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ABANDONED. ( 3 ) ABANDONED. tempted man. This systematic cha- necessarily abandoned or profligate. racter of the abandoned prevents the He may be, in matters of sensual interm from being applied to solitary dulgence, abstemivus, and in matters acts :

of expenditure even penurious. But “Nor let her tempt that deep, nor make the

as the abandoned man sins against shore

sobriety and self-control, so the unWhere our abandoned youth she sees principled man against justice and Shipwrecked in luxury, and lost in ease.” integrity. The abandoned man injures

Prior. himself primarily, and others only REPROBATE (Lat. reprobatus, tried indirectly; the unprincipled man is and rejected) expresses that character ready to erect his own interests on in which a course of self-abandon- the ruins of the interests of others. ment to vice results; one cast away

The term unprincipled has a twofold without hope of recovery, the very

meaning, first, wanting in good prindesire and recognition of good being “çiple, or marked by an absence of it; lost; all repentance cast off, the

in which sense it is applicable to acts, bitter becoming sweet and the light plans, or proceedings, as well as to darkness, by a confirmed blunting of

persons; and secondly, not acting on the moral perception. This state

good principle, or the acting on its the abandoned has not of necessity contrary, towards others, in which it reached :

is applicable to persons only. The Reprobate silver shall men call them be

first employment appears in the folcause the Lord hath rejected them.”—Bible.

lowing, for the word is not of ancient

standing in the language:The PROFLIGATE man (Lat. profli

“ Others betake themselves to State affairs gare, to dash away or down) is he

with souls so unprincipled in virtue and true who has thrown away, and becomes generous breeding, that flattery, and courtmore and more ready to throw away, ships, and tyrannous aphorisms appear to all that the good and wise desire to them the highest points of wisdom."--Milton. retain : as principle, honour', virtue, The second in the following: possessions. Hence it follows that the very poor or obscure man, though principled cession was what the influence of

“ Whilst the monarchies subsisted, this unhe might be abandoned, and even

the elder branch of the House of Bourbon reprobate, could not be profligate.

never dared to attempt on the younger.”For profligacy is a characteristic vice Burke. of the great, the powerful, and the rich. We speak of a profligate monarch,

DEPRAVED is a term which points

to external circumstances, or nobleman, court, ministry, aristocracy; of a corrupt or demoralized,

tinued practices, which have gradually but not profligate peasantry. Pro perverted the nature (pravus, bad, disfligacy is characterized by shameless.

torted, crooked). Depravity is perness and defiant disregard of morals.

version of the standard of right; and The old physical use of the term

the term is employed not only of has disappeared, as in Bishop Hall's

morals but of manners, taste, and the Letter to the Pope:

arts, and even of depraved humours

of the body, which phrase illustrates “Is it for thee to excite Christian princes, the radical meaning of the term, as already too much gorged with blood, to the

corruptly departing from the state of profligation and fearful slaughter of their

wholesome function. own subjects ?"

" When reason and understanding are deThe modern use of it appears in the prared, and as far corrupted as the very following:

passions of the heart—when then the blind

leads the blind- what else can we expect, but “ Hitherto it has been thought the highest

that both fall into the ditch ?"--Sherlock. pitch of profligacy to own, instead of concealing, crimes, and to take pride in them, in- By the constant keeping of evil com. stead of being ashamed of them.”Poling

pany a man's taste and character will broke.

of recessity become depraved. There The UNPRINCIPLED man is not is danger that he may become un

con

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vour.

principled in his dealings; that he position. The proud man is humbled, may abandon himself to allurements the conceited humiliated. The case and temptations; that he may go on is a little different with the noun to exhibit an open profligacy of con- humiliation, which is sometimes emduct; and finally sink into the con- ployed as an independent noun instead dition of a reprobate, whom conscience of employing as a noun the participle ceases to encourage or to warn. humbling. In the

phrase "a day of

fasting and humiliation,” the term ABASE. HUMBLE. DEGRADE. conveys the idea of external self. DISGRACE. DEBASE. HUMILIATE. humbling. DISHONOUR.

To DISGRACE is to deprive of re

spect (Lat. gratia, favour). He who There was a time when the word

disgraces himself deprives himself of ABASE (Fr. abaisser, bas, low) was used the respect of others. Disgrace is to in a purely physical sense, as by the feeling of respect what dishonour Shakespeare:

is to its outward tokens. Hence dis“ And will she yet abase her eyes on me?" grace is rather in a man's self, disTo abase is, now, to bring low, or

honour depends rather on others; so lower, such a way as that the per

that while conscience may excite in son lowered shall be deeply conscious of

us a feeling of disgrace, we can have the lowering But this is not of

none of dishonour except it be innecessity on account of heinous guilt

flicted upon us by others. Yet in the or conduct disgraceful. That of which

term disgrace there seems to be a the person abased is primarily con

blending of the two ideas of the Latin scious is unworthiness in reference to gratia and the English grace, namely,

internal comeliness and external fathe estimation of others or his own.

The minister who is capriIt may even be meritorious to abase or humble oneself. (Of these two

ciously dismissed by his sovereign is abase is the stronger term.) This

said to be disgraced. Yet it is plain

that he is so in no other sense than never could be said of degrade or disgrace. The penitent man humbles

as being merely thrown out of favour, himself, the contrite man abases him

while, as regards his own character, self. In either case a conquest is

he is rather dishonoured than disgained over pride, or arrogance, or

graced. The general who is taken self-will.

captive after a gallant resistance

never could be disgraced, though he “He that exalteth himself shall be abased,

might by an ungenerous victor be and he that humbleth himself shall be ex

dishonoured or insulted. alted.”_Bible. To HUMBLE (Lat. humilis, humble,

“It was not meet for us to see the king's

dishonour.Bible. humus, the ground, connected with the Greek xauai, on the ground);

We have exemplifications in the two commonly bears reference to some

following of the twofold idea of grace, former condition of exaltation or

from which the double aspect of disestimate of self, as the proud man may be humbled by reverses of for- “ And with sharp.quips joy'd others to detune. When a man is so humbled face, that his state becomes externally Thinking that their disgracing did him manifest, or is reflected in the con

grūce.

Spenser. dition and circumstances of the person “ He that walketh uprightly is secure as humbled, he may further be said to

to his honour and credit; he is sure not to be humiliated, that is, brought both come off' disgracefully either at home, in his to a sense and a condition of humility:

own apprehensions, or abroad, in the estima

tions of men."--Barrou. So strong a part does this external element play in the word, that one DEGRADE bears reference to some who is only self-conceited may be standard or level, moral or social, humiliated by being thrown suddenly beneath which the person degraded, into an undignified and ludicrous or who degrades himself, is supposed

grace flows :

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to have fallen (de, down, and gradus, though practical power is to a certain a step); nor is the term confined to degree retained. persons. In this point it differs from

Confused and sadly she at length replied.” disgrace, which is applicable to per

Pope. sons, and not to things. So we might

To be CONFOUNDED, though an. say S

other form of the same verb, is a far “ Art is degraded when it is only regarded

stronger word, denoting an utter inas a trade."

ability to exercise, to any practical “ The lifting of a man's self up in his own

purpose, the powers of thought and opinion has had the credit in former ages speech; the reason being overpowered to be thought the lowest degradation that

by the shock of argument, or testihuman nature could well sink itself to."Locke.

mony, or detection. To confuse is in

itself a milder term than confound. To DEBASE is to deteriorate or

Things are confused when they are in make base the intrinsic nature in a state of promiscuous disorder. They regard to worth, dignity, or purity, are confounded when their very iden. and is only employed of material tity is lost, and they are undistin. value in the case of coiu.

guished or indistinguishable from The coin which was adulterated and de- one another. based in the times and troubles of Stephen." “ So spake the Son of God, and Satan stood -Hale.

Awhile as mute, confounded what to say." “ Even reason itself, which, if we have any

Milton. original faculties, is surely one of them, is subject to the same law of habit, as the means of

ABATE. LESSEN. DIMINISH. improvement or of debasement.Beattie. DECREASE.

ABASH. CONFOUND. CONFUSE. Of these the simplest and most To be ABASHED (Old Fr. esbahir,

widely applicable, and therefore the connected with the English bay, to

least specifically characteristic is

LESSEN (A. S. lässa, masc., lasse, fem., gape or stand at bay as a wild beast)

less), meaning, to make, or to grow, is to be under the influence of shame, less, as in force, bulk, number, quanand therefore will vary according to

tity, or value. the degree and character of the shame felt. T'he over-modest are abashed in

“ St. Paul chose to magnify his office when

all men conspired to lessen it.”—Atterbury. the presence of superiors, the guilty at the detection of vice or misconduct. DIMINISH (Lat. diminuere, minus, Abase stands to the reason and the less) is the exact Latin equivalent of judgment as abash stands to the feel- the Saxon lessen, but is commonly inge. The former implies a sentence

substituted for lessen in the intransi. of unworthiness passed against one

tive sense. The receding object diself, the latter shows itself in the minishes rather than lessens. downward look, the blushing cheek, “I will diminish them that they shall no or the confused manner, and may more rule over the nations." —Bible. even be the pure effect of natural

ABATE (Fr. abattre, to beat down) modesty.

refers to force only, the idea of which " But when he Venus viewed without dis- is always latent if not explicit. A guise,

storm, pain, mental emotion or exHer shining neck beheld and radiant eyes, citement, the vigour of youth, abates. Awed and abashed, he turned his head aside, Of old the word had a strong active Attempting with his robe his face to hide.”

force in a physical application; as to Congrere.

abate, that is, beat down, the walls To be CONFUSED (Lat. confundere, of a castle. This active force is still confusus, to pour together, or con- preserved, but not in its physical found) denotes a state in which application. The term has grown the faculties get more or less be- milder. We speak of abating pride, yond control, when the speech falters, zeal, expectation, hope, ardour, a and thoughts lose their consistency, demand or claim, and, in legal lan. ABATEMENT. ( 6 ) ABETTOR. guage, of abating a writ, a nuisance, thing which strikes common obseror a tax. The word is employed vation as unlike what it is familiar with singular force in the follow. with in similar cases. Of these the ing, passage from Paley's Moral two first are terms adopted by modern Philosophy":

physical science, to the types and “ The greatest tyrants have been those productions of which they apply. whose titles were the most unquestioned.

Eccentric and exceptional are apWhenever the opinion of right becomes too plicable to other matters. The former predominant and superstitious, it is abated by term was astronomical before it be. breaking the custom.”

came moral or descriptive. An ecDECREASE (Lat. de, down, and cres

centric body is one which moves in a cere, to grow) differs from dininish circle which, though coinciding in in denoting a more sustained and whole or in part with another in area gradual process. We might speak or volume, has not the same centre;' of an instantaneous diminution, but

hence deviating from ordinary mehardly of an instantaneous decrease. thods, or usual appearance or prac. To decrease is gradually to lessen or

tice; irregular, odd. It is opposed diminish. Yet we use the term de

to concentric. The primary and crease in some cases to express more

secondary ideas appear combined in strongly the idea of diminution by

the following: inherent force, or from an internal

“For had I power like that which bends the cause, as distinguished from external

spheres and more palpable influences, at least To music never heard by mortal ears, when speaking of physical matter or Where in her system sits the central sun objects; as the cold decreases through And drags reluctant planets into tune, the spring of the year. Property is

So would I bridle thy eccentric soul, diminished by extravagance. To de

In reason's sober orbit bid it roll."

Whitehead on Churchill. crease is relative; to diminish is absolute or positive. It is more com- EXCEPTIONAL is taken from the monly applied to size and quantity, French exceptionnel, and not found in diminish to number.

the older English literature. “He must increase, I must decrease."- ERRATIC (errare, to wander) differs Bible.

slightly from eccentric when spoken

of human conduct, to which it is conABATEMENT. See DEDUCTION. fined (while eccentric may be em. ABBEY. See CONVENT.

ployed of the personal appearance), in

denoting want of moral self-control, ABBREVIATE. See ABRIDGE. which shows itself in the sudden ABDICATE. See RESIGN.

doing of eccentric things. The ec

centric character is inoffensive and ABERRANT, ABNORMAL. Eo simply odd; there is danger that the CENTRIC. EXCEPTIONAL. ERRATIC. erratic person may involve himself or

others in mischief. This force has ABERRANT (Lat. aberrare, to wan

been acquired in recent times. der away) denotes that which has unaccountably deviated from the uni. “ The season of the year is now come in form mode or law of operation and

which the theatres are shut and the cardproduction. ABNORMAL (ab, and

tables forsaken, the regions of luxury are for norma, a rule), that which exhibits a awhile unpeopled, and pleasure leads out her type or form dissimilar to the ordi.

votaries to groves and gardens, to still scenes nary. ECCENTRIC (ex and centrum, a

and erratic gratifications.”Rambler. centre; Gr. κέντρον, from κεντέω,

ABERRATION. See MADNESS.
to prick, the point round which the
circle is described) denotes that which

ABETTOR.
ACCESSARY.

ACis a departure (or analogous to it) from movement in a natural orbit.

COMPLICE. EXCEPTIONAL (Lat. excipere, exceptus, An ABETTOR (probably having for to except) is applied generally to any

its root the sound bet, an old cry, in

accom

accom

ABETTOR. (7)

ABHOR. hounding dogs on to game) is one " And thou, the curs'd accomplice of his who in any way promotes the execu

treason, tion of a scheme without taking a Declare thy message and expect thy doom.” direct part in it. If he do so, he becomes, according to circumstances,

ABHOR. DETEST. ABOMINATE.something more than an abettor. LOATHE. He is an ACCESSARY (Lat. accessarius, accedere, to approach, join oneself

Of these the plainest is LOATHE to) if he assists directly, but in an

(A. S. lâdhian, to hate), which is also extraneous capacity. An ACCOMPLICE

the most purely physical, being in (ad and complicare, to fold together),

the first place employed to express if he is intimately bound up in the

nausea or physical disgust. The sick project and responsibility of the

man loathes his food. When employed

of moral objects, it is so by a strong scheme as a prime mover. It is in this way that in treason there are no

metaphor or analogy :abettors, the law not allowing the

“A wicked man is loathsome, and cometh supposition of indirect agency in the

to shame. The word translated loathsome case, but regarding it as necessarily

properly denotes such kind of persons to be direct. Advice, promises, rewards, as nauseous and offensive to the judgments or even the observance of silence, of others as the most loathsome unsavoury and a forbearing to oppose, may con- things are to their tastes and smells.”stitute an abettor ; but no one can be Bishop Wilkins. negatively an accessary or plice. Generally speaking, it may be

To ABOMINATE (Lat. abominor, abosaid that abettors urge and promote;

minatus, ab, from, and omen) is lite. accessaries aid or assist;

rally to discard or protest against, as plices design and execute.

ominous or foul; a close association

existing between the physically foul In law, an "accessary before the fact” is one who procures, counsels,

and the morally evil.. Abominate or commands another to commit a

occupies a place midway between

loathe, which is strongly physical, felony. An accessary after the

and detest, which, as we shall see, is fact is one who, knowing of the felony, assists, comforts, or conceals

emphatically moral; and in either the felon. It deserves to be remarked

case denotes that kind of strong disthat these terms are by usage almost

like which would excite protest and

avoidance. ABHOR (Lat. abhorrere, to universally restricted to bad or unlaw

shudder at) differs from abominate ful deeds and causes, although Woolaston, in his “Religion of Nature,'

in being more expressive of strong

involuntary recoil, while abominate speaks of “abetting the cause of truth."

is more reflective and voluntary. The older use of Shakespeare is

The person who abominates would still the common one :

destroy, or remove; the person who

abhors would shrink from, and avoid. “ And you that do abet him in this kind Cherish rebellion, and are rebels all.”

“ That very action for which the swine is

abominated and looked upon as an unclean “ An accessory is he who is not the chief

and impure creature, namely, wallowing in actor in the offence, nor present at its per

the mire, is designed by Nature for a very formance, but in some way concerned therein,

good end and use, not only to cool his body, either before or after the fact committed.”

but also to suffocate and destroy noisome and Blackstone.'

importunate insects.” Ray,

** Wisdom of Dryden, in the following passage, uses

God." the term in the sense of a partner in Abhor that which is evil, cleave to that guilt :

which is good.”Bible. “ Link'd hand in hand the accomplice and the

Where the recoiling of abhorrence is dame

illustrated by its opposite idea, that Their way exploring to the chamber came.”

of voluntary adherence. The ordinary use is that of Johnson DETEST (Lat. detestari, testis, a in the following:

witness) denotes a purely sponta

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