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Romans, and a triumphal arch called the gate are kept up principally by the action of minute of Hannibal.” The town has considerable trade vibratile cilia, assisted, according to Dutrochet, in grain, wine, raisins, leather, and horses. by the act of endosmosis. Sponges are propaUnder the Romans Spoletium was a flourish- gated sometimes by ciliated gemmules, yellowing town of the province of Umbria. Hanni- ish and oval, arising from the organic mucus, bal was repulsed under its walls. After the and carried out of the substance by the curfall of the western empire it fell into the power rents; they are mostly formed in the spring, of the Goths, was taken from them by Narses, and, after swimming freely about for some subsequently became the capital of a Lombard time, become fixed and grow. They also produchy, and in the 13th century was annexed duce internal, unciliated, oviform bodies, reto the Papal dominions. It was sacked by sembling winter ova, which, when thrown out, Frederic Barbarossa, and again destroyed by swell, burst, and give issue to the locomotive the Perugians in 1324. Napoleon I. made it germs within; they are said also to grow by the capital of the department of Trasimène. division, or growth of detached portions of the It has suffered much from earthquakes. parent body; they are believed to be nourish

SPONDEE (Gr. Otovồn, a libation), a poeti- ed by minute algæ drawn within their pores. cal foot of 2 long syllables. Verses exclusively Some live in shallow, others in very deep waspondaic have a slow movement, and consequent ter; scarce and small in cold latitudes, they insolemnity; such were sung by the Greeks on crease in size and number toward the tropics, sacrificial occasions, and when a libation was being most abundant in the Australian seas. offered, and hence the name. The spondee is The sponges of commerce are procured chiefly used in any part of the English heroic line, but in the Mediterranean and the Bahama islands; with the best effect in the first and last places. they are obtained mostly by diving, to which

SPONGE, the familiar name of the family of persons are trained from childhood in the spongiadæ or porifera, a division of animals of Greek islands; the adhesion is generally firm the so called class protozoa. It has long been to the bottom, and the growth slow; the a disputed point whether sponges are animals lime is removed by soaking in dilute muriatic or vegetables; in the “Principles of Zoology,” acid, and they are then bleached and beaten by Agassiz and Gould (1848), they are said for market. To bleach sponges, the finest and to belong to the vegetable kingdom; the most softest are selected, washed several times in recent authorities, as Johnston and Bower- water, and immersed in very dilute hydrobank, decide in favor of their animal nature. chloric acid to dissolve out the calcareous matWhatever may be the decision of this question, ters; having been again washed, they are the common sponge (spongia, Linn.) may be placed in another bath of dilute hydrochloric taken as the type. These consist of a soft gelat- acid to which 6 per cent. of hyposulphite of inous mass, porous and elastic, supported on a soda dissolved in a little warm water has been fibro-corneous skeleton which anastomoses in added; the sponge is left in this bath 24 hours, all directions, and without silicious or calcareous

or until it is bleached as white as spicula; they have no organs nor vessels, are Smyrna is the chief place for the export of capable of absorbing great quantities of fluid fine sponges. The coarse sponges used for which is given out again on pressure, insensible horses and carriages, &c., are obtained chiefly to all kinds of irritation, and incapable of con- from the Bahamas; when taken from the water traction or locomotion. The apparently homo- they have a sickish, disagreeable odor, which geneous jelly which fills the pores of the living soon becomes putrefactive and disgusting, like sponge and covers its surface, is seen under the decomposing animal rather than vegetable microscope to be filled with numerous transpa- matter; they are first buried in dry sand, and rent spherical granules. There is a gradual when decomposition has ceased are exposed passage from the soft sponges of commerce to in wire cages to the action of the tide for puthose of stiff and compact texture, with the rification. According to Dr. Bowerbank, there fibres loaded with silicious spicula, crumbling are 24 genera of sponges on the shores of easily when dry, and useless in the arts; others Great Britain. While spongia is the type of are rather of a felted character, usually grayish the corneous sponges, thethys (Cuv.) and Granwhite, and loaded with variously shaped spicula tia (Flem.) are types of the silicious and calcaof carbonate of lime. Sponges vary much in reous sponges respectively. (See PROTOZOA.) form, and are fixed by a kind of root at the SPONSOR. See GODFATHERS AND GODbase, or incrust other bodies, growing mostly MOTHERS. in groups; most are marine, but spongilla SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION. See (Lam.) grows in fresh water; they often pos- COMBUSTION, SPONTANEOUS. sess brilliant colors. Rounded orifices of large SPONTINI, GASPARO, an Italian composer, size, or oscula, are scattered over the surface born in Jesi, in the Papal States, Nov. 17, of most sponges, which lead into sinuous ca- 1778, died in Majolati, near Jesi, Jan. 14, 1851. nals permeating the substance in every direc- He studied under Padre Martini at Bologna, tion; water is continually absorbed by the and at 13 became a pupil of the conservatory pores of the sponge, penetrating and filling La Pieta at Naples. Àt 17 he composed his every part, and, having supplied air and food, first opera, I puntigli delle donne, which met is driven out through the oscula; the currents with a decided success; and 9 years later he

snow.

repaired to Paris, where were produced at the gated, 2} by 14 inches, white, sprinkled all over French opera his 3 most celebrated works, La with bright rufous spots, forming a ring near Vestale (1807), Fernand Cortès (1809), and the large end; they breed and are commonly Olympie (1819). The first of these enjoyed seen in flocks. The flesh is oily and poor eatthe greatest reputation, and among the French ing; the beautiful feathers of the wing are Spontini was in his prime ranked as the equal made into fans in Florida, those from a single of Rossini. Subsequently he was for a long bird being worth at St. Augustine from $1 to time director of the opera at Berlin; but in the $1.50. The European spoonbill (P. leucorodia, latter part of his life, passed partly in Italy and Linn.) is about the same size, of a white color, partly in Paris, he composed little.

with reddish yellow patch on breast, pale yelSPOONBILL, the common name of the low naked space around eyes and throat, and wading birds of the family plataleida, char- a yellowish white, long occipital crest; it is acterized by a much depressed bill, very broad, rare in England, but common in Holland and and dilated at the end in the shape of a round- the southern portions of the continent and all ed spoon. In the genus platalea (Linn.) the over Africa. This curious genus has affinities bill is long, straight, thin, slightly bent down- with the cormorants and pelicans in the dilataward at the tip, the mandibles in close oppo- ble and bare gular membrane, with the curlews sition and the edges not lamellar; nostrils and herons in the alimentary canal, and with the basal and in the lateral groove; wings long, sandpipers in the shape of the sternum; the 2d quill the longest; tail short; legs longer trachea divides before entering the chest. --The than in the typical waders, tibia bare for near- shoveller duck (spatula clypeata, Boie) is also ly one half; tarsi not much longer than middle called spoonbill. toe, covered with small hexagonal scales; toes SPORADES (Gr., the scattered), the lesser webbed at the base, the outer longer than the islands of the Grecian archipelago surrounding inner, the middle not pectinated, and the hind the group of the Cyclades, divided into the one only partly resting on the ground; claws northern, western, and eastern Sporades. The short and obtuse. There are about a half northern group includes the islands of Skidozen species, found in all quarters of the atho (anc. Sciathus), Skopelo (Scopelos), Skyro globe, migrating to warm climates at the ap- (Scyros), and Kilidromi (Halonesus); these lie proach of winter; they frequent marshy inlets off the N. E. coast of Negropont or Eubwa, of the sea, and the borders of lakes and rivers, and belong to the kingdom of Greece. The wading about in search of fish fry, worms, western group, which also belongs to Greece, frogs, and aquatic insects; they can swim, lies off the E. coast of Argolis, and includes and even dive, if necessary for escape; the Hydra (Hydrea), Spezzia (Tiparenus), Poros nest is made either on trees or among rushes (Sphæria), Ægina, and Koluri (Salamis). The in swampy places, and composed of coarse eastern group belongs to Turkey, and lies off sticks; the eggs are 2 to 4, whitish. The

The the S. W. coast of Anatolia; it includes Psara roseate spoonbill (P. ajaja, Linn.) is about 30 or Ipsara (Psyra), Scio (Chios), Samos, Nicaria inches long, and 4 feet in alar extent; the (Icarus or Icaria), Patmos, Lero (Leros), Kabill is 7 inches, and covered with a soft skin; lymna (Calymna), Stanko (Cos), Stampalia the head is of moderate size, bare, the skin (Astypalæa), Anaphe, Skarpanto (Carpathus), yellowish

green; the neck long and slender, and Kaso (Casus). The Sporades of the anand the body compact and muscular. Thé cients included only the eastern group, and this prevailing color is rosy red, paler in front, and with the exception of the northernmost islands. nearly white on the neck; lesser wing coverts, SPOTSWOOD, JOHN, a Scottish prelate, born upper and lower tail coverts, and lower part in Edinburghshire in 1565, died in London, of throat, bright carmine; tail feathers ochrey Nov. 26, 1639. He was graduated at the uniyellow; the young have the head feathered, versity of Glasgow at the age of 16, and at 20 the carmine tint wanting, and the tail rosy. was appointed to succeed his father in Calder It is found in the southern Atlantic and gulf

and gulf kirk. At first strenuous in his opposition to states, and is so abundant in the breeding sea- episcopacy, even drawing up, or at least reson at Indian river, Florida, that one person vising, according to Calderwood, in 1597, the has been known to kill 60 in a day; it does defence for refusing to subscribe the bond denot go above North Carolina, nor far from the manded of the clergy by the king, it was not sea; being very sensitive to cold, it is most long before he began to side with the court abundant in the gulf states. They are essen- party, and to favor a moderate episcopacy. In tially nocturnal, though they often feed by day 1603 he was one of 5 clergymen selected by when the tide suits; they are fond of the com- James I. to accompany him to London for his pany of herons; they fly with the neck and coronation, and while there was appointed to legs extended, and rise rapidly to a great succeed Beatoun as archbishop of Glasgow. height; they alight easily on trees, and can He used henceforward his best exertions for walk on the large branches. The breeding the establishment of episcopacy in Scotland, time in the Florida keys begins in February, and, though not given to violent measures, inthe young being out of the nest by April 1; curred much odium among the great body of the nest usually in the top of a mangrove, the Scottish people. In 1609 he was appointed coarsely made; the eggs are commonly 3, elon- an extraordinary lord of session, but until 1610 was obliged to remain subject to the ordinary demic led to a radical and bitter division in the church courts. In 1610 he and two other medical profession. One party used stimulants Scottish bishops received episcopal ordination very freely, avoiding bloodletting, and using at the hands of English bishops, and soon after from the commencement cinchona, brandy, he was appointed head of one of the courts of opium, the tinctures of cinnamon, peppermint, high commission for trying offences against the lavender, &c., and these not so much with refchurch. He became primate of all Scotland erence to the quantities given as the effects in 1615, and the two courts of high commission produced. Cathartics and emetics were used were consolidated under his presidency. Un- by this class of practitioners sparingly if at all, der instructions from James I., though it is and cold water and other diluents sternly proalleged contrary to his own wishes, he intro- hibited. In the use of this treatment they duced the forms, services, appurtenances, and asserted that they were more successful than substantially the liturgy of the English church. their opponents, and though the recoveries In 1633 he placed the crown on the head of which took place were slow, they deemed Charles I. as king of Scotland. He was ap- them sure. The physicians who discarded this pointed in 1635 lord high chancellor of Scot- mode of treatment argued that the disease was land. In consequence of the indignation aroused at first a congestion, and that bleeding, either by the imposition of a book of canons and a general or local, was necessary to relieve this, new liturgy on the people, by order of the and if practised would be followed by less king, Spotswood in 1637 retired to Newcastle, prostration and a more speedy recovery. This and finally to London. He wrote a History view gained prevalence after the appearance of the Church of Scotland, from the Year 203 of the local inflammations in connection with to the Close of the Reign of James VI.” (fol., the fever. The antiphlogistic physicians, as London, 1655), and one or two smaller works. they were called, generally preferred local

SPOTTED FEVER (typhus petechialis, ty- bleeding by leeches or cups to general; they phus syncopalis, or typhus gravior), an epi- administered calomel and mild cathartics and demic fever which prevailed in New England, emetics, and after a time sustained the strength New York, and Pennsylvania from 1807 to by the use of vegetable and mineral tonics. 1815. Medical writers now generally consider The mortality under either mode of treatment it as a form of malignant typhus, taking on, as was very great, and neither had much cause epidemics of typhus are apt to do, certain pecu- to boast over the other. For many years subliar characteristics, and possibly modified some- sequently the community as well as the phywhat by the treatment adopted by some of the sicians, especially in New England, were dileading physicians. It is said to have appeared vided into two hostile parties, the stimulants first in Medfield, Mass., in March, 1806, and a and the antiphlogistics; and the controversy year later in the Connecticut valley and along has hardly yet completely ceased. The most the Hoosic and Green mountain ranges; it dis- noteworthy works on the epidemic were Miappeared usually during the summer, but re- ner and Tully's “Essays on Fevers and other curred for several years, with annually increas- Subjects” (1823); Miner, “ Typhus Syncopalis" ing violence, from January to April. It was (1825); North and Strong on “Spotted Femost prevalent and fatal in_1812 and 1813. ver;" report of a committee of the MassachuIts last appearance was at Berwick, Me., in setts medical society in its “ Transactions," 1815. The name spotted fever is inappropriate, vol. ii.; Gallup on the “Epidemics of Verif intended to indicate a fever distinct from mont;" and Hale on the “Spotted Fever in the severe or malignant typhus, for the pres- Gardiner.' ence of both a red rash and of purple spots in SPOTTSYLVANIA, an E. co. of Va., boundthat disease is one of its most marked symp- ed N. E. by the Rappahannock and S. É. by the toms; but the specific differences between this North Anna river, and drained by the Mattaepidemic and ordinary typhus were said to be pony; area, 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 16,076, the time of year when it was most prevalent, of whom 7,786 were slaves. The surface is spring instead of autumn; its avoidance of hilly and the soil fertile. Granite and freelarge towns, prevailing rather in thinly settled stone are abundant. The productions in 1850 districts; its attacking more generally healthy were 102,953 bushels of wheat, 265,753 of Inand robust adults, rather than the weak, the dian corn, 47,437 of oats, 1,279 tons of hay, young, or aged, and those of broken constitu- and 52,056 lbs. of butter.' There were 3 newstions; and its stubborn resistance to the ordi- paper offices, 20 churches, and 761 pupils atnary modes of treatment. It was very fatal, tending schools. The Richmond and Frederespecially in the scattered population of vil- icsburg railroad and the Rappahannock canal lages, in which many heads of families were intersect the county. The value of real estate taken. In the latter part of its course it was in 1856 was $3,661,265, showing an increase very generally combined with local inflamma- of 23 per cent. since 1850. Capital, Spottsyltions, particularly of the lungs or throat, but vania Court House. the symptoms of prostration which led to the SPRAGUE, CHARLES, an American poet, name “sinking typhus," often applied to it, born in Boston, Oct. 25, 1791. At the age of were even more strongly marked than in its 13 he entered a mercantile house as clerk, and earlier history.—The treatment of this epi- subsequently was taken into partnership by his

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employers. In 1820 he became teller in the " Annals of the American Pulpit," a collection State bank; and in 1825, on the establishment of biographies of leading clergymen of all the of the Globe bank, he was appointed its cashier, denominations, which has reached 7 vols. 8vo. an office which he still holds. In 1821 he be- (1857–61), and 2 more remain to be published. came known as a poet by being the successful Of the books above named, nearly all have passcompetitor for the prize offered for the best ed through several editions. He has written prologue at the opening of the Park theatre in introductory essays to many works, contributNew York. Similar successes were won by ed much to periodicals, and published also him in 1822, at the opening of the new Phila- about 140 occasional sermons, addresses, &c. delphia theatre; in 1828, at the opening of the SPRAT, a small fish of the herring family, Salem theatre; in the same year, at the open- and genus harengula (Val.). There are teeth on ing of another theatre in Philadelphia ; and in the jaws, tongue, palate, and pterygoid bones, 1830 at the opening of the Portsmouth theatre. but none on the vomer; the branchiostegal rays In 1823 he obtained the prize offered for the are 6 or 7.

are 6 or 7. There are about 10 species, of best ode to be recited at the exhibition at the which the most common is the English sprat Boston theatre of a pageant in honor of Shake- (H. sprattus, Val.), called garvie in Scotland; it speare; and in 1830 he pronounced an ode at is 5 or 6 inches long, with the body proporthe centennial celebration of the settlement of tionally deeper than in the herring, and the Boston. In 1829 he delivered a poem on “Cu- edge of the abdomen strongly serrated; the riosity,” in the heroic measure, before the Phi scales are large, round, and deciduous; the Beta Kappa society in Cambridge, considered upper part of head and back dark blue, with his best production. On the 4th of July, 1825, green reflections, passing into silvery white on he pronounced the usual commemorative dis- the gill covers, sides, and 'abdomen; dorsal course before the citizens of Boston; and in and caudal dusky, other fins white. It is found 1827 he gave an address on intemperance. A on the coasts of Great Britain and Sweden, and new and revised edition of Mr. Sprague's writ- in the English channel and North sea; it asings was published in Boston in 1850.

cends the rivers in large shoals in November, SPRAGUE, WILLIAM BUEL, D.D., an Ameri- after the herrings have disappeared. Though can clergyman and author, born in Andover, smaller and not commercially so important as Conn., Oct. 16, 1795. He was graduated at Yale the herring, it furnishes in the winter an college in 1815, and for nearly a year thereaf- abundant, cheap, and wholesome food, and is ter was a private tutor in the family of Major generally eaten fresh. The fishery is proseLawrence Lewis, a nephew of Gen. Washing: cuted by drift or stationary nets, and with ton, who resided on a part of the original most success in dark and foggy nights; it emMount Vernon plantation. He afterward stud- ploys about 500 boats, which capture many ied for 3 years in the theological seminary at thousand tons in some seasons; the excess is Princeton; and in Aug. 1819, he was ordained sold at 10 to 12 cents a bushel for manure, the pastor of the Presbyterian church at West farmers using about 40 bushels to an acre of Springfield, Mass., as a colleague of the Rev. land. The blanquette of the French coasts (H. Joseph Lathrop, D.D. Here he continued 10 latulus, Val.) is 34 to 4 inches long, of a brilyears, and on Aug. 26, 1829, was installed pas- liant silvery white, tinged with greenish on the tor of the second Presbyterian church in Alba- back; the flesh is dry, but sweet; they live a ny, where he still remains. He visited Europe long time out of water. Several species in the in 1828, and again in 1836. The degree of West Indian seas are called sardines. . D.D. was conferred upon him by Columbia SPRAT, THOMAS, an English prelate and aucollege in 1828, and by Harvard college in thor, born in Tallaton, Devonshire, in 1636, 1848. Dr. Sprague published in 1822 a vol- died' at Bromley, Kent, May 30, 1713. He ume of “ Letters to a Daughter," which, being was educated at Wadham college, Oxford, and issued anonymously, was soon after published after the restoration entered holy orders, and in Great Britain, and then republished in Amer- became chaplain first to the duke of Buckingica as an English book. His subsequent works ham, and afterward to Charles II. He was are: “Letters from Europe” (12mo., 1825); one of the original fellows of the royal society. “Lectures to Young People” (1825); “Lec- In 1668 he was made prebendary of Westmintures on Revivals of Religion” (8vo., 1832); ster, in 1680 canon of Windsor, in 1683 dean of “Hints on Christian Intercourse" (1834); "Lec- Westminster, and in 1684 bishop of Rochester. tures illustrating the Contrast between true He was clerk of the closet to James II., in 1685 Christianity and various other Systems" (1837); was made dean of the chapel royal, and in “Memoir of Edward D. Griffin, D.D.," as an 1686 one of the commissioners for ecclesiastical introduction to the volumes of sermons of that affairs. On the abdication of James, Sprat was distinguished divine (1839); "Life of Timothy one of those who, in the convention held on Dwight, D.D., President of Yale College,” in that occasion, proposed the appointment of a Sparks's “ American Biography" (1845); “Aids regent. An unsuccessful attempt was made in to Early Religion” (1847); “Words to a Young 1692 to implicate the bishop in a pretended Man's Conscience" (1848); “Letters to Young plot to restore King James. He published Men, founded on the History of Joseph" (1854); * The Plague of Athens” and “The Death of “ Visits to European Celebrities” (1855); and Oliver Cromwell," poems (1659); “The History of the Royal Society” (1677); “The His- in the account of the woman of Samaria. Ev. tory of the Rye House Plot” (1685); and a erywhere springs are suggestive of fertility, volume of sermons; and he edited Cowley's and even where they abound some among them “Poems," with a life (1679).

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are resorted to for the peculiar-purity and reSPRENGEL, Kurt, a German physician freshing coolness of their waters. Those of and botanist, born at Boldekow, Pomerania, the same vicinity, supplied through different Aug. 3, 1766, died March 15, 1833. In 1784 strata and from different sources, vary materihe began at Halle the study of theology and ally in their qualities. Some, forced up through medicine, but relinquished the former study, beds of clean sand, are filtered of all impuriand took his medical degree in 1787. In 1789 ties, though their source may be in dense he was appointed extraordinary professor of swamps filled with decaying vegetable matters. medicine in Halle, in 1795 ordinary professor Some, flowing to the surface through strata of in the same department, and in 1797 professor limestone, though clear and apparently pure, of botany, in which position he passed the contain so much calcareous matter in solution, remainder of his life. Sprengel's first work, that the water is characterized by that quality Anleitung zur Botanik für Frauenzimmer, was termed hardness; while others but a few yards published when he was but 14 years old, and distant, coming out through sandstone rocks, his subsequent medical and botanical works are eminently soft and pure. The phenomenon procured for him honorary diplomas from up- of hot and cold springs in close proximity has ward of 70 learned societies, and invitations to often been noticed since the time of Homer, fill various important professorships.

who ascribed the source of the Scamander to SPRENGER, ALOYs, a German orientalist, two neighboring fountains of this character. born at Nassereut, Tyrol, Sept. 3, 1813. After A singular phenomenon relating to springs, having studied medicine, natural sciences, and observed by Prof. Brocklesby of Hartford, oriental languages at the university of Vienna, Conn., is their rising a little while before rain. he went in 1836 to London, where he assisted Upon the summit of a high hill in the W. part the earl of Munster in his work on the “Mili- of Rutland, Vt., is a spring which is almost tary Science of the Mohammedan Nations.” always thus affected, sometimes two days beOn the recommendation of Munster before his fore the rain appears; and another of similar death, he received an appointment in the East character is said to exist in Concord, Mass. India service, and in 1845 became president of Prof. Brocklesby supposes the phenomenon the college of Delhi. In 1850 he was appointed is due to a diminished atmospheric pressure, examiner at the college of Fort William, inter- which would also be indicated by a fall of preter of the government, and secretary of the the barometer. For the height of the spring at Asiatic society of Bengal. He has published sev- any time is determined by the relative force eral editions of oriental writers, several works in exerted by the atmosphere to keep the water the Urdu dialect, and a “Life of Mohammed” down, and by the hydrostatic pressure to lift (vol. i., Allahabad, 1851). In 1859 the acad- it up; and the channels and sources of supply emy of inscriptions at Paris divided between of some springs may be so formed that the Sprenger, Noeldeke, and Amari a prize for the effect of diminished atmospheric pressure may best history of the Koran. He has engaged thus be very sensibly indicated. The disupon a new biography of Mohammed, in the charge of springs is often so uniform through German language, to be completed in 4 vol- periods of drought as well as of rain, that it umes, the first of which appeared in 1861. is evident they must be connected with reser

SPRING, a current of water flowing out of voirs beneath the surface too extensive to be the ground. Springs are produced from the affected by ordinary irregularities of supply; water that falls upon the earth, and percolates and there may well be such reservoirs of wathrough the soil, gathering in little rills, the ter when those of rock oil, as described in the “fountain heads of lakes and rivers under- article PETROLEUM, are sufficient to maintain ground." These find their way to the surface continual supplies of this fluid for thousands at lower levels, often at great distances from of years. Such springs, called perennial, gush the localities that received the supplies from forth sometimes in large currents as well as in the atmosphere, and exhibit in their flow and little rivulets, and rivers thus originate from the qualities of their waters a variety of in- the continuation of great subterranean curteresting phenomena, some of which have al- rents. Instances of this kind are most common ready been considered in the articles ARTESIAN in limestone regions. It is this rock in which WELLS, GEYSERS, and MINERAL WATERS. From the great caves of the earth are usually found, the times of earliest history, springs or wells and a common feature in these is a river large of water have been objects of special regard. enough sometimes to be navigated by boats. The wells in the vicinity of eastern towns In the Nicojack cave, Dade co., Ga., near the and cities, and in the pasture lands, were re- Tennessee river, there is said to be a waterfall 3 sorted to by the women to draw water for miles underground. As the rivers leave the domestic uses and for watering their flocks. caverns, and flow over the surface, they occaThe same custom there prevailed when Isaac sionally fall into other chasms and disappear, met Rebekah at the well of Haran, and again coming out again in great springs, it may be when, 2,000 years afterward, it is alluded to several miles off. Sometimes it happens that

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