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THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION SERIES.-(Continued.)

18. A TEXT-BOOK IN PSYCHOLOGY.

By JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART. $1.00.

Translated by MARGARET K. SMITH. 19. PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED TO THE ART OF TEACHING. By JOSEPH BALDWIN, A. M., LL. D. $1.50.

20. ROUSSEAU'S ÉMILE: OR, TREATISE ON EDUCATION. Translated and annotated by W. H. PAYNE, Ph. D., LL. D., Chancellor of the University of Nashville. $1.50.

21. THE MORAL INSTRUCTION OF CHILDREN. By FELIX ADLER. $1.50. 22. ENGLISH EDUCATION IN THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS. BY ISAAC SHARPLESS, LL. D., President of Haverford College. $1.00.

23. EDUCATION FROM A NATIONAL STANDPOINT. BY ALFRED FOUILLÉE. $1.50.

24. MENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CHILD. By W. PREYER, Professor of Physiology in Jena. Translated by H. W. BROWN. $1.00.

25. HOW TO STUDY AND TEACH HISTORY. By B. A. HINSDALE, Ph. D., LL. D., University of Michigan. $1.50.

26. SYMBOLIC EDUCATION: A COMMENTARY ON FROEBEL'S "MOTHER PLAY." BY SUSAN E. BLOW. $1.50.

27. SYSTEMATIC SCIENCE TEACHING.

$1.50.

By EDWARD GARDNIER HOWE.

28. THE EDUCATION OF THE GREEK PEOPLE. By THOMAS DAVIDSON. $1.50.

29. THE EVOLUTION OF THE MASSACHUSETTS PUBLIC-SCHOOL SYSTEM. By G. H. MARTIN, A. M. $1.50.

30. PEDAGOGICS OF THE KINDERGARTEN.

12mo. $1.50.

By FRIEDRICH FROEBEL.

31. THE MOTTOES AND COMMENTARIES OF FRIEDRICH FROEBEL'S MOTHER PLAY. BY SUSAN E. BLOW and HENRIETTA R. ELIOT. $1.50. 32. THE SONGS AND MUSIC OF FROEBEL'S MOTHER PLAY. By SUSAN E. BLOW. $1.50.

33. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF NUMBER, AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO METHODS OF TEACHING ARITHMETIC. By JAMES A. MCLELLAN, A. M., and JOHN DEWEY, Ph. D. $1.50.

34. TEACHING THE LANGUAGE-ARTS.

SPEECH, READING, COMPOSITION.

By B. A. HINSDALE, Ph. D., LL. D., Professor of Science and the Art of
Teaching in the University of Michigan. $1.00.

35. THE INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD. PART I. CONTAINING CHAPTERS ON PERCEPTION, EMOTION, MEMORY, IMAGINATION, AND CONSCIOUSNESS. BY GABRIEL COMPAYRÉ. Translated from the French by MARY E. WILSON, B. L. Smith College, Member of the Graduate Seminary in Child Study, University of California. $1.50.

36. HERBART'S A B C OF SENSE-PERCEPTION, AND INTRODUCTORY WORKS. BY WILLIAM J. ECKOFF, Ph. D., Pd. D., Professor of Pedagogy in the University of Illinois; Author of "Kant's Inaugural Dissertation. $1.50.

37. PSYCHOLOGIC FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION. HARRIS, A. M., LL. D. $1.50.

By WILLIAM T.

38. THE SCHOOL SYSTEM OF ONTARIO. By the Hon. GEORGE W. Ross, LL. D., Minister of Education for the Province of Ontario. $1.00.

39. PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF TEACHING. By JAMES JOHONNOT. $1.50.

40. SCHOOL MANAGEMENT AND SCHOOL METHODS. By JOSEPH BALD. WIN. $1.50.

OTHER VOLUMES IN PREPARATION.

New York: D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 72 Fifth Avenue.

FROEBEL'S EDUCATIONAL LAWS
FOR ALL TEACHERS

BY

JAMES L. HUGHES

INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS, TORONTO

"By and by Froebel's educational law will be accepted as
distinctly and independently as Newton's law of gravitation."
BARONESS VON MARENHOLZ-BULOW

NEW YORK

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

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EDITOR'S PREFACE.

THE life of Friedrich Froebel falls in the time of the great German movement in philosophy. The birth year coincides very closely with the publication of the epoch-making book of Immanuel Kant-The Critique of Pure Reason. Kant had broken new ground for philosophy. He was followed by three giants, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel, who continued his work and applied his results to the great problems of philosophy, namely, to the questions that relate to freedom, immortality, and the Divine Being. Kant uprooted, or supposed that he had uprooted, the old philosophy which had come down from Plato and Aristotle through the schoolmen of the Church. He thought that he had discovered a sound foundation for a new philosophy which could set at rest at least negatively the ultimate problems of life. Before his death, in 1804, he had seen applications of his new principle, first by Fichte, and afterward by Schelling-applications of which he had not had the slightest foreboding. What seemed an entirely new view of the world was projected by Fichte and Schelling. In the nature philosophy of the latter, time and space, matter and motion, gravitation and light, magnetism and crystallization, plant life and animal life, were "construed," to use his technical expression, as

progressive realizations of mind in the objective pole of the being of the Absolute, mind being the subjective pole. All objects in nature containing positive and negative phases-like the magnet or electricity, or like chemical opposites-took on an interest for the thinker: they were lower orders of realization or far-off images of the Divine, which was supposed to have the form of mind and also to be the union of mind and Nature. Just as a magnet has north and south poles and an indifference point, so the Absolute is mind (as the subjective pole) and nature (as the objective pole), and it is also the union or indifference point of these two.

It

Just about the time of Kant's death (in 1804) Schelling began to change his view as to the nature of the Absolute as the indifference point of the two poles of ideality and reality. He began to draw the conclusion from his premises that the Absolute is not mind but the indifference point between mind and matter. was at this juncture that Hegel, who had hitherto been his disciple, took final leave of his system. Hegel conceived the Absolute as a divine reason, and nature to him seemed to be the process by which the Divine Reason eternally creates infinitely manifold new individuals.

Froebel in the meantime had become fascinated with Schelling's first system, and he, too, like Hegel, adhered to the doctrine that the Absolute is mind. In his Education of Man, published in 1826, he expresses this doctrine in the following oft-quoted words: "In all things there lives and reigns an eternal law. This allcontrolling law implies as its source an all-pervading, energizing, self-conscious, and hence eternal unity. This unity is God. From God all things have proceeded

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