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SPIRITUALISM, a term formerly used to "Divine Love and Wisdom” (paragragh 257) designate the doctrines and religious life of a Swedenborg avers that a man in whom the class of mystics who professed to be under the spiritual degree of the mind is open may come sensible guidance of the Divine Spirit, and who into angelic wisdom" by laying asleep the senwere distinguished by a habit of spiritualizing sations of the body, and by influx from above the Sacred Scriptures. Jacob Böhme, Mme. at the same time into the spirituals of his Guyon, Miguel de Molinos, and Mme. de Bou- mind.”—Clairvoyance appears to have played rignon, though not all ostensibly of the same an important part in the introduction of modcommunion, are representatives of the some- ern spiritualism, and a historical sketch of the what numerous class of religionists, particular- latter, to be complete, must include some noly of the 17th century, to whose teachings and tice of the former. Jung-Stilling, in his varipractice the appellation of spiritualism has been ous writings on pneumatology early in the applied. Latterly, however, especially in the present century, appears to have been the first United States, the word has been employed to notice that clairvoyants, during their more exclusively to designate the belief in and prac- exalted states of ecstasis, professed, with what tice of open intercourse with the spiritual seemed to him satisfactory evidence, to be in world. This alleged intercourse has attained converse with invisible intelligences. The an extraordinary development in recent times, same claims to open intercourse with the and especially since about the year 1848. Al- spiritual world, with many phenomenal evithough it was not until that period that the so dences which he regarded as establishing their called spiritual manifestations assumed a form truth, were afterward noted by Dr. Justinus and conspicuousness which forced them into Kerner, and detailed at large in his biography universal notice, it is asserted that many start- of one of his patients, Frederica Hauffe, more ling instances of them, as precursors and familiarly known as the seeress of Prévorst, prophets of the more signal wonders, had and who is said to have been in a magnetic been in the course of development during state for most of the time during the last 7 many years previous; and that, in fact, the years of her life, describing the persons and spiritualism of the day is the growth of a cen- repeating the language of what she represented tury. We are referred to the alleged fact that to be spirits, and being often accompanied with 100 years ago Emanuel Swedenborg was in mysterious rapping sounds. Many similar infull and open communication with the spiritual stances of alleged intercourse with the invisworld, and in daily converse with spirits and ible world through clairvoyance subsequently angels, with all the familiarity with which man occurred, not only in Germany and other parts converses with man. There is also a tradition of Europe, but in the United States; but that while Swedenborg was on his deathbed, none of these phenomena were of so remarkhe was asked by a friend whether in that able a character as those presented in the solemn hour he still adhered to the state- case of Andrew Jackson Davis. (See DAVIS, ments and doctrines set forth in his books; ANDREW JACKSON.) Thrown into an abnorwhen he answered emphatically in the affirma- mal state of mind and body by the process tive, adding that in about 80 years from that of magnetism, this young man, while protime events would occur that would greatly fessing to be in immediate converse with the tend to bring his teachings into general notice. spiritual world, dictated a large 8vo. volume It is noted by spiritualists as a singular coin which was published under the title of “The cidence that the 80 years from that time (1772) Principles of Nature, her Divine Revelations, expired in 1852, at which time the alleged and a Voice to Mankind.” In a portion of this spiritual phenomena, corroborating in many book that was dictated in the autumn of 1846 respects what Swedenborg had taught con- (pp. 675-6) the entranced author distinctly cerning spirits and the spiritual world, were predicted that the communication with the exciting universal attention. In his book on spiritual world would ere long assume “the
form of a living demonstration.” The same number of years was rappd correctly. Then, prediction is said to have been frequently re- in like manner, the age o each of the other peated by the young clairvoyant in his inter- children was by request inicated by this inviews with his visitors. Another event is visible agent. Startled andomewhat alarmed spoken of as possessing some significance in at these manifestations of inteirarre, Mrs. Fox connection with this history. In the spring of asked if it was a human being that was aking 1843, the societies of Shakers at New Lebanon that noise, and if it was to manifest it bynak and Watervliet, N. Y., and several other com- ing the same noise. There was no sound. & munities of that fraternity, almost simultane- then said: “If you are a spirit, make two disously became the subjects of strange psycho- tinct sounds." Two raps were accordingly logical experiences, during which certain of the heard. The members of the family by this members would lose all personal consciousness, time had all left their beds, and the house was while influences purporting to be the spirits of again thoroughly searched, as it had been bepersons of different nations, and who had lived fore, but without discovering any thing that in the world in different ages, took possession of could explain the mystery; and after a few their bodies, and spoke through their vocal or- more questions, and responses by raps, the gans. Shakers who personally witnessed these neighbors were called in to assist in further phenomena describe them as being very impres- efforts to trace the phenomenon to its cause; sive, and a constant burden of their communi- but these persons were no more successful than cations was: “Treasure these things up in the family had been, and they confessed themyour hearts; say nothing of them, for the pres- selves thoroughly confounded. For several ent, to the world's people, but the time is not subsequent days the village was in a turmoil far distant when these same wonders which of excitement, and multitudes visited the house, you now behold shall be witnessed extensively heard the raps, and interrogated the apparent in the world.” These manifestations continued intelligence which controlled them, but without for a year or more, when they suddenly ceased, obtaining any clue to the discovery of the agent, the alleged spirits bidding the “brethren” fare- further than its own persistent declaration that well, with a promise to come again before many it was a spirit. About 3 weeks after these ocyears, when their manifestations should be ad- currences, David, a son of Mr. and Mrs. Fox, dressed not merely to a select few, but to the went alone into the cellar where the raps were world in general. The commencement of the then being heard, and said: “If you are the
spirit-rapping” phenomenon was as follows: spirit of a human being, who once lived on the Some time in the year 1847 the attention of earth, can you rap to the letters that will spell Mr. Michael Weekman, who resided in the little your name and if so, rap now 3 times.” Three village of Hydesville in the township of Arca- raps were promptly given, and David proceeded dia, Wayne co., N. Y., was called to certain rap- to call the alphabet, writing down the letters ping sounds upon the door of his house, which as they were indicated, and the result was the he was unable by the most diligent efforts to « Charles B. Rosma,” a name quite untrace to any visible cause. Mr. Weekman soon known to the family, and which they were afterward vacated the house, and the family of afterward unable to trace. The statement was Mr. John D. Fox moved into it. In the latter in like manner obtained from the invisible inpart of March, 1848, this family was startled telligence, that he was the spirit of a peddler by mysterious rappings that were heard night- who had been murdered in that house some ly upon the floor of one of the bedrooms, and years previous. At first, we are told, the raps sometimes in other parts of the house. They occurred in the house even when all the memendeavored to trace the sounds to their cause, 'bers of the family were absent, but subsequentbut failed. On the night of March 31, having ly they occurred only in the presence of the been broken of their rest for several nights two younger daughters, Catharine and Margaprevious, they retired to bed earlier than usual, retta. Soon after these occurrences the famhoping to be permitted to sleep without dis- ily removed to Rochester, at which place the turbance. The sounds, however, were resum- manifestations still accompanied them; and ed, and, occurring near the bed occupied by here it was discovered, by the rappings at the two of the daughters, the youngest girl, then letters of the alphabet in the manner before about 10 years old, attempted to imitate them described, that different spirits were apparently by the snapping of her fingers. Whenever she using this channel of communication, and that would snap her fingers, the raps would imme- in short almost any one, on coming into the diately respond by the same number of sounds. presence of the two girls, could get a commuOne of the girls then said: “Now do as I do; nication from what purported to be the spirits count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,” at the same time striking of his departed friends, the same often being her hands together. The same number of raps accompanied by tests which satisfied the interresponded, and at similar intervals. The moth- rogator as to the spirit's identity. A new pheer of the girls then said: “Count 10;' and 10 nomenon was also observed in the frequent distinct raps were heard ; " Count 15," and that movement of tables and other ponderable bodies number of sounds followed. She then said: without appreciable agency, in the presence of “Tell us the age of Cathy (the youngest daugh- these two young girls. These manifestations, ter] by rapping one for each year,” and the growing more and more remarkable, attracted
numerous visitors, some from long distances, and have, in a few instances, been produced in their the phenomenon began, as it were, to propa- presence, as we are told, by invisible hands. gate itself, and to be witnessed in other families Mediums for the movement of ponderable bodin Rochester and vicinity, while, as coincident ies without hands, are said to be sometimes also therewith, susceptible persons would sometimes mediums for the preternatural movement of fall into apparent trances, and become clair- their own bodies; and intelligent and respectvoyant, and reaffirm these raps and physical able persons testify that they have seen the movements to be the productions of spirits. In medium Henry Gordon float in air several feet Nov. 1849, at the request of the alleged spirits, above the floor, for several minutes, without a public meeting was called in Corinthian hall, the slightest physical contact or support, he beRochester, for the purpose of submitting these ing at the time deeply entranced. Individuals phenomena to the investigation of a committee long deceased, it is said, have often been perto be appointed by the audience, with a view sonated by mediums so that their surviving to the publication of a report concerning their friends would instantly recognize them, and nature and claims, whatever the decision re- their earthly history has been accurately despecting these might be. The Misses Fox ap- tailed, though the mediums may never have peared upon the stage, the phenomena were known nor heard of them.
Persons report freely manifested and were subjected to many that the spirits of their departed friends have tests, and a committee appointed for their in- been seen and correctly described, and their vestigation, after having continued their ex- words repeated, though to all but the medium periments there and elsewhere for several they were invisible and inaudible; and obstidays, reported that they were unable to trace nate diseases, on which the skill of the physithem to any mundane agency. From that time, cian has been exhausted in vain, are said to and especially from the time the Fox girls have been quickly cured simply by the imposiarrived in New York city in the following tion of the hands of the medium while under month of May, the alleged spiritual manifes- spirit influence. Spiritualists admit that many tations became the subject of extensive news- impositions have been practised under the name paper and conversational discussion; their facts of spiritual manifestations, but they aver that were published far and wide ; “mediums,
“mediums," in most instances cheats could not have been through whom they were said to occur, sprang palmed off even if designed, and that in other up in different parts of the country, and were cases there could be no possible motive for demultiplied by hundreds and almost by thou- ception, as the investigations were carried on sands; and for several years spiritualism con- in private families, while the mediums were stituted one of the most prominent themes of their own.sons and daughters. The “Spiritual public discussion. Among the mediums of the Register” for 1859 estimates the number of acalleged spiritual manifestations there have been tual spiritualists in America at 1,500,000; those representatives from all classes and conditions who have more or less faith in the doctrine, of mankind, male and female, high and low, but do not openly espouse it, 4,000,000; public rich and poor, learned and unlearned; and advocates, 1,000; mediums, public and private, even little children in their swaddling clothes 40,000; places for public meetings, 1,000; books are said to have been, in some few instances, and pamphlets, 500; periodicals, 30. Spiritumediums for the raps. The alleged mediums alists, however, are not associated under any have been classified as rapping mediums; medi- regular organization, but have their representums for tipping and turning tables by a slight atives among all sects and parties of religionists touch of the finger; mediums for the movement and non-religionists, and these estimates of their of ponderable bodies without contact; mediums numbers can be considered as only approxifor the production of phosphorescent lights in mately correct.-Spiritualism numbers among a dark room; mediums for playing on musical its avowed converts in America many persons instruments in a manner beyond their ordinary well known in the walks of science, philosophy, abilities; mediums for involuntary writing; im- literature, and statesmanship. While it has its pressional speaking, seeing, hearing, personat- converts from every religious denomination, no ing, and healing mediums; mediums in whose small proportion of its advocates are from the presence are produced drawings, and pictures ranks of those who previously doubted or toin colors, and writings, and also in many in- tally disbelieved the immortality of the soul, stances tangible and visible living human and who affirm that they carry their sceptiforms; and mediums for the development of cal tendencies into the investigation of this other mediums. By the raps and tipping of subject. On matters of speculative theology, tables, and by the control of the medium's there seems to be among them the widest latiorgans to write and speak, the spirits are sup- tude of opinion, though a majority of them perposed to express their own peculiar intelli- haps are in their speculations inclined to what gence in a degree of perfection proportioned may be termed a sublimated naturalism. They to the development and passivity of the medi- tell us that it is not the object of the spirits to um; and it is averred that persons while un- teach theological dogmas as by any authority der the spiritual afflatus have often spoken in superior to that of man, but rather, by the menforeign tongues which they had never learned; tal and physical phenomena incidentally preand writings in languages to them unknown sented in the course of their manifestations, to
furnish those elements of reasoning from which Charles island are 5 summits ranging from each one may work out his own conclusions; 4,000 to 4,500 feet high. The N. shores of while we are told that the main object of their Spitzbergen and North-East Land are more manifestations is to furnish actual demonstration level, and here and on several of the smaller of the immortality of the soul and of some of islands some soil is found, in which a few very the conditions and laws of the post mortem ex- diminutive plants spring up and mature in a istence.-Spiritualism has also made consider- month or 6 weeks of the short summer. Imable progress in Europe, especially in England mense glaciers abound, and the islands are and France. In England, it is stated, many of almost covered with perpetual snow. The the nobility as well as of the intelligent middle mean temperature of the 3 warmest months is classes are believers in it, and hold communica- 34.5°. For 4 months of the year the sun does tions with their departed friends through me- not rise, but the long night is relieved by a diums in their own families. Several books and faint twilight, and the occasional brilliant light pamphlets have been published on the subject of the aurora borealis; the moon and stars also in that country, and a semi-monthly periodical shine here with great brightness. The islands is issued in London devoted to its facts and phi- are frequented by great multitudes of sea fowl, losophy. In France its believers are still more as well as by polar bears, foxes, and reindeer.
Several able journals devoted to Marble and coal of a good quality are found. the subject are published in Paris, and read The neighboring seas abound with whales, throughout France, Switzerland, and Belgium. seals, and walruses, which are taken in large Germany, Spain, Italy, Russia, and in short numbers by the vessels that visit this inhosnearly every nation of Europe, appears to have pitable region; and Russian whalers have lived its devotees of spiritualism, in greater or small- for years on the islands.- These islands are er numbers. Travellers in the north of Africa supposed to have been first discovered by Wiltell us that it has made considerable progress loughby in 1553 ; but their discovery is generin the Barbary states; and reports from China ally dated from the visit of Barentz, the Dutch represent it as having very distinctly appeared navigator, in 1596, in his search for a N. E. at several localities within that empire, and es- passage to the Pacific, who named the principecially at the city of Shanghai, about the time pal island Spitzbergen (pointed mountains) of its first advent in America.–For specimens from its numerous sharp peaks. Their soverof the better kind of spirit communications, eignty is claimed by Russia. A Swedish scienconsidered as literary productions, see “Spir- tific expedition under Prof. Torell explored itualism,” by the Hon. John W. Edmonds and Spitzbergen in the summer of 1861, whose reG. T. Dexter, M.D. (2 vols. 8vo., New York, port is expected to form an important addition 1854—5); “The Healing of the Nations,” by to the previous knowledge of that region. Charles Linton, with introduction and appendix SPLEEN (Gr. otin), the largest of the vasby N. P. Tallmadge, late U. S. senator and gov- cular or ductless glands, whose probable funcernor of Wisconsin (8vo., New York, 1855); tional office is subsidiary to the process of “Scenes in the Spirit_World, or Life in the sanguification. It is situated in the left hypoSpheres,” by Hudson Tuttle, medium (12mo., chondriac region, below the diaphragm, above New York, 1855). Among books produced in the descending colon, between the cartilages the ordinary_manner, the following may be of the false ribs and the cardiac extremity of consulted: “Experimental Investigations of the the stomach, to which it is united by short vesSpirit Manifestations,” by Prof. Robert Hare sels. It is in health from 3 to 41 inches long (8vo., New York, 1856); “A Discussion of the and 2: thick, of an elongated flattened form, Facts and Philosophy of Ancient and Modern and about 7 oz. in weight; on the inner surface Spiritualism,” by S. B. Brittan and B. W. Rich- is a longitudinal groove in which are situated mond, M.D.; “Modern Spiritualism, its Facts the blood vessels, posteriorly resting on the and Fanaticisms," &c., by E. W. Capron (8vo., vertebral column; below it is in relation with Boston, 1855). With the exception of these and the left kidney and capsule, and with the pana few other books, the best portion of the litera- creas behind. It is soft, spongy, and dusky ture of spiritualism is to be found in the various red; the external surface is covered with the periodical publications devoted to that subject. peritoneum; beneath this is a coat of white
SPITZBERGEN, a group of 4 principal and fibrous tissue with some elastic fibres, from the several smaller islands in the Arctic ocean, the inner surface of which extends through the northernmost land yet discovered, between lat. entire organ a network of fibrous bands and 76° 30' and 80° 30' N. and long. go and 22° E., threads, the trabecular tissue. The splenic arand about midway between Greenland on the tery comes from the cæliac axis, the trunks not W. and Nova Zembla on the E.; area, about anastomosing, but subdividing like the branches 22,000 sq. m. The large islands are Spitzber- of a tree, to which the Malpighian corpuscles gen, North-East Land, South-East Land, and are attached as fruits on short peduncles, endCharles. On the E. of Spitzbergen proper is a ing generally in capillaries with very thin walls, peninsula called New Friesland or East Spitz- passing in every direction through the organ bergen. The island is very mountainous, some and into the interior of the corpuscles; but of the peaks rising to the height of 3,000 or in man, according to Mr. Gray, the capillaries 4,000 feet above the level of the sea. On frequently disappear, and the blood passes from arteries to veins through lacunc or mere chan- the eyes; it is subject to inflammation, genernels in the pulp tissue. The veins are branched ally from external injury, with pain, tenderness like the arteries, have no valves, and the prin- on pressure, and fever, requiring antiphlogistic cipal stem is one of the trunks of the vena treatment. The spleen was by the ancients portæ ; the nerves form the splenic plexus, and supposed to be the source of black bile, which proceed from the solar plexus; the lymphatics predisposed to and produced the melancholy are few and superficial. The parenchyma temperament; and the terms “spleen" and consists of a homogeneous mass of colorless splenetic” are to this day employed to denucleated corpuscles and cells imbedded in a scribe the ill-natured, fretful
, and desponding granular plasma, in various stages of rapid de- state of mind commonly called “the blues; velopment and change; this is in the greatest it is hardly necessary to say that there is no quantity toward the end of the digestive pro- connection between the spleen and the above cess, when a large amount of fresh alimentary temperament. material is introduced into the circulation. SPOHR, LUDWIG, a German composer, born The splenic corpuscles, or Malpighian bodies in Brunswick, April 5, 1784, died there, Oct. 22, of the spleen, are whitish spherical bodies, va- 1859. In early youth he devoted much attenrying in diameter from š to f of a line, largest tion to the study of the violin, his skill in perand most numerous in healthy and well fed forming on which, when practically tested at individuals and animals. There are colored the congress of Vienna in 1814, was declared cells in the spleen pulp, chiefly red blood cor- superior to that of any of his rivals. Subsepuscles in various stages of degeneration, and quently he gave concerts for several years in a few pigment cells. It is proportionately the various parts of Europe, and in 1822 establargest and most active in early and vigorous lished himself in Cassel' as chapelmaster of manhood; it is found in all classes of verte- the elector, in whose service he remained unbrates, and of various shapes and sizes. The til near the close of his life. He produced a great amount of blood sent to the spleen, its great number of orchestral symphonies, conminute distribution, and the contents of the certos, quartets, and other instrumental works, glandular vesicles, show that cell growth pro- and cantatas, songs, ballads, and other vocal ceeds rapidly in its substance; their products, pieces, which are popular throughout Gerhowever, are returned in an altered state to many; but his reputation rests chiefly on his the blood, passing through the liver before en- operas, “The Mountain Spirit,” “The Alchetering the vena cava. It is probably a store- mist,” “The Crusaders, " "Jessonda," "Faust,” house of albuminous nutritive material for the “Zemira and Azor,” and “ Pietro of Abano;"> formative operations, which may be drawn and on his oratorios, “ The Last Judgment,” upon as the system requires it, and with the “The Orucifixion,” and “The Fall of Babyabsorbent glands probably assists in supplying lon," which are among the finest works of the germs of the blood corpuscles. It is also their class produced since the time of Hangenerally believed to serve as an organ for the del. His symphony entitled “The Consecrarelief of the portal circulation, preventing un- tion of Tones” is also a great favorite in the due accumulation of blood in the liver by the concert room. Forty years before his death he ease with which its vessels are distended. Ob- discontinued performing on the violin, but left struction of the circulation in the liver affects to violin players an admirable treatise on the the spleen directly; when the alimentary canal subject, entitled “The Violin School.” During is distended with food, were it not for the the latter years of his life he composed little. spleen the portal system would be gorged with SPOLETO, formerly a delegation of the Pablood; the general internal venous congestion pal States, now belonging to the kingdom of which results from the cold stage of intermit- Italy, bordering on the Neapolitan territory; tent fever, it is well known, causes a perma- area, 1,130 sq. m.; pop. in 1853, 134,939. It nent enlargement of the spleen. Its presence is drained by the rivers Tronto, Tiber, Nera, is not essential to life, at least in the adult; it Corno, and Velino. The valley of Spoleto is has often been removed in animals, and in a very fertile, and produces large quantities of few instances in man, without apparent ill con- maize, winé, olives, melons, and silk. Under sequences, its functions probably being perform- the new organization Spoleto is a district of ed by the other ductless or even the lymphatic reduced size in the province of Umbria; pop. glands. (See GLAND.) Almost every one has 70,011.--SPOLETO (anc. Spoletium or Spoletum), experienced a sharp pain or stitch under the the capital, is situated on the side of a mounribs of the left side, after violent or long con- tain overlooking the Tessino, about 75 m. N. tinued running and active exercise; this is from Rome; pop. about 7,000. It is defended caused by distention of the spleen by the blood by a strong castle, which is separated from the obstructed in its passage through the liver; a city by a very deep and narrow ravine crossed similar pain is felt in the cold stage of fever by a single bridge of great height. The city and ague. It is sometimes greatly enlarged, as has a fine cathedral of marble, in the style of in the last mentioned disease and in typhoid the early renaissance. Among its numerous fever, and it is engorged and softened in scur- ruins are those of an ancient theatre, of a temvy; in its chronic diseases, the face is apt to ple of Concord, and a palace of Theodoric. assume a dull ashy white color, seen also in There is also an old aqueduct attributed to the