomas tions to fermentation for several weeks. The Kingsford of Oswego, N. Y., in 1842. In 1849 gluten undergoes putrefaction, emitting a most he had a large factory at that place, which noisome odor. The sugar and a portion of the is still in successful operation under the direc- starch are converted into alcohol, and a part tion of Messrs. T. Kingsford and son, having of this into lactic and acetic acids, which disup to the end of the year 1860 made nearly solve the gluten that has escaped putrefaction. 30,000 tons of starch. Its annual production Thorough washing and draining remove the for 5 years was as follows: 1856, 6,328,453 soluble matters, and the starch left behind is lbs. ; 1857, 8,018,778 lbs.; 1858, 8,686,516 lbs.; next dried in blocks about 6 inches square; 1859, 6,747,586 lbs.; 1860, 8,500,000 lbs.; far as the water escapes from them, the masses exceeding that of any other starch factory in break up into the columnar fragments peculiar the world for the same time. The total con- to starch. The other method, introduced by sumption of raw material in the 12 years from M. Émile Martin of Vervins, France, consists Jan. 1, 1849, was 2,476,000 bushels of Indian in kneading the flour into dough with water, corn and 164,448 bushels of wheat, beside some and then washing on a sieve of No. 120 wire damaged flour. The boxes for packing the in a stream of water as long as the water passes starch have required 15,000,000. feet of bass through milky. The starch in suspension and wood, supplied chiefly by the farmers in the the sugary portion in solution are caught beneighborhood. The building has a front of low the sieve, and the gluten nearly all re610 feet, and extends back over the Oswego mains behind in a sticky mass. What passes river 250 feet. Its flooring covers 250,600 through is left to ferment 24 hours in an oven

at 68° F., and a little leaven is added, or the quid is drawn off, and the rice after being well skimmings of a former operation, to hasten the washed is drained, and is then ground into process. The portion of gluten carried through flour. A fresh quantity of lye is added to it, with the starch is thus separated and removed and it is again digested for 24 hours, with freby skimming. The starch is then treated like quent stirring. It is now left for 70 hours, in that otherwise obtained. The product by this which time the dissolved gluten rises and is all method is about 50 per cent. of the weight found in a turbid, yellowish stratum at the top. of the flour, while by the other process it is This portion is carefully drawn off, leaving the only from 35 to 40 per cent. Nearly the fibrous portion of the grain at the bottom interwhole of the gluten also is saved in a con- mixed and covered with starch. The deposit is dition suitable for food, either by mixing it then stirred up and washed with abundance of with flour and making of it macaroni and cold water, and the mixture being left to repose, similar pastes, or, as recommended by M. Ro- the fibrous portion is deposited with very little bine, with boiled potatoes, and thus making starch, and the remainder is drawn off by a sia cheap and nutritious bread, by adding to the phon through a finesieve into a cistern. Further potatoes a nutritive element in which they washings of the deposit are added to this, and are deficient. Potato starch is made from the water is finally removed, and the starch is rasped or grated potatoes, by a process similar dried in the usual way. The gluten is recovto that just described. This variety does not ered by neutralizing its solution with the exact assume the columnar form in drying, and is quantity of sulphuric acid required for this, also peculiar in retaining a large amount of when it is set free and falls in flakes to the moisture, generally 20 per cent., or when sat- bottom. These are collected, washed, and urated 23 per cent. It is largely consumed ground into flour, when the substance is prefor a variety of farinaceous preparations sold pared for culinary purposes. This process apby the druggists as delicate food for invalids, plied to wheat results in the saving of all the under numerous high-sounding names. (See gluten for food.—The principal use of starch ADULTERATION.)—The corn used for starch is has already been noticed. It has at present the white flint kind. Received at the factory, a very limited application in medicine; it is it is hoisted to the top of the building, win- used externally as an absorbent of irritating nowed to remove foreign substances, and then secretions; it may also be given as an antidote transferred to vats, where it is long soaked be- to iodine taken in poisonous quantities. Those fore grinding. It is run through troughs with varieties described under ARROWROOT, CASSAVA, water to the mills, and when ground the mixed and Sago, form a mild nutritious diet for the meal and water is conveyed in a similar man- sick. Starch is sometimes adulterated with ner to the tubs in which the separation of the carbonate and sulphate of lime, and is purstarch is effected. The gluten fluid that flows posely charged with water, sometimes to the from these has a musty and disagreeable odor extent of 12 per cent.--The importations of and appearance in the troughs, and the sub- starch into the United States in 1860 amounted stance lacks when concentrated the consistency only to $1,400, the largest quantities coming of wheat gluten, not “rising” like it in fer- from Scotland, China, and England.—The submentation by the expansive action of the car ject of starch is treated by Dumas in Chimie bonic acid gas generated in this process. Its appliquée, vol. vi., and by Parnell in “ Applied only value is for feeding horses, cattle, and Chemistry ;' and the manufacture from the swine. The starch fluid is conveyed through potato is described by M. Payen in Précis de troughs to great vats in the basement of the chimie industrielle (Paris, 1851). building, where the water is partially removed, STARGAZER, a spiny-rayed percoid fish of and then it flows into smaller wooden vessels the family trachinido or weevers, and genus from which a portion of the surplus water Uranoscopus (Linn.), so called from the position drains away through a cloth laid in the bottom of the eyes, which look directly upward. The of each. The mass of starch, then tolerably body is elongated, covered with smooth cycloid solid, is placed upon shelves made of loose scales; head depressed, large and wide, bony bricks, when more moisture escapes by absorp- and rough, with the gape ascending or vertition and evaporation. Kiln drying finishes the cally cleft, the upper jaw the shorter, and the process, and the starch is obtained in prismatic teeth small and crowded on the jaws, palate, forms ready to be put up in papers or boxes and vomer; branchiostegal rays 6; dorsals 2, for the market.—Rice is treated by a process of which the 1st is small and spinous, the 2d patented in 1840 by Mr. Orlando Jones, which and the anal long ; ventrals in front of the large is also quite as applicable to the other grains, pectorals and on the throat; anus very far forand by the use of which the offensive odors ward; air bladder absent. In some of the from the putrefactive fermentation are avoided. family the dorsal and opercular spines are capaThe rice is macerated in a weak alkaline so- ble of inflicting painful wounds; they have the lution, a gallon of water to every 2 lbs. of power of raising the eyeballs from and retractrice, and about 200 grains of caustic soda oring them within their sockets. There are more potash to the gallon. Of this strength the so- than a dozen species of the genus, mostly East lution takes up the gluten, leaving the starch. Indian, of which the best known is the U. scaAfter standing about 24 hours, the alkaline li- ber (Linn.) of the Mediterranean, about a foot



long, of a grayish brown color above, with ir- During his stay with the Indians he became regular series of whitish spots and grayish very popular among them by his frequent exwhite below ; ugly as it is, some people eat it. hibitions of courage and independence, and This was well known to the ancients, and Aris- was adopted into the tribe. In 1754 he joined totle correctly describes the gall bladder as the rangers under Major Rogers in the war larger than in most other fishes; it is also call- against the French and Indians, in 1756 was ed callionymus by the old authors, and is pro- made a lieutenant, and in 1757 à captain, disverbially referred to by dramatic writers as the tinguishing himself by his bravery and coolness emblem of an angry man; the bile was formerly in several severe engagements. He rendered supposed to possess great medicinal virtues in efficient services in bringing off the troops after defective vision and hearing, and in arresting the ill-fated expedition to Ticonderoga under fungous growths. On the coast of South Car- Lord Howe in 1758, and was actively employed olina has been found the U. anoplos (Cuv.), in the subsequent campaign of Gen. Amherst; about 2 inches long, greenish above with mi- and in 1760, the war being virtually closed, he nute black dots, and silvery below; the cheeks retired from the service, and was not again are unarmed. These fishes live on the bottom conspicuous until the outbreak of the revoluin deep water, burying all but the head in the tion. In 1775, on receipt of the intelligence sand or mud, and there lying in wait for prey; of the beginning of hostilities, he hastened to they are voracious, and like other ground fish Boston after directing the volunteers in his some have sensitive barbels about the mouth; neighborhood to rendezvous at Medford. Of though the gills are widely open, they live à those who followed him two regiments were long time out of water; some have a slender formed, of one of which he was elected colonel, fleshy filament in front of the tongue, which can and at its head he thrice repulsed the veteran be protruded, probably to attract fishes within forces of the British army at Bunker hill. He reach of their jaws, like the cutaneous append- afterward remained with his regiment at Winages on the head of the goose fish (lophius). ter hill until the British evacuated Boston in

STARK. I. A N. E. co. of Ohio, drained March, 1776. He was in the expedition against by the Tuscarawas river and its branches; Canada, and remonstrated against Gen. Schuyarea, 570 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 42,976. The ler's retreat to Ticonderoga. In December ne surface is undulating, and the soil a rich, sandy marched with his regiment under Gen. Gates loam. Coal and limestone are abundant. to reënforce Gen. Washington. He led the Swine are largely exported, and it produces van in the attack upon Trenton, and was in more wheat and butter than any other county the battle at Princeton. In 1777, the time of in the state. The productions in 1850 were his regiment having expired, he returned to 590,594 bushels of wheat, 578,171 of Indian New Hampshire and raised a new one; but becorn, 414,434 of oats, 41,746 tons of hay, 275,- ing as he thought unjustly neglected by con664 lbs. of wool, and 1,211,021 lbs. of butter. gress in the list of promotions, he retired from There were 5 newspaper offices, 98 churches, its service. He however received a vote of and 13,290 pupils attending public schools. It thanks from the New Hampshire legislature, is intersected by the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and in a short time was placed in the indeand Chicago, and the Cleveland and Pittsburg pendent command of the troops raised by New railroads, and the Ohio canal. Capital, Canton. Hampshire to oppose the British advance from II. A N. W. co. of Ind., drained by the Yellow Canada. Acting upon the authority of the and Kankakee rivers; area, 432 sq. m.; pop. state and his own judgment, he firmly refused in 1850, 557; in 1860, 2,195. The surface is to obey the orders of Gen. Lincoln to march level and in many places marshy, with several to the west of the Hudson, leaving Burgoyne's small lakes, and the soil is fertile. The pro- rear unmolested; and on Aug. 16, 1777, he ductions in 1850 were 3,153 bushels of wheat, fought the battle of Bennington, killing over 11,170 of Indian corn, and 698 tons of hay. 200 of the enemy and taking 600 prisoners Capital, Knox. III. A N. W. co. of Ill., inter- and 1,000 stand of arms. For this brilliant acsected by the Spoon river; area, 290 sq. m.; tion congress passed a vote of thanks to him pop. in 1860, 0,004. The surface is partly and created him a brigadier-general, notwithprairie and the soil fertile. The productions in standing they had just previously passed a 1850 were 54,327 bushels of wheat, 312,475 of vote of censure for his disobedience of the orIndian corn, 50,703 of oats, and 5,630 tons of ders of Gen. Lincoln. He joined Gen. Gates at hay. Capital, Toulon.

Bemus's heights, but the term of his militia STARK, John, an officer in the American having expired, he was obliged to return to revolution, born at Londonderry, N. H., Aug. New Hampshire and recruit a new force, with 28, 1728, died at Manchester, N. H., May 8, which he cut off Burgoyne's retreat from Sara1822. In 1752 he went with 3 friends on a toga, and thus compelled him to surrender. In hunting expedition to Baker's river in the N. 1778 he was placed in command of the north, part of the state remote from the settlements, ern department; in 1779 and 1780 he served and while separated from his companions was in Rhode Island and New Jersey, and at West captured by the St. Francis Indians, and re- Point, where he was a member of the court mained with them several months until ran- martial which condemned André; and in 1781 somed by the Massachusetts commissioners. he again had command of the northern depart


ment, with his head-quarters at Saratoga. At m.; pop. in 1860, 2,406, of whom 6 were slaves. the close of the war he retired to private life, It is well adapted to grazing and to the cultivaand was not again connected with public af- tion of cotton, corn, and sugar cane. Large fairs. With the exception of Sumter, he was droves of wild horses are found on the prairies. the last surviving general of the revolution at Capital, Rio Grande City. the time of his death.See “Life of John STARVATION. See ABSTINENCE. Stark,” by Edward Everett, in Sparks's “ Amer- STASSART, GODWIN JOSEPH AUGUSTIN, baican Biography," 2d series, vol. i.

ron, a Belgian statesman and author, born in STARLING, or STARE, the common name Mechlin, Sept. 2, 1780, died in Brussels, Oct. of the conirostral birds of the family sturnidæ, 16, 1854. He completed his education in Paris, and sub-family sturnino, of which the genus and was appointed successively intendant in sturnus (Linn.) is the type; the family also in- the Tyrol (1805), successor of Bignon in Berlin cludes the straight-billed birds like the grakles, (1808), and prefect of the department of the oxpecker, red-winged blackbird, and satin bow- Bouches de la Meuse (1811). He took part as er bird, described in separate articles. In stur- an officer of artillery in the defence of Paris nus the bill is long, straight, and sharp, with (1814), offered his services to the emperor of flattened culmen and tip; wings long and point- Austria after the first restoration, attached himed, with 1st quill spurious and 2d and 3d nearly self again to Napoleon as envoy to Austria and equal; tail short and nearly even; tarsi strong master of requests during the Hundred Days, and broadly scaled; toes long, including the and on the second restoration retired to Namur hind one, the outer united at the base; claws and devoted himself to literary studies. He long, curved, and sharp. In habits the starlings represented Namur in the second chamber at resemble the smaller species of the crow family, the Hague from 1821 to 1830, and supported and the food consists of worms, snails, insects, the opposition. After the Belgian revolution seeds, and fruits; they are docile in captivity, of 1830, he was appointed governor of the provand may be taught to repeat a few words and inces of Namur and Brabant, was president of to whistle short tunes. They are confined to the senate from 1831 to 1838, was sent as envoy the old world, migrating in large flocks, prefer- extraordinary to the court of Turin in 1840, and ring swampy places; the flight is rapid and lived in retirement from 1841. His writings, even, accompanied toward evening by singular including Idylles (1800), Penseés de Circé (1814), circular evolutions; the note is a shrill whistle, Fables (1818), and treatises on agriculture and with an occasional chatter or imitation of the archæology, were collected by Dupont-Delcry of other birds and of animals; the nest is porte (Paris, 1855). made of dried grass, in holes of trees or old STATEN ISLAND.

See RICHMOND CO., buildings, and the eggs are 4 to 6. The best N. Y. known species is the common starling (S. vul- STATICS. See MECHANICS. garis, Linn.), about 8 inches long, of à black STATISTICS, the science which has for its color, with purple and greenish reflections, and office the collection and arrangement of facts spotted with buff; the female is much less bril- relative to the physical, social, political, finanliant, and the young males are brownish gray. cial, intellectual, and moral condition and reThis well known, handsome, and sprightly bird sources of a state or nation. Some departments is found from N. Europe to S. Africa, and in of statistical knowledge are of very ancient E. Asia, occurring in as large flocks as the al- origin. No nation has made any considerable lied grakles (quiscalus) in North America; in advance toward civilization, which has not at England it often migrates south in October, re- stated periods taken a census more or less comturning in March; it is frequently kept in cages; plete of its inhabitants. That such statistical the flesh is disagreeable; the eggs are pale blue. records were kept by the Jews, the Greeks, --The American starling (sturnella Ludovici- and the Romans, there is abundant evidence. ana, Swains.) has been described under MEADOW In later times, the first writer on statistics was LARK. In the genus pastor (Temm.) the bill is the Venetian doge Tommaso Mocenigo, who shorter and more curved; it contains about a in 1421 collected the materials for a memoir dozen species in the old world, with the habits on the situation of different empires, their of the preceding genus, also the one of seeking monetary systems, finances, public debts, &c. insects on the backs of cattle. The rosy starling In 1467 Francisco Sansovino published a sta(P. roseus, Temm.) is about 8 inches long, with tistical work entitled Del governo e amministhe head, neck, quills, and tail black with violet trazione di diversi regni e republiche (4to., gloss, and the rest of the plumage delicate rose- Venice, 1467), which was translated into sevcolored; the head is crested, and the bill and eral languages and often reprinted. During legs yellowish. It is found in S. E. Europe, the next century Ventura, Paruta, and Giovanni and in the warm parts of Asia and Africa; in Botero, all Italians, wrote on the subject. Bosome places it is held in great veneration for tero's Relazioni universali (Rome, 1592) was the enormous quantity of noxious insects, espe- translated into most of the languages of Eucially locusts, which its flocks devour.

rope. Pierre Davity, a French writer, pubSTARR, a S. co. of Texas, bounded S. W. by lished in 1621-2 a valuable work on the gethe Rio Grande, which separates it from the ography, government, finances, religion, and Mexican state of Tamaulipas; area, 4,420 sq. customs of the principal countries of the world.



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