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the book, were largely borrowed from Rabe- in principle, a bad husband, a faithless lover, lais, Burton, and other authors not generally offering his affections to 2 or 3 married women read in Sterne's time or even now. But after at once, the dupe of every coarse flatterer, and making liberal allowances for plagiarisms, his false to his professions of virtue or sensibility. Uncle Toby, Corporal Trim, Mr. Shandy, Dr. With wonderful power to move his readers to Slop, and Widow Wadman, “creations of a tears or laughter, he was rather a great jester fine fancy working in an ideal atmosphere, and than a great humorist, wasting his pathos on not mere copies or caricatures of individuali- the most trivial objects, apparently is to make ties actually observed," must be considered points and seek applause," and leaving the beyond all doubt among the most original per- mind in doubt whether it were genuine feeling sonages in fiction; and in his peculiar vein of or a piece of consummate acting. Masson, howhumor it would be difficult to name any author ever, is of the opinion that "not even the artiwhom he resembles. Thackeray has noted the ficiality of his pathos can take away the effect influence of Sterne's early association with mil- on our sympathies,"

so far as sensiitary men and scenes upon some of the most bility can be taught by fiction, his works teach delightful and picturesque passages, which he it.” The gravest charge brought against him, characterizes as “reminiscences of the boy who and one which not even the character of the had lived with the followers of William and age in which he lived nor the exquisite accuMarlborough, and had beat time with his little racy and finish of his diction can palliate, is a feet to the pipers of Ramillies in Dublin barrack tendency to indecency. “There is not a page in yard, or played with the torn flags and halberds Sterne's writings," says Thackeray, with a seof Malplaquet on the parade ground at Clon- verity perhaps not wholly merited, “but has mel." In 1760 and 1766, during the publication something that were better away, a latent corof “Tristam Shandy," appeared 4 volumes of ruption-a hint, as of some impure presence; sermons, also by “Mr. Yorick,” which met with the foul satyr's eyes leer ont of the leaves conconsiderable favor, more perhaps on the score stantly.” Sterne was tall and thin, with a hecof their paternity than on account of their actual tic and consumptive appearance. merit. Gray, in his correspondence, while ad- STERNHOLD, THOMAS, an English writer mitting that “they are in style most proper for of psalms, born in Hampshire about the comthe pulpit,” confesses that the author seems mencement of the 16th century, died in 1549. “ often tottering on the verge of laughter, and He was groom of the robes to Henry VIII. and ready to throw his periwig in the face of the Edward VI., and was noted at court for his audience.” In 1760 Sterne received an addi- poetical talents and extreme piety. Impressed tional living at Coxwold in Yorkshire; but with the necessity of procuring a substitute for subsequent to this time he seems to have lived the profane songs in vogue, he undertook a principally in London or on the continent, leav- translation into metre of the Psalms of David, ing his wife and daughter to reside in York. In hoping they might become popular with the 1762 he visited France, and between 1764 and courtiers. He completed only 37, which were 1767 spent much time in southern Europe for printed in 1549, after his death, with 7 by Hopthe benefit of his health, now seriously impaired. kins, under the title of “All such Psalms of DaReturning to England, he recorded the impres- vid as Thomas Sternholde, late Grome of the sions of his travels in “The Sentimental Jour- Kinges Majestyes Robes, did in his lyfe-tyme ney," which speedily obtained a European rep- drawe into Englyshe Metre.” The version was utation. He died soon after the appearance completed by John Hopkins and others, and of the book, of which the first part only was was published in 1562 as “The Whole Book of completed, at hired lodgings in London, sur- Psalms, collected into English Metre by T. rounded by strangers, by whom, it has been Sternhold, J. Hopkins, and others, conferred said, his body was rifled while he was expiring with the Ebreu; with apt Notes to sing them In 1775 his daughter Lydia published 3 volumes withal;” under which title it was annexed to of his " Letters to his Friends,” accompanied the “Book of Common Prayer," and continued by a short autobiographical memoir; and in in use until superseded by the “New Version " the same year appeared "Letters to Eliza,” of Tate and Brady, first published in 1696. consisting o 10 letters addressed by Sterne Sternhold was also the author of “ Certain in March and April, 1767, to “Mrs. Elizabeth Chapters of the Proverbs of Solomon, drawen Draper, wife of Daniel Draper, Esq., counsellor into Metre” (London, 1549). Sternhold's verat Bombay, and at present chief of the factory at sions are now remembered only for their anSurat," and another collection of letters in one tiquity and the prominent place they once ocvolume. With the exception of a few frag- cupied in English psalmody. ments and a collection of " Seven Letters by STESICHORUS, a Greek lyric poet, born in Sterne and his Friends," printed for private Himera, Sicily, flourished during the first part circulation in 1844, these are his only remain- of the 6th century B.O. He appears to have ing writings that have been published.-Of the lived to the age of 80 or 85. The incidents of personal character of Sterne, as seen in his life his life are mostly of doubtful authenticity. He and letters, no favorable impression can be is said to have been educated at Catana, and formed. The latter show him to have been to have been on friendly terms with Phalaris, indifferent to the duties of his profession, lax tyrant of Agrigentum, and is supposed to have

travelled in Greece. Suidas says that his name a free pardon from government. While abroad was originally Tisias, but was changed to Stesi- he published several works on currency, and chorus because he was the first to establish a in 1767 produced his “Inquiry into the Princhorus for singing to the harp. By some he. ciples of Political Economy” (2 vols. 4to.), the has been called the inventor of choral poetry. first considerable English work on the subject. He wrote in the Doric dialect, intermixed with (See POLITICAL ECONOMY, vol. xiii. p. 449.) epic. His poems were chiefly on heroic sub- Among his remaining works are: “The Prinjects, although he wrote many on themes more ciples of Money applied to the Present State of purely lyrical. He was the first of the Greek the Coin of Bengal,” “ A Plan for introducing poets who composed erotic poems. Fragments an Uniformity of Weights and Measures,' &c. only of his writings are now extant. The best A complete edition of his works was edited by collection is that of O. F. Kleine, entitled Ste- his son, Sir James Steuart (6 vols. 8vo., 1805). sichori Himerensis Fragmenta, with a disserta- STEUBEN. I. A S. New York, bortion on his life and poetry (8vo., Berlin, 1828). dering on Pennsylvania and drained by the Che

STETHOSCOPE. See AUSCULTATION. mung, Canisteo, Tioga, and Conhocton rivers;

STETTIN, a town of Prussia, capital of the area, 1,500 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 66,689. The province of Pomerania, and of the administra- surface is broken and the soil generally very tive district of its own name, situated on the fertile. The productions in 1855 were 307,604 left bank of the Oder, 76 m. N. E. from Berlin; bushels of wheat, 711,307 of oats, 292,689 of pop. in 1858, 53,094. The river is crossed by Indian corn, 255,938 of potatoes, 297,289 of aptwo bridges, and the town is defended by walls, ples, 58,749 tons of hay, 1,976,129 lbs. of butter, a citadel, and several forts and outworks. It 336,334 of wool, 113,653 of honey, and 112,287 is entered by 5 principal and several smaller 'of maple sugar. There were 9 furnaces, 2 car gates, 2 of the former being highly ornament. factories, 42 grist mills, 238 saw mills, 15 shined. The town is old, but it contains several gle factories, 7 newspaper offices, 105 churches, fine squares, and is generally well built. The and 341 schools. Iron ore and superior buildancient castle of Stettin, which was the resi. ing stone are found. There are 2 or 3 small dence of the dukes of Pomerania, contains à lakes, and Crooked lake is partly within the collection of northern antiquities, and in the county. It is traversed by the Erie, the Bufchapel attached to it is the ducal vault. Wool- falo, New York, and Erie, and the Blossburg len, linen, cotton, sugar, anchors, &c., are man- and Corning railroads, and the Chemung and ufactured. The value of the imports in 1854 other canals. Considerable lumber is exwas $12,295,800, and of the exports $6,571,550. ported. Seats of justice, Bath and Corning. In 1858 the total value of the imports was II. A N. E. co. of Indiana, bordering on Ohio $17,000,000. The number of vessels entered and Michigan, and intersected by the St. Join 1858 was 3,007, tonnage 541,978; and 58,572 seph's and Pigeon rivers; area, 314 sq. m. tons of shipping was registered in the port.-- pop. in 1860, 10,374. The surface is prairie In the year 830 a large village and a temple to and woodland, and the soil fertile. The prothe Wendish idol Trigloff occupied the present ductions in 1850 were 101,190 bushels of Insite of Stettin. The temple was destroyed and dian corn, 73,141 of wheat, 38,734 of oats, and rebuilt several times, and when Christianity 5,389 tons of bay. There were 4 churches, and was introduced about the beginning of the 13th 1,600 pupils in public schools. Capital, Angola. century a large treasure was found in it. Stet- STEUBEN, FREDERIC WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, tin has belonged at different times to Denmark, baron, an officer of the American revolution, Sweden, and Prussia.

born in Magdeburg, Prussia, Nov. 15, 1730, STEƯART, SIR JAMES, a Scottish political died near Utica, N. Y., Nov. 28, 1794. He was economist, born in Edinburgh, Oct. 10,1713, died educated at the Jesuit colleges of Neisse and Nov. 26, 1780. He completed his education at Breslau, and when only 14 years old served as the university of Edinburgh, and in 1734 was a volunteer under his father, who was an ofadmitted to the Scottish bar, at which however ficer in the army of Frederic the Great, and he rarely practised. Although of a whig fam- was at the siege of Prague. In 1747 he was ily, he became, through intercourse on the appointed a cadet in an infantry regiment, becontinent with several exiled adherents of the came an ensign in 1749, and a lieutenant in old pretender, imbued with Jacobite doctrines; 1753. In 1757 he distinguished himself at the and having declared for the young pretender in battles of Prague and Rossbach, in 1758 was 1745, he was sent by him on a mission to the appointed an adjutant-general, and was in the court of France, where he was residing at the battles of Kay and Kunersdorf, in the latter of time of the battle of Culloden. The conse- which he was wounded. On the capitulation of quence was a compulsory absence from Great Treptow in 1761, he was sent to St. Petersburg Britain for nearly 18 years. He resided during as a prisoner of war, but released shortly afterthe greater part of this period at Angoulême, ward. In 1762 he was appointed adjutant-genand employed his leisure in those studies which eral in the king's staff, and had charge of the were afterward embodied in his books.

In quartermaster's department. He was a member 1763 he was permitted to return to Scotland, of Frederic's select academy of young officers where he passed the remainder of his life, al- who were under his special instruction; and afthough it was not until 1771 that he obtained ter the siege of Schweidnitz, in which he parti


cipated, the king presented him with a valuable STEUBENVILLE, a city and the capital of lay benefice. At the close of the 7 years' war Jefferson co., Ohio, on the Ohio river, 22 m. N. Steuben retired from the army and devoted from Wheeling, Va., 35 m. W. from Pittsburg, himself to travel, accompanying the prince of Penn., and 141 m. E. from Columbus; pop. in Hohenzollern-Hechingen to a number of the 1860, 6,154. It stands on an elevation on the courts of Europe. That prince appointed him right bank of the river, is well laid out and in 1764 grand marshal, and general of his substantially built, is surrounded by a rich guard. Steuben was on terms of intimacy and farming and stock-growing country, and is the friendship with a number of the European lit- centre of an important trade. It has 2 cotton erary characters and noblemen of his time. In factories, 3 woollen factories, a paper mill, an 1777, while on a visit to France, the count St. extensive rolling mill, a glass factory, 2 iron Germain solicited him to come to America; founderies, a brass foundery, copperas . esand Steuben, after frequent interviews with the tablishments, machine shops, á coal and carAmerican commissioners, finally decided to bon oil refinery, an extensive white lead manacquiesce. Ho arrived at Portsmouth, N. H., ufactory, a distillery, and a number of large Dec. 1, 1777, and immediately wrote to con- flouring mills. It has 2 banks, 1 daily and 3 gress and to Gen. Washington, tendering his weekly newspapers, 12 churches, and a female services as a volunteer, and expressing the seminary, which enjoys a high reputation and strongest sympathy with the cause of the colo- usually has about 150 pupils. The seminary nies. Shortly afterward he proceeded to York, building is a handsome structure, erected at a Penn., where congress was in session, was di- cost of $40,000. The river division of the rected to join the army under Washington, and Cleveland and Pittsburg railroad passes through during the winter arrived at Valley Forge. the city, and it is the present terminus of the On May 5, 1778, he was appointed inspector- Steubenville and Indiana railroad. Abundance general with the rank of major-general, and of excellent coal is found in the neighborhood. by his excellent management greatly improved STEVENS, ABEL, LL.D., an American clerthe condition of the continental troops. In gyman, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 19, 1815. June following he was at the battle of Mon- He studied at the Wilbraham academy, Mass., mouth. He prepared a manual for the army, and the Wesleyan university, Middletown, which was approved by congress in 1779, and Conn. In 1834 he was settled as pastor of á introduced the most thorough discipline; and Methodist church in Boston; in 1837 he travmuch of the success of the revolution is to be elled in Europe, and corresponded extensively attributed to his sagacious and rigid regula- with American journals. After his return, he tions. He was a member of the court martial was stationed about 3 years in Providence, R. I. on the trial of Major André. In 1780 he was He next removed to Boston in 1840, and took placed in command of the troops in Virginia, editorial charge of “ Zion's Herald,” a religious and in January following was active in harass- newspaper; in 1852 he removed to New York, ing the British forces under Benedict Arnold. and was appointed editor of the “National The next summer he was attached to Gen. La- Magazine;" in 1855 he revisited Europe; fayette's division, and took an important part his return in 1856 was elected editor of the in the siege of Yorktown. He was distin- "Ohristian Advocate and Journal.” Dr. Steguished for his generosity and kindness of vens has published "Memorials of the Introducheart, and was frequently known to share his tion of Methodism into New England,” “Melast dollar with the suffering soldiers. At va- morials of the Progress of Methodism in the rious times he contributed most of his clothing Eastern States," Church Polity," and camp equipments to the men, and labored Preaching required by the Times," " Sketches unceasingly to promote their comfort and wel- and Incidents, a Budget from the Saddle Bags fare. After the war, in the impoverished con- of an Itinerant,” “The Great Reform," and a dition of the country, congress was tardy in “History of the Religious Movement of the rewarding him for his services, and he experi- Eighteenth Century called Methodism” (3 enced much annoyance and vexatious delay in vols., New York, 1859-'62). About 100,000 securing an appropriation for his pay and to volumes of his works have been issued. reimburse him for personal expenses incurred STEVENS, GEORGE ALEXANDER, an English in providing the soldiers with clothing and author, born in London in the early part of the

In 1790 congress voted him a life annu- 18th century, died in 1784. He commenced ity of $2,500. Several of the states passed res- life as a strolling actor, and gradually acquired olutions acknowledging his eminent services, some reputation as a writer of burlesques and and voted him tracts of land. New York of comic songs. In 1760 he published a novel, presented him with 16,000 acres near Utica, “The History of Tom Fool," and a few years forming a township called from him Steuben, later produced an entertainment entitled “A on which he settled and passed the remainder Lecture on Heads," which he gave with reof his life, giving portions of the land to his markable success. He also published a volaids, and leasing the remainder to settlers. His ume of “Songs, Comic and Satirical” (1772); life has been written by Francis Bowen in and after his death appeared “The Adventures Sparks's " American Biography," and by Fried- of a Speculist, compiled from the Papers of rich Kapp (New York, 1860).

G. A. Stevens, with his Life, a Preface, and

and on

66 The


Notes" (1788). Of his songs, 100 in number, improvements, in the way of balance valves, one only, “The Storm,” is still popular. tubular boilers, steam packing, cut-offs, cross

STEVENS, JOHN, an American inventor, propellers to turn boats as on a pivot, the forborn in New York in 1749, died in Hoboken, cing of air under the bottom of the steamer N. J., in 1838. In 1787, having accidentally John Wilson to lighten the draft, &c. He had seen the imperfect steamboat of John Fitch, he also during this period invented and put into at once became interested in steam propulsion, use the T rail

, and used successfully anthracite and experimented constantly for the next 30 coal as a fuel for fast passenger locomotives. years on the subject. In 1789 he petitioned He had at an early age established steam ferry the legislature of New York for a grant of the boats on the Hudson river, and on the organiexclusive navigation of the waters of that state. zation of the Camden and Ámboy railroad took The petition was accompanied with draughts a deep interest in its management, and was for of the plan of his steamboat, but the right was many years its president. In 1813-'14 he innot granted. In 1804 Mr. Stevens constructed vented an elongated bomb shell of great dea propeller, a small open boat worked by structive power, and imparted to the governsteam, and his success was such that he ment the secret of its construction, in considerbuilt the Phenix steamboat, which was com- ation of which he received a large annuity. In pleted but a very short time after Fulton had 1842 he commenced experiments with a view finished the Clermont. Fulton having ob- to the construction of an iron-plated war tained the exclusive right to the navigation steamer or battery, which should be shot and of the Hudson, Mr. Stevens placed his boats on shell proof. (See BATTERY.) This battery is the Delaware and Connecticut. In 1812 he not yet completed, but the propriety of finishpublished a remarkable pamphlet urging the ing it is now (Feb. 1862) under consideration. government to make experiments in railways STEVENSON, ANDREW, an American statestraversed by steam carriages; and if his plan man, born in Virginia in "1784, died at Blen(which varied very little from the present rail- heim, Albemarle co., Va., June 25, 1857. He ways) should prove feasible, he proposed the studied law and attained a prominent position construction of such a railway from Albany to at the bar. In 1804 he was elected to the house Lake Erie. The railway engines, he thought, of delegates of Virginia, and after being a memmight traverse the roads at a speed of 50 miles ber for several sessions was chosen speaker. or even more per hour, though probably in In 1821 he was elected a representative in conpractice it would be found convenient not to gress, and for 13 years held that office, for the exceed 20 or 30 miles an hour. The details of last 6 of which he was speaker of the house. construction of the roadway and of the loco. He was minister to England from 1836 to 1841, motives and carriages are given with such and on his return became rector of the univerminuteness and accuracy, that it is difficult to sity of Virginia, and devoted the remainder of realize - that their only existence at that time his life to the duties of that office and to agriwas in the mind of the inventor.–ROBERT cultural pursuits. LIVINGSTON, son of the preceding, also an in- STEWARD, LORD HIGH, in England, the ventor, born at Hoboken, N. J., in 1788, died highest officer under the crown, who was forthere, April 20, 1856. Inheriting his father's merly known by the Latin title of magnus mechanical genius and his deep interest in pro- seneschallus. The office was under the Planpulsion by steam on land and water, he while tagenets hereditary, but since the reign of young commenced a course of discovery and Henry IV. has been abolished as a permanent improvement on these subjects which have dignity, and is conferred for some special ocgiven him a very high rank among modern in- casion, as a trial before the house of peers or ventors. At the age of 20 he constructed a a coronation, after which its functions cease. steamboat with concave water lines, the first The lord high steward presides at the former, application of the wave line to ship building; and at the close of the proceedings breaks his soon after used for the first time vertical buck- wand and dissolves the court.-The office of ets on pivots in the paddle wheels of steamers, steward, or stewart, also existed from early suspended the guard beam by iron rods, and times in Scotland, and gave name to the royal adopted a new method of bracing and fasten- family of Stuart, in which it had been herediing steamboats; in 1818 discovered the advan- tary from the time of Malcolm III. (1056-'93) tage of using steam expansively, and of employ- till the accession to the throne of Robert (II.) ing anthracite coal as a fuel for steamers; in Stuart, grandson of King Robert Bruce, in 1371. 1822 substituted the skeleton wrought iron STEWART. I. A W. S. W. co. of Ga., walking beam for the heavy cast iron walking bounded W. by the Chattahoochee, separating beam previously in use; first placed the boilers it from Alabama, and drained by several of its on the guards, and divided the buckets on the tributaries; area, 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, water wheels in order to lessen the jar of the 13,423, of whom 7,885 were slaves. The soil boat; in 1824 applied artificial blast to the is fertile. The productions in 1850 were 684,boiler furnace by means of blowers, and in 449 bushels of Indian corn, 171,791 of sweet 1827 the hog frame (so called) to boats, to potatoes, 16,390 lbs. of rice, and 19,165 bales prevent them from bending at the centre; and of cotton. There were 9 farm implement facduring the next 22 years made numerous other tories, 4 grist mills, 7 saw mills, 3 tanneries,

33 churches, and 660 pupils attending public Capts. Stewart and William Bainbridge united schools. Capital, Lumpkin. II. A N. W. co. in most earnest efforts to induce a change of of Tenn., bordering on Ky., intersected by the policy in this respect, and succeeded. In conCumberland river, and bounded W. by the formity with their suggestions, the ships of Tennessee; area, 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, war were ordered to sea, and in Dec. 1812, 9,888, of whom 2,405 were slaves. The surface Capt. Stewart was appointed to the frigate is undulating and the soil very fertile. The Constellation, then lying at Norfolk. In the productions in 1850 were 584,050 bushels of summer of 1813 he was transferred to the ConÎndian corn, 22,020 of sweet potatoes, 43,225 stitution, there seeming to be no possibility of of oats, 290,320 lbs. of tobacco, and 92,625 of his eluding with the Constellation a close blockbutter. There were 11 grist mills, 9 saw mills, ade of Norfolk, which was maintained by a 5 forges, 8 tanneries, 42 churches, and 248 pu- strong British squadron. In December he pils attending public schools. Capital, Dover. sailed from Boston upon a cruise, which ex

STEWART, CHARLES, an American naval tended to the coasts of Surinam, Berbice, Demofficer, born in Philadelphia, July 28, 1778. erara, and the Windward islands, resulting in He entered the 'navy as lieutenant in March, the capture of the British schooner of war Pic1798, and performed his first service in the tou, of 14 guns, a letter of marque under her frigate United States, Com. John Barry. He convoy, and several merchant vessels. In remained in this ship, which was employed in April, 1814, the Constitution was chased into the West Indies for the protection of American the port of Marblehead by the British frigates commerce against French privateers, until La Nymphe and Junon. About the middle of July, 1800, when he was appointed to the December following, Capt. Stewart sailed in command of the schooner Experiment, of 12 the same ship upon a second cruise, and on Feb. guns, upon the same station. While lying in 20 he fell in with and captured, after an action Rupert's bay, island of Dominica, he ascer- of 40 minutes, H. B. M. ship Cyane, Capt. Faltained that an impressed American seaman was con, mounting 34 guns, with 185 men, and the on board H. B. M. ship Siam, whose release he sloop of war Levant, Capt. Douglass, of 21 demanded, and after some negotiation obtained guns and 156 men. The Constitution mounted from the English commander. On Sept. 1 the 52 guns with 470 men. The action was fought Experiment fell in with and captured, after an at night, and at the commencement of it the action of 10 minutes, the French schooner three ships were close-hauled and formed nearDeux Amis, of 8 guns; and soon after, while ly an equilateral triangle, the Constitution becruising near the island of Barbuda, she cap- ing to windward. By judicious manæuvring tured, after a very short action, the French she forced her antagonists down to leeward, schooner Diana, of 14 guns. In addition to and raked them both, while she avoided being these two captures, she recaptured a number raked herself. No British official account of of American vessels which had been taken by this action has been published. By some stateFrench privateers. In 1801 the Experiment ments the joint loss of their two ships is given arrived at Norfolk, Va., and was sold out of at 41, while that of the Constitution was but service; and in the following year Lieut. 3 killed and 12 wounded. On March 10 the Stewart made a short cruise as first lieutenant Constitution arrived at Port Praya, Cape of the frigate Constellation, employed in the Verd islands, with her prizes, and while a carblockade of Tripoli. Upon the termination tel was preparing to convey the prisoners to of this cruise he was appointed to command the United States a British squadron appeared the brig Siren in the squadron of Com. Ed- in the offing. Capt. Stewart believed that the ward Preble, and participated in the naval neutrality of the port would not be respected, operations of 1804 against Tripoli. He coöpe- and therefore cut his cables and put to sea, the rated with Lieut. Com. Stephen Decatur, jr., prizes following. The squadron was composed in the destruction of the frigate Philadelphia of two line-of-battle ships and a heavy frigate, on Feb. 16, as well as in the several attacks on and an active chase ensued, which resulted in the city and its defences; and for his services the recapture of the Levant. The Cyane arin the bombardment of Aug. 3, 1804, he re

1804, he re- rived at New York on April 15, and the Conceived the thanks of Com. Preble in general stitution about the middle of May. Civic honorders. He was promoted to the rank of mas- ors were bestowed upon Capt. Stewart by ter and commander, and upon the conclusion New York and Philadelphia; congress voted of peace with Tripoli returned to the United him a gold medal, and silver ones to each of States in command of the frigate Constellation. his commissioned officers, and also passed a In 1806 he was captain, and was employed in vote of thanks to him, his officers, and men; superintending the construction of gun boats and Pennsylvania voted him a sword. From at New York. Upon the declaration of war 1816 to 1820 Com. Stewart commanded a by the United States against England in 1812, squadron in the Mediterranean, the Franklin the government resolved to withdraw the American ships of war from the ocean and hoisted his flag in the same ship for the Pacific devote them to harbor defence, upon the station, where he commanded 3 years. His ground that they would soon be captured by later services have been upon the board of the overwhelming naval force of England; but navy commissioners from 1830 to 1833, and in

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