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lower part of the country. Severe frosts occa- out with Brazil till 1826. A treaty of peace sionally occur on the table land, but very little was concluded in 1828, through the intervention snow falls, and cattle are consequently enabled of Great Britain, by which the N. part of the to find subsistence at all seasons. A great deal country, known as the Seven Missions, was of the land is rich and fertile, but agriculture ceded to Brazil, and the S. portion was deis much neglected. Wheat, maize, barley, rice, clared an independent state, under the title of peas, beans, flax, hemp, and cotton are all Republica del Uruguay Oriental. Internal disraised; and the vine, peach, sugar cane, and sensions soon broke out, and Rosas, the presinumerous kinds of fruit trees thrive remarkably dent of Buenos Ayres, was asked for assistance well. Timber is only found on the banks of by Oribe, one of the unsuccessful candidates the principal rivers. The pastures are excel- for the presidency of Uruguay. Some troops lent, and the wealth of the inhabitants consists were sent, and the war continued for a long in their flocks and herds. Great numbers of time with very little advantage on either side. horses and horned cattle run wild on the plains, Brazil, being at last induced to interfere, sent and large flocks of sheep are kept, the wool of to the governments of England and France to which is of superior quality. Among the wild request their help in compelling the combatanimals are included the tapir, deer, ounce, ants to lay down their arms.

Both these powmonkey, paca, rabbit, and fox; and large packs ers sent some ships of war to the Rio de la of wild dogs frequent the plains. There are Plata in 1845, and blockaded Montevideo, the many kinds of birds, and water fowl frequent former till 1848 and the latter till 1849, when the lakes. The manufactures are of little im- they made treaties with the ruler of Buenos portance, being confined to a few coarse arti- Ayres. The Argentine provinces of Corrientes cles for domestic use. The commerce of the and Entre Rios joined Rosas, and the war concountry is also comparatively insignificant, tinued till 1851, when Oribe was defeated and few of the natural products finding their way his patron shortly afterward deposed. Peace abroad. The exports consist of jerked and salted was now secured, and treaties were entered beef, tallow, hides, horns, and hair; and the into with foreign states, one concluded in Jan. imports of manufactured articles, lumber, flour, 1859 with Brazil and the Argentine Confederasugar, cordage, and agricultural implements tion securing the independence and neutrality from the United States. During the year 1858, of the state; but internal discord still prevailed, 936 vessels of an aggregate of 186,699 tons en- and has kept the affairs of the country in a tered, and 922 vessels of an aggregate of 183,- most disorganized condition down to the pres230 tons cleared from the ports of the republic. ent time. Bernardo Prudencio Berro is now In the same year the value of the exports to president, having been elected for 4 years in the principal countries with which trade is March, 1860. carried on was as follows: Great Britain and URUGUAY, a river of South America, which her colonies, $1,176,375; France, $1,018,340; rises on the W. slope of a range of hills in the Brazil, $981,330; Sardinia, $714,425; United N. part of the province of Rio Grande do Sul, States, $650,115; Spain, $501,700; and Buenos Brazil, about lat. 28° S., long. 50° W. After

yres, $272,340.-In theory the government flowing N. W. for about 100 m., it is joined on of Uruguay resembles that of the United States, the right by the Pelotas, by which name it is but in practice it has degenerated into a mere sometimes known in this part of its course, and military despotism, and the president, who is then assumes a W. direction until it is joined usually some successful general, in reality pos- from the N. by the Repiri, which separates sesses absolute power. According to the budget Brazil from the state of Corrientes in the Arfor 1860, the revenues and expenditures for 18 gentine Confederation. Its course is now S. S. months were each estimated at $3,579,802. W. for perhaps 250 m., during which it receives The total public debt in the same year amounted the Ibicui, Arapey, and other important affluto about $25,000,000.—The territory included ents, and separates Brazil and Uruguay on the in the republic of Uruguay was originally set- left from the Argentine Confederation on the tled by a Spanish colony from Buenos Ayres, right. From the town of Belen in Uruguay, at but the possession of it afterward caused a war the mouth of the Arroyo-Arapey, its direction between Spain and Portugal, during which it is almost due S. for 400 m., when it unites with was in turn several times occupied by both. the Parana to form the Rio de la Plata, in lat. The contest was finally decided in favor of 34o S., long. 61° 40' W. The most considerable Spain, and the country attached to the vice- of all' its tributaries is the Rio Negro, which royalty of Buenos Ayres, and known as the joins it from Uruguay, 50 m. above its mouth. district of Banda Oriental. When the war of Its whole length is 800 m. It is navigable by independence began, Banda Oriental took the sailing barks to a point 40 m. below the Ibicui, side of Buenos Ayres, but shortly afterward the N. boundary of the republic of Uruguay. separated from that republic. The Brazilians, There is here a cataract, above which the river seeing the country in an unsettled state, and is navigable by large canoes to the mouth of fearing lest its revolutionary doctrines should the Pelotas. Its banks are extremely fertile, and spread into their territory, took possession of produce cotton and maté or Paraguay tea, but it in 1821. Buenos Ayres protested against they are little cultivated. this proceeding, but war did not actually break USBECKS. See TURKS.

que use.

USES. The word usus was employed in the ing to the rules of law or equity, in conformity Roman civil law, and there meant a right to with the provisions in the instrument creating take so much of the fruit or profit of a thing the use. If the cestuy que use of land be maras was needed for sustenance; while usufructus ried, his widow has no dower, nor the husband had a larger meaning, including à qualified of a cestuy que use a tenancy by courtesy, because right of possession. In the law of England the cestuy que use has no seisin, nor cany he and the United States, the word use has a pre- bring an action at law respecting it. The seicise meaning, which is similar to that of the sin is in the feoffee-to-use, and while his legal fidei commissum of the Roman law. It means estate is subject to all legal incidents at law, à confidence reposed in one who has the prop- equity will subject all these legal incidents tó erty (or to whom it is given) in possession, that the equitable requirements of the use.-Trusts he will hold it for the use or benefit of another, and uses are often spoken of together, and from who is called in Norman French the cestuy the article on Trusts their similarity, or analA Roman magistrate (a prætor) was ogy, will be seen.

ogy, will be seen. They are however different charged with the enforcement of these fidei in important particulars; but the rules of law commissa, and was called commissarius. When which define this difference are so nice and uses became common in England, the chancel- technical, and still open to so much question, lor, under whose jurisdiction they passed, had that our space does not permit us to present much the same duty to perform as the Roman them with sufficient fulness to be useful. commissarius ; and indeed Lord Bacon calls USHANT (Fr. Ouessant), the chief island of this magistrate a Roman chancellor.--Uses a cluster of 7, known collectively as îles d'Oueswere invented in England to avoid and defeat sant, situated about 15 m. from the coast of the statutes of mortmain (see Trust); and to France, off the W. coast of the department of protect those statutes against uses, the statute Finistère, of which they form a canton, and of 27 Henry VIII., commonly called the statute 28 m. W. N. W. from Brest; extreme length 5 of uses, was enacted. This statute provided m., breadth 3 m.; pop. 2,271. The shores of that any person or corporation entitled to a Ushant are boid and rocký, and landing is only use in fee simple, fee tail, or otherwise, should practicable in a few places. The formation is stand seized and possessed of the land itself, in almost entirely granitic, and the soil is fertile, the like estate which they had in the use; the the surface being covered with excellent meadintention being to subject a conveyance to the ows and pasture lands, upon which horses and use of any one, and the property and the cestuy sheep are reared. The inhabitants are princique use, to the same legal restraints and liabili- pally occupied in fishing, and paganism was said ties as if the conveyance had been made direct- to linger among them till the 17th century. The ly to the cestuy que use.

This statute was said, lighthouse on Ushant is situated in lat. 48° 28' in legal phraseology, “to execute the use."

" It N., long. 5° 3' W. Off Ushant the British fleet was intended to prevent conveyances to use, under Sir Edward Hawkes gained a complete by making them of no effect where they vio- victory over the French under Admiral Conflans lated the statutes of mortmain, and of no more in 1759; and an indecisive action took place beeffect than a direct conveyance where they did tween the English under Admiral Keppel and not. Still such uses as the law permitted, or the French under Count d'Orvilliers in 1778. as courts of equity could protect, were found USHER (Fr. huissier), a public officer having to be exceedingly convenient, and became com- charge of the door of a court or hall, and hence mon; and courts of equity retained their hold one whose business it is to introduce strangers upon them, the person to whom the convey- and perform other similar duties. There are ance was made being considered as having the various officers of this kind attached to the legal estate, subject to the rules of law and the royal household in England, including the genjurisdiction of courts of law, while the cestuy tleman usher of the black rod, who attends in que use has an equitable estate subject to the the house of peers during the sessions of parliarules and the courts of equity. This is now ment, and 12 or more gentleman ushers. There the prevailing condition of the law of uses in is also an usher of the exchequer, who attends England and in the United States. But the the barons and other officers of that court. The whole system of law and of equity in regard to term is also applied to an under or assistant uses has become as intricate and extensive as master in a school. it is important. Here we can do no more than USHER, JAMES, an Irish prelate, born in indicate the principal rules of this system. Dublin, Jan. 4, 1580, died in Reigate, Surrey, , There can be no use, unless: 1, there is a per- March 21, 1656. He was educated at Trinity son capable in law of taking it; 2, a person college, Dublin, being one of the first 3 stucapable in law of being seized of the property dents admitted. He began the study of theology to the use of the other; 3, an express declara- in 1598, took the degree of M.A, in 1600, was tion of use, or a consideration and a transfer or ordained priest in 1601, and soon after received contract from which the court will imply a use; the appointment of “Sunday afternoon preachand 4, sufficient estate or property or interest er before the state” in Christ church, Dublin. to sustain a use. Then, if a use exists which He was chosen professor of divinity in his college the courts can recognize, it is descendible, or in 1607, and in the same year was made chanheritable, or devisable, or transferable accord- cellor of the cathedral of St. Patrick. In 1620 King James nominated him to the see of England, in the reign of Henry VIII., interest Meath; in 1623 he was made a member of the at 10 per cent. was made lawful; in the time Irish privy council ; and in Jan. 1624, he was of James I. it was reduced to 8 per cent.; durraised to the archbishopric of Armagh and the ing the commonwealth it was 6 per cent., and primacy of the Irish church. In 1640 he visit- this was again enacted by 12 Charles II. , the ed England, and during his absence his house statute of 12 Anne reduced it to 5 per cent. at Armagh was destroyed by the rebels (1641), The act 3 and 4 William IV. exempted from and with it he lost nearly every thing he pos- the operation of the usury laws bills having sessed. In the state of the country it was more than 3 months to run. After several thought needless to return to his archbishop- modifications in the reign of Victoria, the act ric, and Charles I. conferred upon him the 17 and 18 Victoria, ch. 90, repealed all laws bishopric of Carlisle, to be held in commendam. then in force relating to usury; providing only In 1627 he was chosen preacher to the society that the rights and remedies of persons in reof Lincoln's Inn, and preached regularly in the spect to acts previously done, should not be chapel during term time for nearly 8 years. affected by the statute.--In the United States, He was buried in Westminster abbey by order the usury laws differ in different states, and of Cromwell. His principal works are: De are not perhaps precisely the same in any two. Ecclesiarum Christianarum Successione et Statu In Louisiana 5 per cent. is the legal rate; in (London, 1613); “Emanuel, or a Treatise on New York, South Carolina, Georgia, Michigan, the Incarnation of the Son of God” (Dublin, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, it is 7 per cent. ; in 1638); Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquita- Alabama, Florida, and Texas, 8 per cent.; in tes (Dublin, 1639); De Romanæ Ecclesiæ Sym- California, Kansas, and Oregon, 10 per cent. ; bolo (London, 1647); Dissertatio de Macedonum in all the other states it is 6 per cent. But the et Asianorum Anno Solari (1648); Annales Ve- statutes vary exceedingly as to the legal effects teris et Novi Testamenti (2 vols. fol., 1650–54); of usury. In some, the parties may agree on Epistola ad Ludovicum Capellum de Varian- what rate they will, and the legal rate takes tibus Textus Hebraici Lectionibus (1652); “The effect only in the absence of agreement; in Reduction of Episcopacy to the Form of the others, the whole contract is avoided by a Synodical Government in the Ancient Church” reservation or agreement for more than the (1658); and Chronologia Sacra (1660). A com- legal rate. Regarding these as extremes, in plete edition of his works has been published much the greater number the penalty for usury by the Dublin university in 17 vols.

lies between them. In some states the legal USQUEBAUGH (Irish, uisge, water, and rate takes effect when there is no agreement, brgh, life), the Irish name for distilled spirit, but the parties may agree for more up to a cerwhence the modern word whiskey. It is now

tain definite limit. There are many ways in applied to a liquor compounded of brandy, rai- which the usury laws may be evaded, and sins, cinnamon, and other spices.

courts watch contracts liable to this abuse USUMASINTA RIVER. See GUATEMALA. with great strictness. Some principles may be

USURY. Originally this word meant any gathered from the adjudications, which may be taking of money for the use of money; and regarded as prevalent, if not universal. Thus, he was therefore a usurer who, lending money, to constitute usury, there must be substantially required in repayment any thing more than the a loan, and a usurious intent in both parties, in amount which he lent. This was once con- one to give and in the other to take usurious sidered a great moral wrong, and the greater interest. But the contract need not be, in form, the more was taken. For many ages, however, a loan; and whether it is so in fact, is a questhis opinion, if it has not ceased to exist, has tion for a jury. Property may be sold for whatlost much of its practical or legal force. It is no ever price the parties agree upon; but if the longer deemed more wrong to take pay for the sale be in fact a mere cover for the

usury,

it use of money than for the use of a house, or a does not protect it. Negotiable paper may be horse, or any other property. But the linger- sold like other paper. The cases on this subing influence of the former opinion, together ject are numerous, nice, and perhaps conflictwith the fact that the nature of money makes ing; but it may be stated as a general rule, it easier for the lender to oppress the borrower, that if it is in fact the promissor who sells, has caused nearly all Christian nations to fix and the buyer buys even through an agent, by law the rate of compensation for the use of but with knowledge that he buys of the money. If compensation be taken within this promissor, it is in fact and in law a loan from limitation of law, it is called interest; but if the buyer, and may therefore be usurious. Even more be taken than the law allows, this is, in if a statute declares a usurious contract“void,” the present meaning of the word, usury. (See in the most emphatic language, the law looks INTEREST.) The opinion that money should be upon it rather as “voidable ;" and therefore no borrowed and repaid, or bought and sold, upon one can make the objection of usury but the whatever terms the parties should agree to, borrower and the parties in privity of interest like any other property, has of late years gained and contract with him. So, if one borrows ground almost everywhere; and where usury stock, agreeing to replace it with the dividends laws are in force, this opinion has perhaps ex- received in the mean time, or if he agrees to reorted some influence upon adjudication. In place it, or the money it sells for, with interest

*

on its value, the contract is not usurious; but and W. by Nevada, and lying between lat. if the lender retains an option to take either the 37° and 42° N., and long. 109° and 116° W; dividends or interest, it is usurious. If a note area, 131,320 sq. m., or 84,044,880 acres.

. It be given usuriously in payment of or as securi- was divided in 1860, according to Capt. R. F. ty for a preëxisting debt, and the note is void Burton (“ City of the Saints, 1862), into 19 by the usury laws, the original debt remains counties, viz. : Salt Lake, Utah, Davis, Weber, unaffected. As there must be usurious intent, Iron, Tooele, San Pete Valley, Juab, Box if illegal interest is taken by a miscalcula- Elder,* Washington, Millard, Green River, Cetion or other mistake in fact, it is not usury; dar,* Malad,* Cache,* Beaver,* Shambip, but it is usury if the mistake be one of law, be- Salt Lake Islands,* and St.

Mary's.* The largest cause every person is held to know the law. town is Salt Lake City, Fillmore, the capital, If the lender takes upon himself an extra being only a hamlet; and the other county risk (apart from that of the borrower's insol- towns are Provo, Farmington, Ogden, Parovan, vency), he may charge extra interest. Bot- Tooele, San Pete, Salt Creek, Box Elder, Fort tomry and respondentia contracts are founded Harmony, Fort Supply, Cedar City, Fort Malad, on this principle, because if the ship or goods Cache Valley, Beaver Creek, and Deep Creek. are lost, the debt is not demandable. The same The population of the territory by the U. S. principle is applied to the purchase of an annu- census of 1850 was ascertained to be 11,380, ity, and even to the bargain of the borrower of whom 26 were slaves. In 1856 a census that if he does not repay the principal when taken by the Mormon authorities returned 37,due with legal interest, he will pay a certain 277 males and 39,058 females, a total of 76,335. penalty, because he has the power of avoiding The non-Mormon inhabitants, however, mainthis penalty by payment of interest. If a bor- tained that these numbers were purposely exrower on repaying the money make the lender aggerated, and the U. S. commissioners in the a gift, it is usurious if the gift be in perform- following year reported that the population did ance of a previous promise, but not otherwise. not exceed 50,000. The U. S. census of 1860 Discount of interest, whereby the lender gets returned 40,295, of whom 29 were slaves. A interest on his interest, or interest on money majority of the people are foreigners, chiefly which he never lends, and calculations of in- from Great Britain. The surface of Utah is an terest by Rowlett's tables, which consider the immense basin elevated 4,000 to 5,000 feet year as consisting of only 360 days (but qualify above the sea, surrounded on all sides by mounthe error by casting the fractions on the right tains 8,000 to 10,000 feet high, and subdivided side), are now established usages, and would by transverse ridges. The rim of the basin is not make the contract usurious, especially if formed on the N. by the mountains of Oregon, the contract were of a kind usually subjected to on the E. and S. by sub-ranges of the Rocky this usage, as are bank discounts. Compound mountains, and on the W. by the Sierra Nevada. interest is said, in a recent case (23 Pick. 167), At some remote period this great basin was to “savor of usury;" but it may be regarded evidently an inland sea. The bench formanot so much usury as an agreement to pay a tion, a system of water marks, is found in every penalty for not paying interest. In the present valley, while detached and parallel blocks of state of the authorities, it may be said that mountain, trending almost invariably N. and S., wherever usury is forbidden, a bargain for were in geological ages rock islands rising abové compound interest would not be enforced. the water. Between these primitive and metaBut it is common for courts to order a settle- morphic ridges lie the secondary basins, whose ment of accounts with annual rests, which is average width may be 15 or 20 miles. They equivalent to compound interest. This is open into one another by cañons and passes, especially done where trustees have used the and are often separated longitudinally by smallmoney of their cestuy que trust. The prevail- er divisions running E. and W., thus converting ing rule for the settlement of accounts on one extended strip of secondary into a system which payments have been made (originating of tertiary valleys. Two great mountain chains in a decision in Massachusetts) is this: com- run transversely across the basin from S. E. to pute the interest on the principal to the first S. W. The northernmost is the Humboldt time a payment was made, which payment ex- river range, 6,600 feet high; the southern is ceeds, alone or with previous payments, the the prolongation of the Wahsatch range, which interest then due; add that interest to the has an elevation of nearly 12,000 feet. The principal; from the sum subtract the payment watershed of the basin is toward the N., and preceding payments; the remainder forms S., E., and W., chiefly through the affluents a new principal, upon which proceed as before, of the Columbia and the Colorado. Lakes up to the time of settlement or the rendering are numerous, two nearly parallel chains of of judgment.

them extending across the country from N. to UTAH (from the Indian tribe of the same S. The eastern chain begins at the north with name, commonly spelled Yuta, which signifies the Great Salt lake (see GREAT SALT LAKE), " those who dwell in mountains”), a territory the small lakes of the Wahsatch, the Utah, the of the United States of America, bounded N. by Washington territory, N. E. by Nebraska, turns for 1860; while three returned by the census, CarE. by Colorado, S. by Arizona (New Mexico), son, Deseret, and Summit, are not named by Burton.

[graphic]

* These counties are not contained in the U.S. census re

Nicollet, and the Little Salt lake. All these and river bottoms produce willows, scrub maare fed by the streams that flow from the west- ple, box elder, aspen, birch, cottonwood, and ern counterslope of the Wahsatch_mountains. in the southern part of the territory spruce and The other chain consists of Mud, Pyramid (so dwarf ash. There is an inconvenient deficiency called from a pyramidal rock rising from its of hard wood and of wood fit for building, waters), Carson, Mono, and Walker's lakes, though extensive plantations have been made which receive the waters flowing from the east- which promise a sufficient supply in the future. ern slope of the Sierra Nevada. There are Among the peculiar natural products is a fine many thermal springs in the territory, some of bunch grass, which lives and grows through which discharge strong brine, some are sulphur- the winter and furnishes food for cattle at all ous, and others chalybeate.-The rocks of Utah seasons. The wild fruits are the service berry, are mostly primitive-granite, jasper, syenite, chokeberry, buffalo berry, gooseberry, strawhornblende, and porphyry, with various quartz- berry, and black, white, red, and yellow mounes. Volcanic action is indicated by the presence tain currant.—The great elevation of Utah of obsidian, scoriæ, and lava. Many of the ridges above the sea and the immense masses of snoware of carboniferous limestone mingled with covered mountains that surround it exercise a calcareous spar, and resting upon or alternating material effect upon the climate. The air is with hard and compact grits and sandstone, and highly rarified, so that new comers suffer from in many places rich with encrinites and fossil difficulty of breathing, and after violent exercorallines. In the cañons near Salt Lake City cise experience nausea and fainting. The are found bowlders of serpentine; fine gray weather is changeable, and during much of the granite ; coarse red, ochrish, poikilitic, crys- year is very bleak. In 1860 the highest range talline white, and metamorphic sandstones; a of the thermometer was 96° in July, and the variety of conglomerates, especially granitic, lowest 22° below zero in December. Spring with tufa in large masses; talcose and striated opens in the valleys with great suddenness, and slates, gypsum, pebbles of alabaster, and va- the summer is hot, though the mornings and rious kinds of limestone. Marble of every hue evenings are usually cooled by breezes from the and texture is found in large masses.

Iron of mountains. Thunder storms and dust storms excellent quality is abundant, and gold, silver, are frequent and violent. The winter is severe, copper, lead, and zinc have been found. Bitu- with high winds and deep snows, which lie minous coal exists in inexhaustible quantities, in the cañons throughout the year.-The Inas also sulphur and saleratus; and alum, borax, dians of Utah are chiefly of the Shoshonee or and petroleum have been discovered. Among Snake nation, and of the Yuta or Ute race, as the precious stones that have been found are they are commonly called by the whites. The rubies, emeralds, chalcedony, sardonyx, carne- Shoshonees comprise 14 tribes, averaging nearly lian, and agates.-Among the native animals 1,000 souls each. The Yuta are divided into are the antelope, deer, elk, bighorn or Rocky 27 bands, and are estimated to number 15,000 mountain sheep, the cougar, the catamount, the souls. Many of their bands however roam belarge and small wolf

, the red, great-tailed, and yond the bounds of Utah, and the whole nasilver fox, minks, ermines, skunks, badgers, tion is thought to be diminishing. Of late years wolverenes, beavers, hares, the jackass rabbit, they have been hostile to the whites, and have porcupines, gophers, woodchucks, squirrels, and lost many of their fighting men in encounters the hyrax, or as the Mormons call it the cony. with the emigrants crossing the plains to CaliThe principal birds of prey are the red-tailed fornia, and with the U. S. regular forces. Of hawk, the sharp-shinned hawk, the sparrow the white inhabitants of Utah, nearly all are hawk, and the vulturine turkey buzzard. There Mormons or "Latter Day Saints,” the majority are several varieties of quail and grouse; and of whom are of European birth, chiefly Engamong the water fowl are swans, wild geese, lish. The character of these people, among the white pelican, the cormorant, the mallard whom polygamy is extensively practised, has or green-head, the red-breasted and green- been very differently represented by different winged teal, the brant, the plover and curlew, observers. By most of the travellers who have the gull, a blue heron, and a brown crane. written concerning them they have been deThere are also the blue bird, the humming bird, scribed as intolerant, ignorant, immoral, and finches, woodpeckers, the swamp blackbird, coarse, with little regard for the rights of the snow bird, and a species of lark which is the “Gentile” or non-Mormon part of their considered a delicacy for the table. Among neighbors. On the other hand, Capt. Burton, the reptiles are a gray and green lizard and the the

English traveller, who spent 24 days among phrynosoma or horned frog, of which there are them in 1860, and is an apologist for polygamy, many species. The serpents are chiefly rattle- says that “in point of mere morality the Morsnakes, swamp adders, and water snakes. The mon community is perhaps purer than any othfishes are perch, pike, bass, chub, trout, and er of equal numbers," and ascribes to them tolsalmon trout, the last of which sometimes erance, kindness, sobriety, industry, and many reaches the weight of 30 lbs.-The vegetation other good qualities. The influence of the of Utah is not luxuriant. Timber is scarce ex- priesthood is very strongly felt in all civil and cept on the mountains, where there are exten- social matters among the Mormons, and is exsive forests of pine and fir. The lower cañons ercised through a complicated and imposing or

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