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command of the home squadron and of the culture of all the faculties, intellectual, moral, naval station at Philadelphia. He has also and sensitive, rather than to teach definite sorendered important services in the organization lutions of intellectual problems; and his lecof the navy, and submitted to the navy depart- tures therefore proceeded from psychology to ment at different times valuable papers on theories of character and manners, life and litthe subject. In 1857 he was placed upon the erature, taste and the arts, politics and natural reserved list of the navy, his advanced age, in theology. The prominence which he assigned the opinion of the board appointed under the to the last subject, as the highest branch of act of congress of Jan. 16 of that year, leaving metaphysics, was designed, as he explained, to them no discretion in his case; but in March, resist the prevalent sceptical tendencies of the 1859, he was placed upon the active list by era of the French revolution. From the bespecial legislation under a new commission as ginning he gave lectures on the theory of govsenior flag officer. He was recently at his own ernment as a part of the course on moral phirequest relieved from the command of the navy losophy, and in 1800 he first delivered a special yard at Philadelphia, and now (1862) resides course on the new science of political economy. upon his estate at Bordentown, N. J.
He showed no marked advances beyond the STEWART, DUGALD, a Scottish metaphysi- doctrines of the “Wealth of Nations,” but cian, born in Edinburgh, Nov. 22, 1753, died made modifications and new applications, and there, June 11, 1828. The son of Dr. Mat- had the courage to canvass fundamental questhew Stewart, à clergyman and mathematical tions and to maintain liberal opinions before professor, he was educated at the high school the youth of Great Britain at a time when hosand university of his native city, attracted no- tility to revolutionary tendencies prejudiced tice by his taste and capacity for purely phil- all political speculation. He did not appear as osophical studies, heard the lectures of Reid an author till 1792, when he published the first at Glasgow during one term (1771–’2), was re- volume of “Elements of the Philosophy of the called to Edinburgh to act as his father's sub- Human Mind.” In the following year he pubstitute in the charge of the mathematical lished his “ Outlines of Moral Philosophy,” and classes, and was formally elected conjoint pro- read before the royal society an account of the fessor as soon as he had completed his 21st life and writings of Adam Smith, which was year. For several years he was prominent in printed in the Transactions," and was followed the weekly debates of the speculative society, by his biographies of Dr. Robertson (1796) and before which he also read essays on philo- Dr. Reid (1802). Nothing else appeared from sophical subjects. He conducted the class in his pen till the publication of the “Philosophmoral philosophy for one session (1778–'9), ical Essays” in 1810, though in this interval during the absence of Prof. Ferguson, upon he prepared the matter of all his other writwhose resignation in 1785 he was elected his ings, with a single exception. In 1806, on the successor; and as a lecturer in this depart- accession of a whig administration, the sinement he enjoyed the highest reputation during cure office of gazette writer of Scotland was the next 24 years. “Probably no modern, ” created for him, to which the salary of £300 says Mackintosh, “ever exceeded him in that per annum was attached. He accompanied in species of eloquence which springs from sus- that year Lord Lauderdale on his mission to ceptibility to literary beauty and moral excel- Paris. His health was failing, when in 1809 lence; which neither obscures science by it received a severe blow by the death of his prodigal ornament, nor disturbs the serenity younger son, and in the following year he was of patient attention; but, though it rather obliged to retire from active duty as a profescalms and soothes the feelings, yet exalts the sor, his successor being Dr. Thomas Brown. genius, and insensibly inspires a reasonable en- To divert his thoughts from his affliction, he thusiasm for whatever is good and fair." Lord interrupted his more elaborate work on the Cockburn describes him as one of the great- mind for the easier task of preparing the volest of didactic orators. Had he lived in an- ume of “ Philosophical Essays," which reached cient times, his memory would have descend- 3 editions in 7 years. He had meantime reed to us as that of one of the finest of the old moved to Kinneil house, on the shore of the eloquent sages." “All the years I remained frith of Forth, 20 miles from Edinburgh, about Edinburgh," says James Mill, “I used, where he passed the remainder of his life. as often as I could, to steal into Mr. Stewart's From this retreat he sent forth in succession class to hear a lecture, which was always a the second volume of the “Elements of the high treat. I have heard Pitt and Fox deliver Philosophy of the Human Mind” (1814); a some of their most admired speeches, but I nev- preliminary dissertation to the supplement of er heard any thing nearly so eloquent as some the "Encyclopædia Britannica,” entitled “A of the lectures of Prof. Stewart." It was his General View of the Progress of Metaphysical, custom to speak from notes, not to read from Ethical, and Political Science since the Refull copy, a method suited to his peculiar pow- vival of Letters" (part i., 1815; part ii., 1821); ers, since it allowed scope to the imagination the third volume of the “Eléments" (1827) and the feelings. His aim was always moral and the “ Philosophy of the Active and Moral and practical more than speculative, to portray Powers" (1828), which was completed only a ideal perfection and advance the harmonious few weeks before his death. He had been
struck with paralysis in 1822; but though the STEWART, ROBERT HENRY, MARQVIS OF malady deprived him of the power of speech LONDONDERRY. See CASTLEREAGH. and of the use of his right hand, it did not STEYER, or STEIER, a town and the capital impair the vigor or activity of his mind, and of the circle of Traun in Upper Austria, 19 m. by the aid of his daughter as an amanuensis he S. E. from Lintz, at the confluence of the Steyer continued his literary studies and exertion, un-' and Enns; pop. about 11,000. The town proper til a fresh paralytic shock which soon termi- stands between the two rivers, surrounded by nated fatally. A disciple of Reid, adhering crenellated walls flanked with towers; there are to the traditions of the Scottish school, and re- two suburbs on the opposite shores of the Enns markable rather as an eloquent and elegant and Steyer, each connected with the town by a writer than as a profound thinker, he did not bridge. Steyer is largely engaged in the maneven reduce to a system the theories of his ufacture of cutlery and hardware, and is often predecessors; but he rendered them attractive called the Austrian Sheffield. by profuse and exquisite illustrations, and made STICKLEBACK, the popular name of the important improvements in phraseology and acanthopterous fishes of the mailed-cheeked classification, especially by proposing the “fun- family or sclerogenidæ, and genus gasterostbus damental ws of human thought or belief” in- (Linn.). They are also called banstickles, and stead of the “instinct” or common sense" of are the épinoches of the French. Most of the his master.---His collected works were edited species are found in fresh water, and are from by Sir William Hamilton (10 vols., Edinburgh, 2 to 3 inches long; the sides are more or less 1854–8). His lectures on political economy protected by bony plates, the other parts bewere first published in this edition. The last ing without scales; very small and crowded volume contains a memoir by John Veitch, teeth on the jaws, none on the palate; branchiwith selections from his correspondence. ostegal rays 3; tail keeled on both sides; ven
STEWART, JOHN, an English traveller, born trals abdominal, reduced to a strong spine, used in London in the first half of the 18th century, as a weapon, and 1 or 2 soft rays; free spines, died there in 1822. He went to Madras in from 3 to 15 in front of the dorsal, which is 1763, in the civil service of the East India supported by soft rays; bones of the pelvis company, but at the end of two years resigned large, forming an abdominal sternum. They are his office and commenced a series of pedes- very active, pugnacious, and voracious fishes, trian tours through Hindostan, Persia, Nubia, feeding on aquatic insects and worms, and the and Abyssinia, in the course of which he was fry of other fish, in the latter way often doing at different times in the service of the nabob great mischief in fish preserves; they someof Arcot and of Hyder Ali. He next walked times spring entirely out of water. They are to Europe by the way of the Arabian desert; best known, however, for the parental care
and having perambulated every part of Great which the males take of the eggs and offspring; - Britain, he crossed the Atlantic and visited though Aristotle knew, 22 centuries ago, that on foot many parts of the United States. some species of fish make nests for the recepThe last 10 years of his life were passed in tion of their spawn, it is only within the last London.
20 years that the fact has been generally adSTEWART, MATTHEW, a Scottish clergyman mitted by naturalists. They breed in summer, and mathematician, father of Dugald Stewart, and may be conveniently watched in aquaria, born at Rothesay, in the isle of Bute, in 1717, making and guarding their nests and protectdied in Ayrshire, Jan. 23, 1785. He was edu- ing the young fry; the males are the builders, cated at Glasgow and Edinburgh, and entered and at this season have the throat carmine red the church. The favorite pupil of Simson, and the eyes brilliant bluish green, the other he assisted his master in investigating the po- parts above being ashy green and the abdomen risms of Euclid, and, pursuing the same subject, silvery and translucent. The nest is made of discovered a series of ingenious and curious delicate vegetable fibres, matted into an irregupropositions, published under the title of “Gen- lar circular mass cemented by mucus from the eral Theorems” (1746). This work caused him body, an inch or more in diameter, with the to be elected the successor of Maclaurin in the entrance near the centre; when the nest is mathematical chair of the university of Edin- prepared the female is enticed or driven in, burgh in 1747, which position he held till and there deposits her eggs, which are fecun1772. He retired 3 years later to an estate in dated by the male; the latter remains constantAyrshire. His aim as a mathematician was to ly on guard, swimming in the neighborhood, cherish the forms of ancient demonstration driving away intruders with great ferocity, even for such problems as the algebraic cal- frequently putting in his head to see if all is culus alone had been thought able to resolve. right, and fanning the water with the pectoThus he solved Kepler's problem by the meth- rals and caudal to secure free circulation and ods of the ancients (1756). His other publica- ventilation for the eggs. They are frequently tions were “Four Tracts, Physical and Mathe- seen shaking up the eggs, and carrying away matical” (1761), and an “Essay on the Sun's impurities in the mouth; the young are hatchDistance” (1763), in which he adhered to geo- ed in 2 or 3 weeks; any of the small fry getmetric simplicity, but stopped far short of the ting outside of the nest are instantly seized in results since attained in physical astronomy. the mouth of the parent and put back; there
are about 40 young to a nest, and if any escape not the effect which she anticipated, and from far beyond its protection they are eagerly de- that time he is stated to have travelled hurvoured by other fish of the same species al- riedly, as if accursed, from city to city, pubways on the watch. This fish takes as good lishing occasional poems. His best productions care of its young as does the hen of her chick-, are: Bilder des Orients (4 vols., Leipsic, 1831– ens; for interesting details on its nidification '3); Stimmen der Zeit in Liedern (2d ed., 1834); see "Annals and Magazine of Natural History," and Das Dionysusfest (Berlin, 1836). 2d series, vol. x., pp. 241-'8 and 276-'80 (Lon- STIGMARIA. See COAL PLANTS. don, 1852). The common European species STILES, Ezra, D.D., an American clergyman, (G. aculeatus, Linn.; since separated into 3 by born at North Haven, Conn., Dec. 10, 1727, Cuvier) has 3 spines in front of the dorsal, and died in New Haven, May 12, 1795. He was is found in almost every pool and rivulet in graduated at Yale college in 1746, and was a Great Britain; in some years it has been so tutor there from 1749 to 1755. Dr. Franklin abundant in Lincolnshire as to be used for ma- having sent an electrical apparatus to Yale colnure. The G. spinachia (Linn.) has 14 or 15 lege, Mr. Stiles, with one of his fellow tutors, free spinous rays on the back, and has an elon- entered with great zeal upon this then new field gated head and body; it is a marine species, of philosophical investigation, and performed found in the northern seas of Europe. The the first electrical experiments ever made in best known of the many species in the United New England. At the same time he was purStates are the 2-spined stickleback (G. biacu- suing the study of theology, and commenced leatus, Mitch.), which is found from Labrador preaching in June, 1749. In April, 1750, he to New York, 2 inches long, olive green above, visited the Housatonic tribe of Indians at Stockyellowish green on sides, with 2 distant spines bridge, and preached among them so acceptably on the back and a 3d near the dorsal; and the that he was earnestly solicited by the society for 4-spined stickleback (G. quadracus, Mitch.), of propagating the gospel among the Indians to the Massachusetts and New York coasts. Other take charge of the mission there, but his imspecies have 8 to 10 spines, and the males in perfect health obliged him to decline the proall assume the red tint in the breeding season, posal. He then studied law, in 1753 was adboth in salt and fresh water.
mitted to the bar, and practised the profession STIOKNEY, SARAH. See Ellis, WILLIAM. at New Haven for the two following years. In
STIEGLITZ, CHRISTIAN LUDWIG, a German Feb. 1755, he pronounced a Latin oration in writer upon architecture, born in Leipsic, Dec. honor of Dr. Franklin, on occasion of his visit12, 1756, died there, July 17, 1836. He was ing New Haven, and was from that time in ineducated for the legal profession, but devoted timate relations with him till they were terhimself chiefly to architectural and antiquarian minated by death. In 1756 he became pastor studies, and published treatises on architecture of the 2d church in Newport, R. I., and during (1786), on the use of the grotesque and ara- his residence there devoted himself assiduously besque (1792), and a history of the architecture to his professional duties, and found time also of the ancients (1792). His most important for literary and scientific investigations, corworks are: Encyklopädie der Baukunst der responding with learned men in almost every Alten (5 vols., Leipsic, 1792–’8); Zeichnungen part of the world. In 1767 he began the study aus der schönen Baukunst (1801), containing of the Hebrew and other oriental languages, and engravings of select specimens of modern ar- pursued it with great avidity. His congregachitecture; Ueber altdeutsche Baukunst (1820), tion at Newport being entirely broken up by which contributed to diffuse and direct a taste the British occupation of the place, in May, for mediæval art; and a valuable Geschichte der 1777, he removed to Portsmouth, N. H., to Baukunst vom frühesten Alterthume bis in die become pastor of the North church. In Sepneuesten Zeiten (Nuremberg, 1827). He also tember following he was elected president of published poems and dissertations on literary Yale college, and shortly after professor of and antiquarian subjects, and contributed to ecclesiastical history in connection with the journals and to Ersch and Gruber's Encyklo- presidency, and in June, 1778, entered on his pädie.
official duties. After the decease of Professor STIEGLITZ, HEINRICH, a German poet, born Daggett in 1780, he discharged the duties of at Arolsen in 1803, died in Venice, Aug. 24, professor of divinity, beside which he gave 1849. He completed his studies at Berlin, each week one or two dissertations on some where in 1828 he became librarian. He mar- philosophical or astronomical subject. His ried, taught in the gymnasium, published po- labors for the college were intense and uninems with moderate success, and became mor- terrupted during the residue of his life. He bidly melancholy. His wife, who was thought published a funeral oration in Latin on Govto be a woman of genius, eager for his fame ernor Law (1751); a Latin oration on his inas a poet, and believing that only a great sor- duction to his office as president (1778); an row could restore his mind to health and activ. "Account of the Settlement of Bristol” (1785) ity, committed suicide in 1834, after an excur- History of three of the Judges of Charles I." sion with him in Russia. Her letters and diary (1795); and 5 occasional sermons. His life has were collected by Mundt in Charlotte Stieglitz, been written by James L. Kingsley, in Sparks's ein Denkmal (Berlin, 1835). Her death had “ American Biography," 1st series, vol. vi.
STILICHO, FLAVIUS, a Roman general, as- and after a bloody battle was defeated, and sassinated Aug. 23, A. D. 408. He was the son again soon after under the walls of Verona. of a Vandal officer of the cavalry under Va- Alaric now departed from Italy, and Stililens, rose to high rank during the reign of cho in 404 received the honor of a triumph Theodosius, by whom he was sent in 384 to in Rome. Intrigues were still carried on Persia to ratify a treaty with the monarch of against him in the Byzantine court, and he now that country, was rewarded for his services on formed an alliance with his late enemy against that occasion with the hand of Serena, the the emperor of the East. His preparations, niece and adopted daughter of Theodosius, and however, were disturbed by the invasion of soon became master-general of all the cavalry Italy in 405 by Radagaisus, at the head of a and infantry of the western empire. Jealousy mixed multitude of Vandals, Suevi, Burgunsprang up between him and Rufinus, on whom dians, Alani, and Goths. But while they were Theodosius conferred the government of the besieging Florence, Stilicho cut off their comEast, which soon ripened into intense hatred. munications and supplies by strong lines of cirIn 394 Stilicho became governor of the West, cumvallation, and hunger and disease forced as guardian of Honorius, whom Theodosius them to capitulate. Radagaisus was put to had proclaimed Augustus; and when Theo- death, and his men were sold as slaves; but dosius died in 395, leaving to Honorius the em- the other portion of this horde, which had pire of the West, and to Arcadius that of the not entered Italy, ravaged Gaul, from which East, Stilicho immediately passed the Alps in the garrisons had been withdrawn, and which the depth of winter, spread terror among the Stilicho, intent chiefly on the preservation of barbarians by his bold and rapid operations, Italy, was obliged to leave to its fate. Meanand having in a single summer established a while Alaric had become impatient of the defirm peace on the border, returned to Milan, lay, and marching to Æmona on the borders and prepared to march in person to Constanti- of Italy, sent to the emperor of the West a nople, ostensibly against Alaric and to lead demand for the promised subsidies. The inback the eastern legions, but really to break fluence of Stilicho secured to the Gothic king the power of Rufinus. Being met near Thes- the payment of 4,000 pounds of gold; but a salonica by a message from the Byzantine large party were indignant at his supposed court that his nearer approach would be consid- partiality for the barbarians, and his power at ered an act of hostility, he went no further, but court was also secretly undermined by the arts engaged Gainas, the leader of the Gothic allies of the eunuch Olympius, whom he himself had of Arcadius, to put Rufinus to death, which he introduced into the imperial palace. The latter accomplished in Nov. 395. Stilicho, however, represented to Honorius that he was without gained little by this proceeding, as Arcadius authority in his own kingdom, and that his fell into the hands of the eunuch Eutropius and death was meditated by Stilicho, who designed Gainas, both of whom became bitterly hostile placing the imperial crown upon the head of his to himself. Several attempts were made to son Eucherius. On the death of Arcadius in assassinate him, and the senate of Constanti- May, 408, Honorius proposed to visit Constannople issued a decree declaring him an enemy tinople as the guardian of Theodosius, the inof the republic, and confiscating his possessions fant son of that emperor. From this project in the East. Stilicho, who did not desire to he was diverted, but he could not be dissuaded involve the empire in civil war, made no effort from showing himself to the camp at Pavia, to interfere with the ministers of Arcadius. In filled with Roman troops and enemies of Stili396 Alaric ravaged the northern parts of Greece, cho. Immediately after his arrival there, and penetrated into the Peloponnesus. Stilicho through the agency of Olympius, the friends at the head of a powerful army sailed from Italy of Stilicho, some of the most illustrious officers to chastise the invaders; but Alaric escaped into of the empire, were murdered. Stilicho was Epirus, of which he took possession, and con- in the camp of the barbarian allies at Bologna, cluded a treaty with the ministers of Arcadius, and immediately called a council of his friends, by which he was made master-general of the who demanded to be led against the murderers. province of Illyricum. Stilicho retired to Italy, But he hesitated, and his friends, indignant at where in 398 a marriage was celebrated be- his want of resolution, left him to his fate. An tween his daughter Maria and Honorius. In unsuccessful attempt to assassinate him was 400 Alaric invaded Italy, and Honorius was made by Sarus, a Goth, but he succeeded in only prevented from flying with the court to escaping, and threw himself into the hands of Gaul by Stilicho, who hastened to collect his his enemies in Ravenna, and took refuge in a scattered troops from Rhætia, Gaul, and Ger- church. From this sanctuary he was led out, many, while Alaric seems to have been delayed and no sooner had he passed the threshold by the siege of Aquileia, and to have returned than he was slain by Count Heraclian at the to the Danube for reënforcements. In 403 that head of a troop of soldiers. His family and leader besieged Milan, from which the emperor friends were persecuted, and many of them put fled, and the garrison was reduced to the last to death, and his own name was branded with extremity when the rapid approach of Stilicho the title of public enemy, and his estate confischanged the position of the contending parties. cated. His qualities and services have been Alaric was attacked in his camp at Pollentia, celebrated by the poet Claudian.
STILLING, JUNG. See JUNG-STILLING. preacher in Boston. He was one of the found
STILLINGFLEET, EDWARD, an English at- ers and corporators of Brown university, and thor and prelate, born in Cranbourn, Dorset, the schools of Boston were also indebted to his April 17, 1635, died in London, March 27, 1699. efforts for much of their efficiency. He was acHe was educated at St. John's college, Cam- tive in the promotion of all humane institutions, bridge, at the age of 18 obtained a fellowship, and was an officer of several of them at the and in 1657 was presented to the rectory of time of his death. He was a member of the Sutton. Subsequently he became chaplain in convention which framed the constitution of ordinary to Charles II., and dean of St. Paul's, the United States. During his lifetime Dr. and in 1689 bishop of Worcester. His first Stillman published a great number of sermons work, “ Irenicum, or the Divine Right of. par- and addresses, some of which, with others preticular Forms of Church Government Exam- viously unpublished, were collected in an 8vo. ined" (1659), was distinguished by a tolera- volume in 1808. tion inclining, as the high church party thought, STILLWATER. See SARATOGA, BATTLE OF. toward Presbyterianism, and which he subse- STILT, a wading bird of the avocet family, quently confessed “ showed his youth and want and genus himantopus (Briss.), so called from of due consideration." His views however the length and slenderness of the legs. The soon took another direction, and he combat- bill is long, straight, slender, and pointed, with ed Roman Catholics and nonconformists with a groove on each side to the middle; wings equal energy.
Of this character were his long and pointed, 1st quill much the longest; “Pational Account of the Grounds of Protes- tail short and nearly even; legs very thin and tant Religion” (fol., 1664), written in vindi- long, with scaled tarsi; toes moderate, joined cation of Archbishop Laud's views in his con- at the base, with a wide membrane between ference with Fisher, the Jesuit; his “Dis- the outer and middle toes; hind toe wanting'; course concerning the Idolatry practised in the claws small and sharp; neck long. Of the Church of Rome” (1671), which he afterward half dozen species found in various parts of the defended against several antagonists; a sermon world, may be mentioned two, the black-necked against the nonconformists entitled “ The Mis- and the white stilt, the former American and chief of Separation,” which was answered by the latter European. The black-necked stilt Owen, Baxter, and others, to whom Stilling- (H. nigricollis, Vieill.) is about 14 inches long, fileet published a rejoinder entitled “The Un- black above, with forehead, lower parts, rump, reasonableness of Separation” (4to., 1681); and and tail white; bill black, and legs red. It is a variety of less important tracts against the found as far N. as the middle'states in spring, Roman Catholics, the Socinians, &c. He is, going S. beyond the limits of the United States however, better known at the present day by in autumn; though the legs seem disproporhis “ Origines Sacræ, or Rational Account of tionately long, it is a graceful bird, and frethe Grounds of Natural and Revealed Religion" quents salt marshes in flocks of 6 to 20, delight(4to., 1662), which is still regarded as one of the ing to wade knee-deep in search of aquatic ablest defences of the truth of revelation; and larvæ and insects, snails, and small fry; the by his “Origines Britannica” (1685), an ac- nests are built in company, at first upon the count of the ecclesiastical history of Britain ground, from which they are gradually raised from the introduction of Christianity to the by successive additions; the eggs are usually conversion of the Saxons. After his consecra- 4, of a pale yellowish clay color, with large irtion he devoted himself with great energy to regular blotches and lines of brownish black; diocesan reforms, and participated with distinc- though the gait on first alighting is rather untion in parliamentary debates. He wrote sev- steady, the flight is rapid and regular, the legs eral more polemical tracts and a number of extending behind; the flesh is indifferent eatmiscellaneous pamphlets, and in the latter part ing. The white stilt (H. melanopterus, Meyer) of his life engaged in a sharp controversy with is of about the same size, and with similar Locke on the latter's definition of substance habits, preferring, however, the edges of fresh and theory of ideas in general. His works water streams; it is white, with the back and were printed in 1710 in 6 vols. fol., to which wings shining greenish black, and legs red; it was added in 1735 a volume of his miscella- is found in S. E. Europe, Asia, and Africa; the neous works.
bill is 3 inches and tarsus 4. STILLMAN, SAMUEL, D.D., an American STIRLING, à parliamentary and municipal clergyman, born in Philadelphia, Feb. 27, 1737, burgh of Scotland, capital of Stirlingshire,
on died in Boston, March 12, 1807. His parents the river Forth, 31 m. W. N. W. from Edinremoved in his childhood to Charleston, S. O., burgh; pop. of the burgh in 1861, 13,846. where he studied theology; and he was licens- The town is built on a height at the head of ed to preach in 1758, and ordained as an evan- the navigation of the river, which is crossed by gelist of the Baptist church in 1759. In 1761 two bridges and a railroad. Many of the pubhe removed to Bordentown, N. J., and in lic buildings are very ancient, and the castle is 1763 to Boston, where in 1765 he became pas- supposed to have been originally built by the tor of the first Baptist church, which relation Romans. It stands upon a rocky height more he held till his death, being for many years than 200 feet above the plain, and forms a regarded as the most eloquent and popular conspicuous object from several of the sur